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GC 

979.401 
Sa68f 
1158673 



M, 



QENEAL.OGY COUL.ECTION 



1833 01102 7890 



lilllllHIWllllll— IMMi— I^IMMI 

^ Ramblings in Romance f 

Last week R. R. Stuart was telling us of the 
time when he was on the trail of a copy of the 
Santa Clara volume "Pen Pictures of the 
Garden of the World" which contained an intro- 
' duction by Judge David ' Belden. The search 
I took Stuart to a farm near Coyote and uncov- 
ered not only the book but a coincidence. The 
book was found discarded with rubbish and 
when Stuart offered a dollar the woman of the 
j farm was surprised. Then she turned the pages, 
! saw what it was and said, "If grandfather's 
I write-up is in this book I wouldn't sell it at 
any price." "I don't think you'll find your 
grandfather's biography in this book," I replied. 
"You'll find that in the Santa Clara County 
history which was published in 1881." "She 
was referring to Orvis Stevens," says Stuart, 
"who came to California in 1852. After a pre- 
liminary year in the mines on the Yuba River 
I and some farming and stock-raising experience 
; in another part of the State, he had moved to a 
farm in Santa Clara County. Along about 1875, 
he rented the 'Twelve-Mile House' and for a 
number of years operated a store, blacksmith 
shop and postoffice in connection with the hotel. 
The old inn still serves the public at Coyote. 
As she stood thumbing through the leaves, 
something green and crisp slipped out and flut- 
tered to the ground. It was a five-dollar bill. 
At first she appeared to think I was in some 
way mixed up with the money, but since that 
didn't make sense, the solution finally occurred 
to her. The book had belonged to her parents, 
and years before when she was a girl and lived 
at home, her mother had said to her one day: 
'I've put five dollars in the Bible, and I can't 
find it.' Accordingly they got down the Bible 
• and the whole family had taken turns in search- 
' ing for the bill. It was never found, and many 
and sinister had been the suggested solutions 
of the mystery. Of course, the mother had con- 
fused the two big books, and the bill had lain 
hidden all these years. Under the circum- 
stances, she was glad to sell the history for 
$1.00, since she was, in reality, getting $6.00 for 
, something she had thrown away." 



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Sahta Clara County, California. 



Containing a History of the County of Santa Clara from the Earliest 
Period of its Occupancy to the Present Time, together with 
Glimpses of its Prospective Future ; with Profuse Illus- 
trations of its Beautiful Scenery, Full-Page Por- 
traits of Some of its most Eminent Men, 
and Biographical Mention of Many 
of its Pioneers and also of 
Prominent Citizens 
of To-day. 



Edited by H. S. E^QOXE^ . 
* 



CHICJ^GO: 
Xlie Le^sfis Publistiingf Corqpariy. 

1888. 






-^w^ 




Piisiiiii 




~^^ 



1158673 



iENERAL iilSTORY. 



General Description 17, 26 

Native Races 27 

Spanish Occupation 2S 

Mission of Santa Clara 28, 29, 31 

Pueblo of San Jose 29, 30 

Vancouver's Report 

Alameda 31, 119 

Early Spanish Customs 

The Rodeo 32 

The Matanza 33 

Architecture 33 

Agriculture 33 

Laws, etc 35 

Church at the Pueblo 35 

Secularization of the Mission 36 

First Census (Mexican) 36 

First Foreigners 37,38, 58 

The Murphy Party 38 

Schallenberger's Story 48 

Donner Party 58 

Micheltorena War 63 

Mexican War 63 

Battle of Santa Clara 67 

First American Flag 68 

Discovery of Gold 70 

San Jose as Capital of the State 71 

Grandma Bascom's Story 71 

The First Constitution 72 

The First Legislature 74 

California Admitted as a State 74 

County Boundaries 75 

County Government, etc 75, 76 



Land Titles.. 76 

Private Land Agents 76, 77, 216 

Grants to the Pueblo 77 

Mission Grants 78 

Suertes 78 

Settlers' War 80 

Survey of City of San Jose 80 

Five-hundred-acre Lots 81 

Bench and Bar 82 

The Press 102 

Political Record 109 

Roads and Highways 119 

Railroads 123 

The Lick Observatory 1 26 

Old Landmarks 135 

Santa Clara County in the War 137 

County Institutions 139 

Court House 139 

County Jail 140 

County Hospital 140 

Almshouse. 141 

Schools 142 

State Normal School 143 

Santa Clara College 144 

College of Notre Dame 144 

University of the Pacific 145 

Leland Stanford, Jr., University 145 

Garden City Business College 145 

City Government of San Jose 147 

City Officers 151 

Fire Department 154 

River Improvements 158 



Sewerage System i5o 

Financial Operations of the County 162 

Petroleum and Natural Gas 164 

Agricultural Society 167 

History of Horticulture 170 

History of Viticulture 180 

Quito Oilve and Vine Farm 184 

Churches — San Jose 186 

Artesian Wells 189 

Banks— San Jose 190 

Societies — San Jose 192 

Manufacturing Industries 195 

Fredericksburg Brewery 197 

Street Railroads 201 

Gilroy 201 

Santa Clara 205 

Los Gatos 208 

Saratoga 212 

Lexington 213 

Alma 213 

Wrights 

Milpitas 

Al viso 

Mountain View 



213 

2«3 

213 

2H 

Mountain View Station 214 

Mayfield, . . 214 

New Almaden Quicksilver Mines 214 

Post-office 216 

Board of Trade, San Jose 670 

Hotel Vendome, San Jose 670 

Public Improvements 67I 

The Death Penalty 672 

Temperature 672 



""^^eXs^ 



lIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Adams, T. B 275 

Agnew, Abram 445 

Ahlers, Henry C 380 

Ainsworth, William 530 

Albee, O. J 467 

Alexander, W. G 307 

Allen, S. R 477 



Alley, O. F 578 

Allison, O. U 663 

Allison, W. D 384 

Anderson, Neil 628 

Anderson, Philip 530 

Angney, W. Z 313 

Apperson, R. W 443 

Aram, Joseph. 553 



Archer, Lawrence 90 

Argall, F. L 404 

Arnerich, Mateo 420 

Arnold, Mrs. 351 

Arthur, J. C 455 

Arthur J. G 595 

Ashley, A. N 530 

g hley, John T 529 



C0N7ENTS. 



.. 5'6 



Askam, O. P 

Atkinson, W. W 608 

Austin, CD 328 

Austin, D. B 306 

Auzetais, John E 5^3 

Ayer, S. F 5« 



Babb, Clement E. 

Babb, JohnP 

Bachman, B. F. . . 
Badger, John W. 

Bailey, D. C 

Baker, R. J. 



251 

..... 252 

321 

453 

650 

451 



Balbach, John 5^9 

Baldacci, S 508 

Ball, Peter 645 

Ballard, F. D 442 

Ballou, J. Q. A 227 

Baltz, Peter 404 

Banks, RoUa 322 

Barker, A. M 368 

Barker, S. A 99 

Barnes, Thatcher F 485 

Barney, John W 256 

Barron, Edward 49° 

Bartlett, B. L 316 

Barton, Joseph 267 

Bassett, Bruce A 354 

Bassignano, V 635 

Baumgartner, F. A 39° 

Beach, E. F 5^4 

Beach, Tyler 506 

Beal, G. P 4°° 

Beans, T. E 19° 

Beauchamp, William 478 

Beaumont, J. B 598 

Beaumont, J. M 599 

Beck, M. W 288 

Belden, David 84 

Bellew,M 221 

Bennett, A. G 398 

Bennett, Wirt K 557 

Benson, Henry M 378 

Berghauser, J. G. F 439 

Bergin, John J 646 

Berreyessa, J.J 488 

Berryman, Arthur 326 

Besse, H. T 459 

Billings, Moses F 432 

Bishop, Samuel A 657 

Bitancourt, A. 1 606 

Blabon, W. L 316 

Black, John C 94 

Blackmar, F. W 44° 

Blaine, George 655 

Blake, D. H 469 

Blake, F. W 106 

Blakemore, C. L 365 

Blanchard, W. W 200 

Block, Abram 264 

Bodley, Thomas 634 

Bohlmann, Frank 348 

Bollinger, A.J 465 

Bollinger, Christian 565 



Booksin, Henry 369 

Booksin, L. A 43° 

Boots, William 275 

Bopp, Charles F 454 

Boring, S. W 601 

Boulieu, Oliver 281 

Boulware, J. W 637 

Bowden, Nicholas 97 

Bowdish, M. S 306 

Bowman, George M I75 

Boyce, D. S 229 

Brackett, Nathaniel 466 

Bradley, E. L 368 

Brady, James 358 

Branham, B. F 5'8 

Branham, Isaac 49' 

Breyfogle, C. W 191 

Bridges, Frank 573 

Briggs, John G 572 

Briggs, Jos. W 572 

Briggs, M. C 286 

Briggs, R. S 25s 

Brill, John W 377 

Brimblecom, F. A 294 

Britton, Ephraim 468 

Britton, F. F 273 

Britton, Martin 273 

Bronaugh, C. A 607 

Broughton, S. Q 55' 

Brown, Frederick 59' 

Brown, George M 483 

Brown, Joseph E 392 

Brown, W. D 664 

Browne, George C 643 

Bruch, Charles 590 

Brunst, Frank 379 

Bryan, J. W 312 

Bryant, B 333 

Bubb, Benjamin T 237 

Buck, F.E 666 

Buckner, R. B 92 

Bull, George P 235 

Bulmore, R. R 335 

Burchard, D. W 96 

Surges, Tristam 475 

Burns, B. E 60; 

Burrell, C 59' 

Burrell, James B 266 

Burrell, Lyman J 263 

Butcher, Mrs. E. A 483 

Byron, George 447 

C 

Calderon, A 33^ 

Caldwell, Robert 234 

Calkins, Mark 276 

Campbell, Benjamin 526 

Campbell, J. H 96 

Campbell, William 525 

Canney, J. D 566 

Canright, F. P 5^5 

Carrel, Henry 439 

Carpenter, H. F 291 

Carson, George 595 

Cash, A.B 545 



Castro, C 350 

Cavallaro, L. S 372 

Chandler, Mrs. A 291 

Chapman, A. L 573 

Chase, F. W 299 

Childs, C. W 338 

Childs, W. W 337 

Chipman, L.J 473 

Chrisman, A. P 593 

Christian, John 405 

Church, Jer. B 253 

Chynoweth, Louis 344 

Cilker, John 307 

Clark, E. A 506 

Clark, Mrs. Sylvia 656 

Clark, Walter A 516 

Clarke, Ira P 640 

Clayton, James A 359 

Coe, S. A 647 

Coffin, D. W 471 

Coil, Alex 63s 

Collins, R. E 377 

Colton, A. D 434 

Colombet, C 559 

Combs, J. W 200 

Conant, T 388 

Coney, B. G 322 

Conklin, E. B 525 

Cook, C. C 396 

Corcoran, F. L 355 

Corey, Benjamin 247 

Corey, C. H 503 

Cottle, Frank 419 

Cottle, Ira 419 

Cottle, Martial 352 

Cottle, Royal, Sr 4>8 

Cottle, William J 532 

Cottle, Warren 334 

Cottle, W. 580 

Courtney, J. T 236 

Cowan, W. W 544 

Cox, William 618 

Cozzens, W. W 617 

Craft, Benjamin 471 

Crandall, A. W 97 

Crittenden, Orrin 3^9 

Cropley, C. H 45« 

Cross, George 652 

Crossley, John P 274 

Crowley, James 589 

Cummings, E. C . . . 589 

Cunningham, Joseph 323 

Curnow, J. R 390 

Curtis, Perry 57' 

Cutler, C. W 4'° 



Dahlstrom, Leopold 290 

Daniel, J. A. P 647 

Darling, E. W 583 

Davies, E. H 292 

Davis, I. M 362 

Davis, S. B 487 

Davison, E. A 328 



CONTENTS. 



Dawson, E. L 17S 

Dawson, J. M 174 

Day, J. C 422 

De Crow, W $88 

Deidrich, R. V 494 

De Lacy, H. A 104 

De Lacy, S. W 104 

Delaney, E.J 388 

Denning, Alfred 245 

Dennis, Aaron 638 

Dent, Rawley E 514 

Derenne, A. D 647 

Dewar, R 588 

Dickenson, J 588 

Dilley, J. S 279 

Distel, B 347 

Doerr, Charles 5S7 

Donnely, T. H 244 

Dornberger, L 24S 

Downing, N. H 2S0 

Dreischmeyer, F 584 

Dubs, Michel 626 

Dudley, J. P 412 

Dunn, Frank 484 

Dunne, Mrs. C 494 

Durkee, D.,Jr 571 

E 

Eastin, James W 649 

Eberhard, Jacob 286 

Edwards, H. W 507 

Edwards, W. A. Z SS5 

Einfalt, R. G 106 

Ellsworth, John H 592 

Emlay, H. F 335 

Enright, James 575 

Erkson, William 639 

Evans, E. H 264 

Evans, Josiah 651 

F 

Farley, Eben C 500 

Farney, Mark 521 

Farr, Henry 31S 

Farrell, M.. Sr 467 

Farrington, A 433 

Farwell, F. M 312 

Fatjo, Antonio 285 

Fellon, J. A 628 

Ferguson, L. C 328 

Field, A. G 668 

Fieldsted, C 269 

Fine, Mrs. Louisa 2S9 

Finigan, L 403 

Finley, James 220 

Fisher, J. E 260 

Flickinger, J. H 177 

Fleming, George A 538 

Foster, Joseph 559 

Fowler, J. S 631 

Fox, B. S ... 172 

Fox, R. D 414 

Francis, Louise E 106 

Franck, F C 497 

Francois, C 630 



French, C. A 618 

Frink, Daniel 517 

G 

Gaffany, Owen E 315 

Gallagher, A. T 464 

Galpin, P. G 324 

Gardner, G. W 432 

Gartelmann, D 310 

Gaston, A. A 372 

Gay, M. H 346 

Geiger, William C 622 

Gibson, M. S 44S 

Gillespie, T. J 508 

Gillespie, W. W 400 

Gish, David E 440 

Glendenning, Robert 222 

Goodenough, S 434 

Goodrich, E. B 225 

Goodrich, E. E 181 

Goodrich, Levi 1 225 

Gordon, J. E 311 

Grant Bros 271 

Grant, John T 260 

Grant, Robert 575 

Graves, Jacob 48 1 

Graves, Sylvester 433 

Green, William H 396 

Greenawalt, D 436 

Greeninger, A 636 

Gregory, S. 632 

Gribner, Mrs. P 382 

Griswold, Benson 533 

Gruwell, U. L 566 

Gussefeld, William 405 

H 

Hagan, C. A 631 

Haines, C . T 402 

Haines, N. J 473 

Hale, O. A 380 

Hall, Horace B 567 

Hall, J. U 261 

Hall, Nathan 319 

Halsey, George M . . 627 

Hamilton, Frank 568 

Hamilton, James A 625 

Hamilton, L. E 303 

Hamilton, Zeri 463 

Hammond, W. H 367 

Handy, G. W 266 

Hannon, Patrick 442 

Harry, James 335 

Hart, Conard 352 

Harlman, C . H 624 

Hatman, F. D 399 

Hawley, William 421 

Hayes, Mary A 254 

Headen, Benjamin F 249 

Hebard, Lewis 320 

Helliesen, C. F. A 624 

Hensley, John R 457 

Herbert, William B 497 

Herriman, J. R 266 

Herrington, D. W 93 



Herrington, Irving 288 

Herrmann, A. T 364 

Herrmann, C 366 

Hetty, John 290 

Hicks, Bedford 294 

Hildebrand, A 304 

Hills, Miles 379 

Hinman, R . W 623 

Hirst, A. C 375 

Hobson, David 486 

Hobson, T. W 568 

Hodges, P.C 332 

Hogg, H. C 300 

Holland, S 644 

HoUenbeck, B. W 616 

Holloway, E. A 334 

Holsclaw, M. T 341 

Holthouse, E. H 480 

Hooker, A. O 396 

Hornberger, J. A .• 233 

Hostetter, G. K 478 

Houghton, S. 89 

Hourecan, John 325 

Howe, I. D 386 

Huggins, A. G 384 

Hughes, William P 107 

Hull, James F 243 

Hunter, A. B 250 

Hutchinson, J. C 326 

Hyland, M. H 98 

I 

Ingall, Sarah T 585 

Ingleson, Charles 486 

Ireland, William H 482 

J 

Jackson, A. J 535 

Jackson, F. M 301 

Jarvis, G. M 397 

Jefferds, F. G 476 

Jenkins, G. C 529 

Jewell, F. F 283 

Johnson, Julian 536 

Johnson, J. W 490 

Johnson, Peter 660 

Johnson, S. R 242 

Johnston, John 544 

Jordan, M. C ! . 528 

Jordan, P. H., 6c Co 504 

Josselyn, J. H 401 

Judd, C. A 403 

Judson, H. C 444 

K 

Kammerer, A 540 

Keesling, H. G 383 

Keesling, T. B 517 

Keith, P. G 641 

Kell, M. D 435 

Kelley, Thomas 648 

Kelly, J. H 410 

Kelty, Thomas. . .' 5S0 

Kennedy, J. F 496 

Kenyon, J. M 437 



CONTENTS. 



Kerloch, M 43° 

Kerr, William C 6l6 

Kerwin, Thomas 454 

Kifer, S. H 272 

Kimberlin, J.M 534 

King, A. L 594 

Klee, John 57^ 

Klein, Norman 399 

Knowles, F. W 3«8 

Knowles, John 292 

Koch.J. P 579 

Koch, Valentine 644 

Kooser, H. H 40S 

Krahl, L. W 461 

Krumb, Louis 387 

Kundert, B 628 

Kuns, H. L .. 623 

Kunz, F. W 359 

L 

Lake, Albert 394 

Lamar, J. B IC30 

Lamolle, Madam V., & Co 367 

Langford, P. S 305 

Langford, R. J 623 

Larson, Paul 578 

Lasette, M. A 247 

Lauck, George 282 

Laurilliard, A 627 

Lawrence, A. C 479 

Lebrun, Charles 622 

Leeman, F. C 476 

Leeman, W. H 476 

Le Fevre, William 626 

Leib, S. F 93 

Leigh, Hugh A 489 

Lendrum, A 233 

Lendrum, James 233 

Lendrum, William E 648 

Lenzen, Jacob 363 

Lenzen, Michael 621 

Lenzen, Theodore 621 

Leonard, H. M 257 

Lester, Nathan L 576 

Lester, William 1 450 

Lewis, John F 354 

Lillick, Henry 574 

Lingley, W. L 305 

Linquist, J. A 618 

Little, Horace 348 

Lobdell, Frank 299 

Logan, A. P 270 

Lord, Hersie F 406 

Lord, J. H 488 

Loryea Bros 515 

Loupe, Louis 627 

Love, C. W 280 

Lovell, Ira J 52: 

Lowe, James R 95 

Luke, N. G 227 

Lundy, D. S 583 

Lupton, J. F 441 

Lynch, George W 593 

Lynch, Michael 259 



Lyndon, James 303 

Lyndon, J. W 301 

M 

Macabee, Edward 327 

Machado, John 584 

Madonna, 1 344 

Main, H. H 104 

Malcom, James 317 

Malovos, Andrea 268 

Malpas, A 586 

Manly, W. L 502 

Martin, John 504 

Martin, Patrick 491 

Martin, Z. H 586 

Marvin, Charles 355 

Massol, Fen 655 

Maynard, Mrs. H. G 308 

Maxey, T. J 539 

McAfee, A. F 283 

McBride, Mrs. Georgie 452 

McCabe, A. M 395 

McCarley James A 382 

McCarley, William B 382 

McCarthy, Joseph 425 

McCarthy, Martin 629 

McCaughin, W. J 344 

MeComas, Rush 363 

McCubbin, R 570 

McCurrie, J. P 339 

McDonald, J. W 298 

McDonald, Michael 414 

McGuire, Lyman 619 

McKee, J. O 519 

McLaughlin, E 192 

McLellan, D.J 596 

McMillan, J. G 348 

McMurtry, William S 619 

McNeal, G. B 308 

McNeil, A. B 398 

McPherson, A. L 524 

McPherson, R. C 164 

McWilliams, A. S 413 

Meade, Mrs. E. S 378 

Meads, John W 558 

Menzel, R 580 

Mercier, Jules 639 

Merithew, J. C 633 

Messing, Henry 494 

Miller, James 56 

Miller, J.J 342 

Miller, S. B 296 

Miller, William C 443 

Millikin, John 560 

Millikin, Samuel 561 

Mills, L. R 258 

Mitchell, T. W 178 

Mockbee, J. S 664 

Mocker, William 630 

Montgomery, J. W 323 

Montgomery, T. S 253 

Moodie, R. C 211 

Moody, A. E 390 

Moody, D. B 503 



Moore, P. C 558 

Morey, H. C 328 

Morgan, John 5^4 

Morrell, H. C 599 

Morrow, Wm. C 103 

Morse, C. C 561 

Moulton, S. A 527 

Moultrie, J. A 9° 

Murdock, John 3°9 

Murphy, Bernard 56 

Murphy, B. D 613 

Murphy, Daniel 56, 639 

Murphy, Ellen 5^ 

Murphy, James 55 

Murphy, John M 5^ 

Murphy, William 581 

Myall, Edward 5^1 

N 

Nace, John A 287 

Neben, E. T 403 

Newhall, S 43« 

Nicholson, A 302 

Nicholson, George 455 

Nplting, F 534 

Normandin, A 4°° 

Northern, W. L 602 

Norton, John P 45° 

Norwood.J.G 55' 

O 

Oberdeener, S 285 

O'Brion, C. F 350 

Ogier, James H 219 

Oldham, W. Frank 597 

O'Neil, Timothy 200 

Osborne, A. E 361 

Osborn, Thos 452 

O'Toole, Elizabeth 34; 

Otter, Karl 510 

Ousley, George W 381 

Owen, Charles P 376 

P 

Page, G. W 509 

Palen, Maria 415 

Park, M. C 298 

Parker, Charles 235 

Parker, James S 661 

Parker, L. F 416 

Parr, Charles 237 

Parr, Edward N 249 

Parrish, E.J 319 

Parsons, M. E 425 

Patrone, P 632 

Patterson, A 448 

Paul, Sylvanus S 245 

Pearce, W. L 602 

Peard, J.J 477 

Peck, Wesley 296 

Pender, Wm. R 460 

Penniman, A. C 600 

Perkins, P. C 603 

Perkins, Wm. F 641 

Petersen, T. W 401 

Pettit, E. T 462 



CONIENIS. 



Pfister, Adolph 357 

Pfister, F. M 99 

Phegley, J. F 534 

Phelps, C. A 239 

Phelps Bros 339 

Phippen, J. S 347 

Pieper.J. H 562 

Pierce, R. E 368 

Pillot, John E 596 

Pinkard, E. N 288 

Pitkin, C. A 387 

Pittman, James M 651 

Place, Elvert E 590 

Polak, Jacob 509 

Polhemus, Charles B 357 

Polhemus, George B 360 

PoIlard,L.W 555 

Pollard, W. D 262 

Pomeroy, Hiram 474 

Ponce, J. P 643 

Porter.D. J 375 

Potts, F. S., Jr 594 

Potts, J. S 



223 



Price, Elijah 327 

Pullan, H 552 

Pyle, E. G 604 

Pyle, Thomas 231 



Quinn, Wm 346 

Quivey, James 349 



Randall, Azro 228 

Raney, Felix 513 

Ransom, J. W 385 

Rea, Samuel 333 

Rea, Thomas 336 

Reed, W. D 564 

Reinhardt, H 37 1 

Rengstorflf, H 417 

Reynolds, John 88 

Rice, William 316 

Riddell, D. C 393 

Riddell, Speer 394 

Riehl, Adam 531 

Righter, F. M 407 

Roberts, George 272 

Roberts, W. H 563 

Robinson, Amos 340 

Rodgers, J. C 459 

Rogers, F. S 309 

Rose, Abraham 608 

Ross, John E 418 

Ross, Marcellus 409 

Ross, N. L 535 

Ross, William 416 

Rucker Bros 604 

Rucker, J. E 605 

Rucker, W. B 262 

Rutledge, R. F 424 

Ryan, Michael 554 

Ryder, B. L 98 

Ryder, G. W 667 



Sage, Lewis A 377 

Saisset, P., de 662 

Sanders, S. P 450 

Sanor, Michael 449 

Sargent, J. P 665 

Saxe, A. W 278 

Schallenberger, Moses 56 

Schemmel, Henry L 246 

Scherrebeck, T. J 653 

Scherrer, George 383 

Schiele, Charles M 495 

Schilling, F 646 

Schloss, Louis 457 

Schnabel, Ernst 465 

Schneider, Fred A 524 

Schoof, Gerhard 366 

Schroder, Albert 505 

Schulte, Bernhart 273 

Scott, Henry 224 

Scott, James 556 

Scott, William 543 

Scott, Wm. H 629 

Sears, A. E 300 

Sears, Henry 563 

Seely, C. R 240 

Seifert, George W 499 

Selby, J. S 438 

Senter, German 279 

Settle, C. T 577 

Seybolt, George L 423 

Shafter, F. R 456 

Shafter, J. D 256 

Shannon, Thos 408 

Shaw, W.J 240 

Shaw, Isaiah 598 

Shelly, William 424 

Shore, T. B 445 

Shore, Wm. C 304 

Shortridge, CM 102 

Sinnott, John 547 

Skinner, David E 431 

Skinner, Morris 446 

Smith, Bradley 546 

Smith, C. C 229 

Smith, Jacob 6n 

Smith, W. L 474 

Snedaker, H 407 

Snow, George W 429 

Snyder, George W 411 

Snyder, Jacob 606 

Snyder, John 353 

Spaulding, J. S 633 

Spence, A. A 4^3 

Spence, D. J 505 

Spenee, R. B 373 

Spencer.F. E 86 

Spencer, H. A 620 

Spencer, J. N 642 

Spencer, Wm. E 247 

Spitzer, L. A 609 

Spring, T. W 39, 

Steiger, Andrew 5 u 



Stierlin, C. C 669 

Stewart, G. W 457 

Stock, John 513 

Stockton, S. P 538 

Stone, L. D 582 

Stonier, J. H 224 

Stout, J. C 612 

Sullivan, Michael 242 

Sullivnn, M. R 582 

Sullivan, P. G 297 

Sund, Herman 587 

Sutherland, Wm 542 

Swall, George 519 

Sweigart, J 613 

Swope, Jacob 470 

Swope, Jacob, Jr 470 

T 

Taaffe, M. J 259 

TaafTe, W. F 356 

Tait, Magnus 320 

Tantau, F. W 541 

Tantau, Matthew 541 

Taylor, E. L 327 

Taylor, James 3,5 

Taylor, S. P 637 

Templeton, S 319 

Theuerkauf, F 540 

Theuerkauf, Miss M 520 

Thomas, Chas. G 548 

Thomas, E.M 458 

Thomas, George E 548 

Thomas, Massey 611 

Thomas, R. A 543 

Thompson, J. F 103 

Tilden, Mrs. S. E 277 

Tillotson, H 542 

Tisdale, W. D 191 

Tomkin, A. R 374 

Topham, Edward 438 

Tourny, Julius 598 

Towle, G. W 284 

Towne, Peter 643 

Townsend, J. H. M 57 

Townsend, John 57 

Trautham, W. H. B 108 

Treanor, Thos 666 

Trefren, J. L 343 

Trimble, John 230 

U 

Umbarger, David 253 

V 

Vance, Thomas 370 

Vandegrift, C. W 617 

Van Fleet, A. N 289 

Van Schaick, H. D 204 

Varcoe, James 332 

Vestal, D. C 371 

Veuve, Wm. P 100 

Vostrovski, J 391 



Wade, C. E 



... 536 



CONTENTS. 



Wade, E. H 269 

Waite, John 351 

Wakefield, L. H 596 

Wakelee.C. H 654 

Walker, Robert 321 

Wallis, J. S 91 

Walters, Henry 663 

Warburton, H. H 241 

Ward, W. F 645 

Warden, B. A 107 

Warren, Wm 34S 

Watson, Daniel W 421 

Watson, D. L 662 

Watson, Wm. 531 

Weber, C. M 331 

Wehner, Ernest 532 

Welburn, O. M 340 

Welch, G eorge 365 

Welch, Robert , 429 

Weller, J. R 220 

Wenstrom, John 259 

Wentz, Christian 308 

Wert, Frank A 550 

Wetmore, J. A 246 

Whipple, T. S 395 

Whitehurst, J. S 244 

Whitney, George 343 

Wilcox, E.J 597 

Wilcox, Harvey 324 

Wilcox, I. A 329 

Wilder, A. E 311 

Wilder, E. A 310 

Willett, Larry 472 

Willey, Howard 334 

Williams, C. W 105 

Williams, J. E 261 

Williams, S. R 5'5 

Wilson, Mrs. E. A 423 

Wilson, C. G 356 

Winsor, John 549 

Withrow, A. A 392 

Wood, A. H 480 

Wood, David 342 

Wood, Helen P 415 

Woodhams, A. R 428 

Woodhams, Joseph 428 

Woodrow, W. L 265 

Woodruff, L. D 460 

Worcester, H. B 145 

Worthen, G. W 426 



Worthington, C. H 549 

Wright, CD 94 

Wright, James R. . 302 

Wright, William 231 

Y 

Yocco, Edward C • 5J4 

Young, C. W 547 

Z 

Zanker, W 544 

Zuck, James C 341 

PORTRAITS. 

Angney, W. Z 313 

Aram, Joseph 553 

Balbach, John 5^9 

Belden, David Frontispiece 

Bishop, S. A 657 

Boring, S. W 601 

Boulieu, Oliver 280 

Boulieu, Mrs. Oliver 281 

Breyfogle, C. W 191 

Britton, M 273 

Cash, A. B . . 545 

Childs, C. W 338 

Chipman, L. J 473 

Crittenden, Orrin 369 

Cross, George 537 

Dawson, J. M I74 

Eastin, James W 649 

Faniey, Mark 521 

Fox, B. S 414 

Goodrich, L 225 

Graves, Sylvester 433 

Graves, Jacob 48 ' 

Hamilton, J. A 625 

Headen, B. F 249 

Herbert, W. B 497 

Johnson, Peter 505 

Keith, P. G 641 

Langford, P. S 305 

Lendrum, James 233 

Leonard, H. M 257 

Lupton, J. F 441 

Martin, Patrick 49' 

McCarthy, Joseph 425 

Murphy, James 55 

Murphy, Martin 38 



Ogier, J. H 219 

Osborne, A. E 361 

Potts, J. S 223 

Raney, Felix 513 

Rengstorff, Henry 417 

Ross, Marcellus 409 

Sanor, M 449 

Sargent, J. P 665 

Schloss, Louis 457 

Scott, W. H 629 

Senter, German 279 

Settle, C. T 577 

Snyder, John 353 

Spaulding, J. S 633 

Spitzer, L. A 609 

Sullivan, P. G 297 

Taylor, S. P 46S 

Van Fleet, A. N 289 

Warburton, H. H 241 

Wilcox, L A 329 

Woodrow, W. L 265 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Residence of the Late David Belden 84 

Residence of Oliver Boulieu 283 

Residence of F. F. Britton 273 

Prune Orchard of A. P. Chrisman 593 

Santa Clara County Court House 139 

Fruit-drying Establishment of W. W. 

Cozzens 617 

Fredericksburg Brewery •. . 197 

Residence of the Late B. F. Headen, . . . 249 
Shady Nook Home, Residence of Mrs. 

S. T.Ingall 585 

Glen Wildwood, Residence of J. H. Joss- 

elyn 401 

Residence and Orchard of H. A. Leigh. 489 

Lick Observatory 126 

Ringwood Farm, Residence of the Late 

James Murphy 56 

Quito Olive Farm, Property of E. E. 

Goodrich 180 

Residence of J. W. Ransom 385 

Residence and Orchard of D. C. Riddell 393 

San Jose Sewerage Map 160 

Congress Hall, L. A. Sage Proprietor... 212 

Fair View Farm of A. N. Van Fleet 289 

Residence of Robert Walker 321 

Farm and Vineyard of William Warren. . 345 




! JLS IT IB no^yy^. 






BY HOM. IDJL^^IID BE^r^IDKN. 



r//£: FOLLOIVING SKETCH OF THE SANTA CLARA VALLEY IVAS PUBLISHED /A 
OF SAN FRANCISCO, JUNE, iS»!. 



THE OVERLAND MONTHLY 



TO the visitor approaching the Santa Clara Valley, 
each mile traversed ushers in some delightful 
surprise, introduces a new climate. If his advent be 
from the north, the hills of scanty verdure, which en- 
circle the bay, recede upon either hand and assume a 
softer contour and richer garb. The narrow road- 
way that skirts the salt marsh has widened to a broad 
and fertile valley that stretches, as far as the eye can 
reach, in luxuriant fields of grass and grain. Border- 
ing this verdant plain, in lines and splendors all their 
own, come the hills, and into the recesses of these 
hills creep the little valleys, and, as they steal away in 
their festal robes, they whisper of beauties beyond, 
and, as yet, unseen. In full keeping with the trans- 
formed landscape is the change in climate. The 
harsh, chili winds that pour in through the Golden 
Gate and sweep over the peninsula, have abated 
their rough vigor as they spread over the valley, and, 
softened as they mingle with the currents from the 
south, meet as a zephyr in the widening plain. 

If the approach be from the south, the traveler, 
wearied with the desert and its hot, dry airs, is conscious 
of a sudden change. The sterile desert has become a 
fruitful plain, and the air that comes as balm to the 
parched lungs is cool and soft and moist with the 
tempered breath of the sea. Upon every hand and 
to every sense there is a transformation that would 
scarce be looked for outside Arabian romance. If it | 
3 



be springer early summer, miles upon miles stretches 
the verdant plain ; over it troops sunshine and shadow ; 
across it ripple the waves. Summer but changes the 
hue and heaps the plain with abundant harvests, while 
the first rains bring again the verdure and the beauty 
of spring. 

"An ocean of beauty!" exclaims the charmed be- 
holder. Nor is this comparison to the sea altogether 
an idle fancy. At a period geologically recent, the 
Sierra Nevadas and the Coast Ranges of mountains 
inclosed a basin about four hundred and fifty miles 
in length by about forty in width, comprising the 
present valleys of the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
Rivers. During the same period the region east of 
the Sierras, now embraced in the State of Nevada, 
and the Territories of Utah and Arizona, was an in- 
land sea connected with the Pacific by straits and 
inlets. 

The evaporation from this body of water affected 
materially the climate of the adjacent regions. Low- 
ering, as it must have done, the general temper- 
ature and increasing the humidity, it induced pre- 
cipitation from the saturated winds of the Pacific, 
while from its own evaporation it added materially to 
the rainfall it thus invited. From these causes, the 
precipitation of that period, both as to volume and 
duration, must have been greatly in excess of the 
present, and vegetation must have been correspond- 
(17) 



18 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



ingly more luxuriant. From the slopes of the mount- 
ain ranges the waters flowed southerly in a majestic 
stream, forming broad lakes as the basin widened, a 
river where the narrowing valley restricted its borders, 
until, passing through the bay of San Francisco, and 
the present valleys of Santa Clara and Pajaro, it found 
an outlet in Monterey Bay. 

In the era that measured the existence of this 
ancient river, it had borne in its turbid waters the 
disintegrations of the regions it traversed, and, in the 
ooze and slime of the lakes that intercepted its course 
and stilled its current, was the decaying mold of gen- 
erations of forests that had flourished on its banks. 
At a later geological period — probably the Quaternary 
— there was an upheaval of the southern part of this 
basin, its axis probably being near the present course 
of the Salinas River. With this rise came a depres- 
sion in the bay of San Francisco. The drainage was 
now to the north. The Coast Range was broken 
through at the Golden Gate, and the waters of the 
great basin found there their outlet to the sea; while 
the former lakes, uplifted and drained, were trans- 
formed into fertile plains. During the same period, 
the sea that lay to the east of the Sierras was cut off" 
from the Pacific. The evaporation of this now land- 
locked basin was in excess of the rainfall, and gradu- 
ally these waters receded until, to-day. Salt Lake is 
the remnant of that inter-ocean which once extended 
through thirty degrees of latitude and from the Rocky 
Mountains to the Sierras. 

This, the recent history of these regions, the geologi- 
cal records upon every hand fully attest — here by beds 
of water-worn pebbles, by strata of clay (always the 
deposit of quiet waters) that underlie the whole valley, 
by the trunks of trees that the drill of the well-borer 
discovers hundreds of feet beneath the surface, and 
by the vast deposit of vegetable mold that forms 
everywhere the surface soil of the valley; while to the 
east, mountains of marine shells and fossils, vast beds 
of salt, beach lines upon the slopes of the mountains, 
attest the existence of the sea that left these proofs 
of its presence and wrote with its fretful waves the 
story of its long companionship upon these rugged 
cliffs, and then shrank from them forever. 

With the subsidence of this sea, there came that 
change in climate which now characterizes this coast. 
The vapors from the Pacific were now absorbed by the 
dry air of this region, and the precipitation which the 
sea had promoted, the desert now prevented. The 
classification of these seasons as wet and dry often 
misleads — for while the latter is all that the term im- 



plies, the rainy season has as much of sunshine as of 
storm, as the records abundantly show. A brief 
epitome of these seasons and the attendant phenom- 
ena will be given: — 

Beginning with the month of October, the signs 
of a coming change are apparent. The winds, no 
longer constant from one quarter, become variable 
both as to direction and force, or wholly cease. 
Sudden blasts raise miniature whirlwinds of dust and 
leaves, which troop over the fields, and the stillness 
of the night is broken by fitful gusts and the sudden 
wail of the trees as the breath of the coming winter 
sweeps through them. These are the recognized 
precursors of the season's change, and are usually 
followed, in the first ten days of October, by an inch 
or more of rain ; and this, usually, by weeks of the 
finest weather. The effect of these first rains is 
magical. The dust is washed from the foliage and 
is laid in the roads and fields. The air has a fresh 
sparkle and life. The skies are a deeper azure, and 
the soft brown hills seem nearer and fairer than be- 
fore. It is the Indian summer of the East; but, instead 
of the soft lassitude of the dying year, here it comes 
with all the freshness and vigor of the new-born spring. 

If, in this and the succeeding months, there are 
further showers, the grass springs up on every hand, 
and the self-sown grain in all the fields. The hills 
change their sober russet for a lively green. Wild 
flowers appear in every sheltered nook. Hyacinths 
and crocuses bloom in the gardens, and the perfume 
of the violet is everywhere in the air. In the latter 
part of November the rainy season is fully established. 
A coming storm is now heralded by a strong, steady 
wind, blowing for a day or two from the southeast, 
usually followed by several days of rain, and these 
succeeded by days or weeks without a cloud — and 
thus, alternating between occasional storms and fre- 
quent sunshine, is the weather from October to April 
— the rainy season of California. The amount of rain 
that falls varies materially with the locality. In San 
Jose it is from fifteen to twenty inches, while, in places 
not ten miles distant, twice that amount is recorded. 
During this period there are from thirty to forty days 
on which more or less rain falls; from fifty to seventy 
that are cloudy; the rest, bright and pleasant. These 
estimates will vary with particular seasons; but, tak- 
ing the average of a series of years, it will be found 
that from October to April one-half the days are 
cloudless, and fully three-fourths such that any out- 
door vocation can be carried on without discomfort 
or inconvenience. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



19 



Cyclones and wind-storms are wholly unknown, 
and thunder is only heard at rare intervals, and then 
as a low rumble forty miles away in the mountains. 
With the month of March the rains are practically 
over, though showers are expected and hoped for in 
April. Between the first and tenth of May there 
usually falls from a half to three-fourths of an inch of 
rain. Coming as this does in the hay harvest, it is 
neither beneficial nor welcome. By the first of July 
the surface moisture is taken up and dissipated, and 
growth dependent upon this ceases. The grasses 
have ripened their seed, and, self-cured and dry, are 
the nutritious food of cattle and sheep. The fields 
of grain are yellow and ripe and wait but the reaper. 
Forest trees and shrubs have paused in their growth. 
This, to the vegetable world, is the season of rest. 

This is the winter of the Santa Clara Valley — winter, 
but strangely unlike winter elsewhere, for here man 
"has interposed. Here, by art and by labor, he has 
reversed the processes of nature and constrained the 
course of the seasons. In gardens, bright with foliage 
and resplendent with flowers, there is spring in its 
freshness and beauty; while in orchards teeming with 
fruits, and vineyards purple with ripening grapes, 
summer and autumn vie for the supremacy. And 
so, with changing beauty and ceaseless fruition, pass 
the seasons of this favored clime. If in these seasons, 
the resident or the visitor finds but one succession of 
enjoyments, to the farmer and fruit grower they are 
of the utmost practical importance as well as con- 
venience. Those months that in the East preclude 
all farming operations, are here the season of most 
active industry and preparation. With the rains of 
November plowing and seeding begin and continue 
with but little interruption to the first of March. If 
the rains are continued too late in the spring, the later- 
sown fields are usually cleaner crops and of superior 
quality, while without these later rains, the earlier- 
sown is likely to be most successful. It is in the 
harvesting, however, that the advantages are most 
apparent — an advantage hardly understood elsewhere 
an I scarcely appreciated here. 

Here the favored farmer gathers his matured 
crop with no possibility of rain interfering, and with 
no thought of the storms that elsewhere make this a 
season of severest toil and constant anxiety. His 
hay, as he cuts it, falls upon soil as dry as is the air 
above it, and is cured without further handling or 
labor than to collect it in cocks or stacks. The grain, 
matured and dry, waits without waste or detriment 
for weeks or months for the reaper, and in October, 



and often far into November, the hay presses and 
threshers may be seen busy with the hay and grain 
that has remained in cocks or stacks for the past five 
months. 

For the fruit grower, these seasons are even more 
favorable than to the farmer. To the visitor, the 
thousands of acres of orchard and vineyard without 
a weed or a blade of grass to be seen, would rep- 
resent an apparent amount of labor and culture abso- 
lutely appalling — and so it would be — not merely 
appalling, but quite impossible under the climatic con- 
ditions of other regions. In sections where frequent 
rains, constant humidity, come with the summer, the 
seeds of every form of weeds ripen with every week 
of sunshine and germinate with every shower. The 
surface moisture usually favors their continued growth 
and development, and the only possible conditions for 
successful tillage are those of constant warfare with 
weeds. Here the seeds near the surface germinate 
with the winter rains and are turned under and de- 
stroyed with the first plowing. The surface dries to 
a depth of three or four inches at the commencement 
of summer and so remains through the whole season. 
In this dry soil it is impossible for seeds to germinate 
or plants to live. Anyone who has ever attempted 
to start seeds in the summer knows how indispensable 
is constant moisture, and will readily understand how 
effectively this feature of the climate co-operates with 
the cultivator and preserves to trees and vines all of 
the moisture and nutrition that the soil contains. 

The Californians' estimate of the climate of their 
State has been the theme of much facetious comment. 
In view of the fact that elsewhere those who are able, 
spend half the year on the St. Lawrence or the coast 
of Maine, to escape the heat of summer, and the other 
half in Cuba, Florida, or on the shores of the Medi- 
terranean, to avoid the rigors of winter; that, in fact, 
most of their lives are migrations in search of climate 
— the residents of this State may accept with equa- 
nimity the badinage of these birds of passage, and 
may well felicitate themselves upon those conditions 
that bring to their very door the summer of the 
Thousand Isles and the winter of the Antilles. That 
this is not an exaggeration is easily shown. Ther- 
mometrical records, however accurately kept, are quite 
apt to mislead those who seek to deduce from them 
practical results. 

There are many important conditions not ex- 
pressed in these observations. It is well understood 
that from the dryness of the air, forty degrees below 
zero is more tolerable in Dakota than thirty degrees 



20 



PEN PICTURES FR03I THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



higher in the humid air of the Atlantic seaboard ; and, 
lor the same reason, and almost in the same ratio, as 
to heat. It would be but little consolation to a person 
to know that, some thousands of miles away, the 
temperature from which he was suffering would be 
quite endurable. So as to averages which usually 
form a conspicuous feature of these records. It is 
not from the averages, but from the extremes, that 
men suffer and vegetation dies. Nor do even the ex- 
tremes represent the effect — their continuance is im- 
portant, A plant often survives a severe frost and 
then succumbs to a much lighter repetition, and a 
degree of heat that may be endured for a day, be- 
comes intolerable when continued for several. In 
view of these well-recognized facts, I propose to 
present the question of temperature as shown by 
effects which are readily appreciated by all, rather 
than by compilations of figures thus liable to mislead. 
The rains of October are usually followed by frosts, 
sufficiently sharp, in the lowlands of the valley, to kill 
the more delicate plants. During the months of De- 
cember, January, and February these frosts are more 
frequent and severe. Every variety of grapes, figs, 
olives — in short, all the semi-tropic plants — remain 
unaffected by the frosts. Callas, fuchsias, geraniums, 
and heliotropes, when grown by the wall of a house, 
in the shade of an evergreen, or given the slightest 
covering, flourish and bloom through any winter, and, 
in many seasons, do so without any protection what- 
ever. 

********* 

Every known variety of rose flourishes without the 
least protection, and not only do they retain their 
leaves, but there is not a day in the winter when 
blossoms, hardly inferior to those of June, cannot be 
gathered in the open grounds of any garden. The 
lemon verbena shrub here attains a height of from 
ten to twenty feet, with a trunk from two to ten inches 
in diameter. Bees increase their stores during the 
rainy season, and every clear day humming-birds 
and butterflies appear in the gardens. 

For personal comfort, fires are usually started in 
the morning, die down toward noon, and are rekindled 
for the evening. As little fire as can be kept burn- 
ing, usually suffices for comfort. There are days, 
stormy, damp, or cold, when more fire is required. 
Such days are the exception, however, and the rule is 
as stated. 

Within the last twenty years snow has fallen in San 
Jose on three occasions. In no instance was it over 
three inches in depth. It disappeared before night- 



fall of the day on which it fell, and its presence trans- 
formed the usually staid city into a snow-balling 
carnival. In the dry season, beginning with April, 
the mornings are clear, calm, and not unpleasantly 
warm. About noon, a brisk breeze from the bay 
blows down the valley. This, harsh as it sweeps in 
through the Golden Gate, is soft and mild here. It 
goes down with the sun, and the night tliat follows is 
calm and cool. A high, light fog sometimes hangs 
over the valley in the morning, but disappears by 
eight or nine o'clock. During the summer montiis, 
three or four heated terms may be expected. These 
are usually in periods of three days, and the ther- 
mometer indicates from ninety degrees to ninety-five 
degrees Fahrenheit. Upon the morning of the 
fourth day a fog generally appears, a cool breeze 
springs up, and the former temperature is restored 
and maintained for weeks before another heated term. 
As these periods are the extreme of the season, somC 
indicia will be given by which they may be under- 
stood and estimated. Through a part of these days, 
exposure to the sun is disagreeably hot, but not 
dangerously so. Under the shade of a tree or in the 
shelter of a well-constructed house, it is perfectly com- 
fortable. The evenings that follow are so cool that 
persons rarely sit upon the porches of their houses, and 
a pair of blankets is required for comfort while 
sleeping. 

Summarizing, it may be said that, in any part of the 
year, days too hot or too cold for the comfort of those 
engaged in ordinary outdoor vocations are rare, and 
that a night uncomfortably warm is absolutely un- 
known. It may be added that the fears and fore- 
bodings with which the seasons are elsewhere greeted, 
are here unheard of; coming with no rigors, they 
bring no terrors, and are alike welcomed by all, not 
as a relief but as a change. In these conditions, 
health and personal comfort are largely subserved, 
and also in them the horticultural possibilities, of 
which we are to-day but upon the threshold, are 
assured ; and these, the elements of present and of 
prospective prosperity, are as constant as the ocean 
currents in which they have their origin, as perma- 
nent as the mountain ranges which bound the field 
of their exhibition. 

The county of Santa Clara has an area of rather 
more than a million of acres. Of this, about two 
hundred and fifty thousand acres is valley — the an- 
cient lake bed, or the alluvial deposits of existing 
streams — three hundred thousand acres is rolling hills 
and mountain slopes, well adapted to fruit; the 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



residue valuable, principally for pasturage. While 
the general contour presented by the valley is that of 
a level plain, it is, in fact, a series of gentle undu- 
lations, with marked variations in the quality of the 
soil. In what is now, or has recently been, the lower 
portions of this plain, the soil is a black, tenacious 
clay, known as "adobe." It is very fertile and pro- 
ductive, but requires much care as to the time and 
manner of cultivating it, and is well adapted to hay 
and grain. The higher lands of the valley are a 
light, loamy, and sometimes gravelly soil. This is 
easily cultivated and is well adapted to all the cereals 
and to most varieties of fruit. In the vicinity of the 
bay there are many thousands of acres of salt m.arsh. 
No effort worthy the name has been made to reclaim 
them, though the task would seem a not difficult one. 
It is safe to predict that at no distant day these lands 
will be reclaimed and among the most productive 
and valuable in the county. 

The "warm belt" is a tract upon the slopes of the 
hills that environ the valley. It has an altitude of 
from two hundred to eight hundred feet. It is gen- 
erally, and in some localities wholly, free from frost. 
In this belt, to the east of Milpitas, potatoes, peas, 
etc., are grown in the open air through the whole 
winter, for the San Francisco market. Upon the Los 
Gatos and Guadalupe Rivers are some hundreds of 
acres, formerly dense willow thickets, but now in the 
highest state of cultivation. These lands are regarded 
as the most desirable in the valley. The soil is a 
sedimentary deposit, easily cultivated, requiring but 
little irrigation, and producing every variety of fruit 
and vegetable. Thirty miles south of San Jose is the 
town of Gilroy. The soil of the valley is here fertile 
and productive. Over a considerable portion, the 
subterranean moisture maintains the growing pastures 
throughout the year, and some of the most successful 
dairies in the State are here established. The more 
elevated parts of the valley and the slopes of the hills 
are well adapted to fruits and vines. The summers of 
Gilroy are warmer and drier than in San Jose. The 
cool winds from the bay are materially softened as 
they sweep down the valley, and the differences of 
temperature between the day and night are not so 
marked. The air is mild and balmy, and the nights 
agreeably cool and pleasant. 

The water courses within the county greatly di- 
minish, when they do not wholly disappear, in the sum- 
mer. Sinking, as they approach the valley, they 
augment the subterranean resources which supply the 
artesian wells. These are found all over the valley. 



They are usually from sixty to one hundred feet in 
depth, though some find a larger and more permanent 
supply at a much greater depth. The water is raised 
by windmills into tanks, and is ample for household 
and gardening purposes. About Alviso and near the 
bay, hundreds of acres of strawberries and of vege- 
table gardens are irrigated from these wells, and the 
water rises to the surface with such force that the 
mo-t massive appliances arc required to restrain the 
flow. 

Of the varied productions of this valley it is difficult 
to speak in terms which shall not savor of exagger- 
ation. The question is no longer what can, but what 
cannot, be successfully produced. With the early 
settlers cattle were the staple, and of the vast herds 
which roamed over the country, little more than the 
hides and tallow were utilized. The cereals, it was 
supposed, could only be grown in the summer, and 
where irrigation was afforded. The gold discovery 
changed all this. It furnished not only a market for 
the cattle, but, soon after, it was ascertained that the 
rainy months were the season of growth, and that 
wheat sown with the early rains matured enormous 
crops of the finest quality. The success which at- 
tended this last industry relegated the cattle interest 
to the extensive and less valuable ranges eastward, 
while the prodigal quantity and superior quality of 
the wheat produced enabled it, not only to success- 
fully compete with all rivals in the markets of the 
world, but to fix for years the price of the bread of 
a hundred millions of people. As the herdsman had 
given way to the tiller of the soil, .so the latter, and 
for the same reason, has made way for a more profit- 
able industry — the growing of fruits. That this has 
not long since supplanted all other industries was not 
from any doubt as to production or quality, but simply 
as to transportation. This problem satisfactorily 
solved, and the fruit growers of this valley can have no 
successful rivals. 

To-day, with this industry comparatively new, its 
means of transportation a monopoly, its markets but 
recently found, and its methods of reaching these 
markets an experiment — with all these to contend 
against, the fruits of this valley are as well known 
and highly esteemed in the markets of the East and 
of the world as are those of Sicily, Asia Minor, and 
the Adriatic — where ages have been given to the in- 
dustry, where skilled labor is at the very lowest stage 
of compensation — and the ocean is the easy pathway 
to a world of consumers. The capacity of this valley 
in this direction is no new discovery. It is as old as 



22 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



its settlement. A hundred years ago the Mission 
Fathers introduced the grape which still bears their 
name and perpetuates their memory; and orchards of 
pear and olive, coeval with these vineyards, still bear 
abundantly, and attest alike the capacity of the re- 
gion and thejudgment and forethought of those who 
thus demonstrated it, while the older records make 
frequent mention of planting and vintage, the fruits 
and the harvests of those ancient days. But neither 
record nor relics is needed to show the varied capacity 
of this region. The valley, upon every hand, is to-day 
exhibiting it. By the side of his fields sown to grain 
or in grass, the farmer plants an orchard or a vine- 
yard ; between the rows of trees or of vines he tills 
and plants as before, and gathers full harvests of roots, 
etc., while waiting the fruition of his trees. His labors 
alternate between his fields of grain and of vines, and 
his teams are to-day transporting from his farm tons 
of hay for the market, and tons of grapes for the 
winery. 

Nature, in everything prodigal, is in nothing invidi- 
ous, and were the fruit production to absolutely cease, 
the valley would remain one of the richest agri- 
cultural regions of the globe. I have referred to the 
wheat production, still successfully continued, except 
where supplanted by some more profitable product. 
Its hay crop is to-day the principal supply of the San 
Francisco market. In the vicinity of Santa Clara are 
fields of corn that never felt rain nor knew irrigation, 
and that will compare favorably with the crops of the 
valley of the Mississippi, while, besides this, whole 
farms are growing garden seeds, which have long 
commanded the highest prices in the Eastern markets. 
Extensive hop yards were established, and the vines 
grew and bore luxuriantly, and only the high price of 
labor prevented their being to-day a staple of the 
valley. Near Gilroy some of the most successful as 
well as extensive dairies in the State are established, 
while in the Santa Cruz Mountains, upon the west, 
petroleum is found, and its further development prose- 
cuted with every prospect of success. Of the fruit 
product of this county it is impossible to speak accu- 
rately — difficult to speak instructively. At the pres- 
ent writing, enormous canneries, employing thousands 
of laborers, are running night and day. Drying ap- 
paratuses on every hand, and in almost every field, 
are employed, while, in every direction, acres upon 
acres are covered with bags of fruit preserved by 
drying in the sun — every resource of labor or of 
mechanism is tasked to the utmost, and even the school 



vacation is extended that the children may aid to 
preserve the enormous crop. 



The orchards in bearing are generally increasing in 
their yield and will continue so to do for many years, 
while extensive areas are coming into bearing and the 
planting of new orchards and vineyards is constantly 
going on. In fact, the system of summer culture 
which renders irrigation unnecessary, makes all the 
arable land in the county available for fruit. In view 
of these facts, estimates would be but the merest con- 
jecture. One thing may be said — that all the fruits 
of the temperate zone, and most of the semi-tropical 
fruits, are now grown in the greatest perfection and in 
quantities which tax to the utmost the resources and 
labor attainable to gather and preserve them. Orange 
trees have been grown for many years in this county 
(in San Jose more for ornament than for fruit), gener- 
ally seedlings, and with no care as to either selection 
or culture. In the vicinity of San Jose considerable 
groves have been growing for twenty years, produc- 
ing abundant crops of well-flavored fruit. The citrus 
fairs held last year (1887) in San Jose and other 
places, showed the very extensive sections where these 
fruits were being successfully grown ; and this, with 
the stimulus of a market, has induced the planting 
of orange trees throughout the warm belt of this 
county. That these trees will grow, and luxuriantly, 
and that they are not affected by the frost, is estab- 
lished ; and that certain varieties will mature excel- 
lent fruit, is certain. If, however, it shall be found 
wanting in the flavor or qualities of the oranges of 
Tahiti or Florida, it is because it does not have the 
long hot season — the burning days and sweltering 
nights — of those countries. I question whether it 
would be desirable to accept that climate, though 
with it we could secure this single production. 

The great and increasing extent of the fruit pro- 
duction, the fact that over much of the State it is 
being prosecuted with energy, suggests the frequent 
inquiry, "Where is the future market for all this to 
be found? This is the inquiry that, at some stage of 
development, confronts every form of industrial enter- 
prise, whether the product of the soil or the result of 
manufacture. The subject is too extensive and too 
intricate to here receive but the briefest consideration. 
The fruit product of this State is the result of special 
climatic conditions existing within restricted limits. 
Unlike manufactures, this form of production cannot 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



23 



be extended by either art or enterprise. Upon the 
other hand, the consumers will be found wherever 
any industry can be maintained, or men can exist. 
If, then, fruit production shall increase in geometrical 
ratio, nature has fixed the limits within which this 
progression must cease, while no such bounds exist to 
the range of consumption. 

Farther than this, experience and invention are 
constantly diminishing the cost of production and 
thus enlarging the class of consumers. If wheat and 
wool, staples of the world, and everywhere grown, are 
rarely found in excess of profitable production, it may 
fairly be assumed that these special products of Cali- 
fornia, thus limited to an area and restricted as to 
conditions, will be always a profitable industry. The 
question, however important, is at present but one of 
speculation, and time alone can give the full solution. 
Dependent as this region is upon the regular rains of 
winter, the knowledge that these sometimes fail makes 
the subject of rainfall one of much anxious consider- 
ation. There is a theory that the seasons move in 
cycles of twelve years, passing, by regular gradation, 
from a maximum to a minimum rainfall in that period 
and culminating in a season of floods and of drought 
at the other. The observations of the last few years 
do not fully support this theory of gradual transition, 
although records extending back to the year 1805 
seem to indicate that the twelfth year is deficient in 
rain. Should these dry years recur in the future, the 
disastrous and destructive consequences of the past 
are not likely to follow. The industry of the State 
was then cattle raising and the country was stocked 
to its fullest capacity. With a drought the short-lived 
natural grasses failed; the water courses dried up, and, 
as no provision had been made for supplying either, 
the cattle perished by thousands. 

At present, the land is more profitably utilized in 
other pursuits, and cattle are comparatively few, and for 
these, some provision can be made. Trees and vines, 
though their product may be diminished, are not de- 
stroyed by a drought, however severe. Large areas 
of irrigated lands will furnish vast supplies of forage 
food, and the reclaimed sections contribute in the 
same direction, while railroads transport these prod- 
ucts as needs may require. A further consideration 
— the possible effect of artificial conditions upon rain- 
fall — may be worth estimating. It has been often 
asserted that the cutting off of the forests of the 
Sierras and the Coast Range would diminish the rain- 
fall, and in other ways prove detrimental to the 
moisture supply. If this, as a consequence of denu- 



dation, follows anywhere, it may be doubted whether 
it does here. In almost every instance the removal 
of the timber is followed by a dense growth of young 
trees or of thicket, and the effect of this, either as in- 
ducing precipitation or retaining moisture, must be 
fully equal to that of the larger but scattering trees 
thus replaced. 

Further than this, in the valley of the San Joaquin, 
hundreds of square miles of prairie and plains are 
now, by irrigation, thoroughly saturated, and from 
waters that had their former evaporation surface in 
the area of a comparatively small lake. On the slopes 
of the Sierras the same causes are at work. Water 
stored in immense reservoirs is conducted in canals 
to thousands of acres of orchards and vineyards. 
These causes, large at present and constantly enlarg- 
ing, cannot but produce some effect upon the rainfall 
of this coast. Regions that before absorbed the moist- 
ure, now, by their own evaporation, contribute to it 
and induce precipitation. If it be argued that these 
causes are inadequate to the results suggested, it may 
be replied that forest and prairie fires, the burning of 
cities, the firing of cannon, are known to be followed 
by copious rains. The meteorological conditions that 
accompany a saturated atmosphere, are often very 
nearly in equilibrium, and a very slight disturbing 
cause may determine for or against precipitation. 
The causes I have indicated are neither transitory 
nor insignificant. They embrace areas equal in ex- 
tent to States, and are affecting, in a marked degree, 
the temperature and climate of these extensive re- 
gions. If any consequences shall follow from these 
changes, every reason seems to indicate that they will 
be found in an increased rainfall and against the re- 
currence of drought. ***** 

In this description of the capabilities and climate 
of the Santa Clara Valley, I have substantially de- 
scribed San Jose — for this is her environment, these 
are her resources, this the rich setting of which the 
"Garden City" is the central gem. * * * 

The roads of San Jose and vicinity are wide, well- 
graded and ballasted with gravel and rock, of which 
there is an inexhaustible supply in the immediate 
vicinity. Unaffected by frost or flood, they improve 
with use and require but little attention to maintain 
them in the finest condition. 

Each year adds many miles to the hundreds of 
miles now in use, while the trees with which most 
of them are bordered are rapidly developing them 
into stately avenues. These roads, as they extend 
into the country, are little affected by either the rains 



24 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLDS 



of winter or the droughts of summer, and delightful 
drives, free from either mud or dust, are to be found 
in every direction and at all times. The residents 
thoroughly appreciate and fully avail themsilves of 
this attractive feature of the county, and probably in 
no place in the country are so many teams to be 
found driven with perfect confidence, not only by 
women, but often by the merest children. To the 
visitor who drives at random over these roads, every 
turn brings a new surprise, reveals a new beauty. 
Now the road is through an avenue of stately trees ; 
then comes a succession of gardens ; and again it is 
the abandoned channel of a former stream, where 
giant and gnarled sycamores and old oaks shade 
the way, and then for miles a bewildering succession 
of vineyards, orchards, and fruitful fields; while every- 
where, half hidden in the orchards, nestling among 
the vines, embowered amid the roses, stately man- 
sions and beautiful cottages bespeak alike the thrift 
and refinement of their occupants. 

When the stranger thus finds each day, and for 
months, a new avenue, with new beauties before and 
about him, he will give credence to the assertion that 
here are to be found more delightful drives than in 
any other city of the State, and will declare it fitly 
named the "Garden City." Of the hundreds of miles 
of these drives, which lead in every direction, some 
are deserving of more than this general mention. 
The Alameda, a broad and beautiful avenue leading 
to Santa Clara, is three miles in length, as level as a 
floor, and shaded by trees planted by the Mission 
Fathers a hundred years ago. Bordered throughout 
its whole extent with beautiful residences, it puzzles 
the passer-by to know where San Jose ends and her 
sister city begins. Another notable drive is to Alum 
Rock, a distance of seven miles over a road as perfect 
as art can make it, through a deep gorge with a 
prattling stream keeping company, to a natural park 
of four hundred acres owned by the city. Here, in a 
sheltered nook, a comfortable hotel, shaded by mighty 
oaks, is kept, with mineral springs of every quality 
and every temperature bubbling up in every direction. 
Sc irce a day in the summer that a party is not found 
picnicking in this park, and making the hills ring 
with music and merriment. To the west, within a 
dozen miles, is the Almaden quicksilver mine, em- 
ploying three hundred laborers, and supporting a 
population of a thousand ; a place interesting as being 
the richest deposit of cinnabar on the continent, or 
perhaps in the world, and also for the thorough .system 
and scrupulous neatness exhibited on every hand. 



Another drive is to the Guadalupe, second only to 
the Almaden; another to Los Gatos, where all the 
zones and all the seasons seem to have combined to 
crown this favored spot with the choicest treasures of 
them all; another to Saratoga, with its soda spring, 
unsurpassed in the State, gushing from the hill-side; 
to Lexington, last of this triad of mountain beauties; 
and everywhere — in the little valleys, garlanding the 
hill -sides, climbing to the very summit of the mount- 
ains — orchards, orange groves, and vineyards. The 
drive into these hills is always delightful ; but it is in 
the spring, when everything is in bloom, that it ap- 
pears in all its glory. Then, as far as the eye can 
reach, hill-side and plain are decked in all 1 he splendors 
of the rainbow. Here the white blossoms of the 
prune sway in the breeze like drifting snow, while, 
beside these, the valley is blushing with the dainty 
hues of the apricot, the peach, and the apple, and the 
vineyards are upon every side, in their delicate green. 
It is, in fact, one vast parterre of floral beauty — its 
coloring by acres — and stretching away for miles, 
until the distant hills frame in the gorgeous picture. 
In all these mountain villages are to be found hotels, 
cozy and pleasant, and as the guest sits in the evening 
upon the porches and sees the lamps of the distant 
city twinkling like fireflies below him, with the electric 
lights gleaming like planets above them, with the soft, 
dry air that stirs but in zephyrs, he can but feel that 
this is indeed an earthly elysium. 

In the morning a strilcing sight sometimes awaits 
the visitor. The sky is blue and cloudless as ever, 
but the valley has disappeared. A fog has crept in 
during the night and engulfed the plain, as though 
the ocean was asserting its old dominion. Upon 
every hand the hills, that held the ancient sea in their 
long embrace, now clasp this fleeting phantom as 
though in its shadowy image there were cherished 
memories of the past. Above it, like islands, rise 
hills and peaks. As still as fleecy wool sleeps this 
soft white sea. But even while you look and wonder, 
the sun asserts his power and the still lake swells in 
waves and rolls in billows. Through rifts, you catch 
glimpses of houses, of forests, and of fields, and then 
— you know not how, )-ou see not where — the fleecy 
mantle is gone, anJ the valley, in sheen and sunshine, 
is again before you. 

Eighteen miles east of San Jose, upon the summit 
of Mount Hamilton, is the Lick Observatory. The 
road by which it is reached is twenty-four miles in 
length, was built by the county at a cost of $85,000, 
and is as complete as money and skill can make it. 



PEN PICTURES FBOM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



25 



It connects with the Alum Rock Avenue, about four 
miles from San Jose, and from this point is carried up 
the western slope of the hili. As the road ascends, 
the valley comes into view, each turn of the road dis- 
closing some new charm. Seven miles of this and 
the road passes to the eastern side; the valley is no 
longer in sight. But with this change comes a new 
attraction. You are now in the mountains, and deep 
gorges upon the one hand, and the steep hill-side on 
the other, make the landscape; again, and the road is 
traversing valleys gorgeous with wild flowers or roll- 
ing hills dotted with stately oaks. Ten miles of this 
and Smith Creek is reached. Here, in a charming 
nook of the mountain half encircled by a sparkling 
stream, a comfortable hotel is found. Near as the 
summit appears from this point, there i-^ yet fifteen 
hundred feet of sheer ascent and the road winds three 
times round the peak and is seven miles long in as- 
cending it. As the summit is approached the valley 
unrolls before you like a vast panorama, and the 
picture that was left behind is again in view; until, at 
last, at a height of four thousand two hundred and 
fifty feet, you are at the observatory. 

From here, the view is grand and impressive. At 
your feet, dotted with villages and rimmed with a 
cordon of protecting hills, sleeps the valley in all its 
loveliness, and, beside it, the Bay of San Francisco, 
flecked with the sails of commerce. To the east, the 
snow-clad peaks of the Sierras bound the distant 
horizon, while south, the valley stretches away till hid 
by the misty hills. Upon the west are the forest 
slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, with lakes and 
reservoirs that gleam in the sunlight like burnished 
silver; while, upon the more distant horizon, a lighter 
shade tells where sea and sky meet and mingle in the 
blue Pacific. North, if the day is clear, you are 
pointed to a dim shadow scarce outlined on the dis- 
tant sky, and, as you strive to fi.x the wavering, doubt- 
ful image, you are told that this is Shasta, which, four 
hundred miles distant and fourteen thousand four 
hundred and forty feet liigh, is enthroned in undis- 
puted majesty over the great valley. As you note this 
horizon stretching away on every hand, you can 
readily accept the statement of Professor Whitney, 
that from the summit of this mountain, more of the 
earth's surface is visible than from any other known 
point upon the globe ; and the blue sky and trans- 
lucent atmosphere attest the assertion that there are 
here twice the number of nights that are favorable to 
observations than are anywhere else to be found. 
Upon this height stands the observatory, which the 
4 



founder decreed should have the most powerful glass 
and thorough equipment that skill and ingenuity 
could produce; and most thoroughly have those 
assigned to this duty executed their trust. 

If years have been employed for the erection of 
these buildings, it is because they are to remain for the 
centuries, and they are as massive and as durable as 
the rock of which they seem but a part. In the 
equipment, the scientific knowledge and mechanical 
ingenuity of the world were called into requisition, 
and this is the grand result. Nor are the appoint- 
ments of this place, perfect and ample as they are, 
better adapted to its purposes than are the natural 
surroundings. Elsewhere, observatories are erected 
amid the busy marts of trade, and among the haunts 
of men. Here, the rugged mountain fjrbids all other 
companionship, and sterility and solitude keep sen- 
tinel watch at the portals of this temple of science. 
It is fitting that this be so, for what, to the watcher 
of the skies, are the aspirations of life, the ambitions 
of men? What to him are the boundaries of nations 
or the measures of time? The field of his explorations 
is illimitable space, the unit of his line, the vast orbit 
of the earth. The centuries of Egypt, hoary with 
age, are scarce seconds on his dial. The Pharaohs 
are to him but men of yesterday. He gauges the 
nebulous mist that enwraps Orion, that veils Andro- 
meda, and proclaims the natal day of systems yet to 
be. He notes the changing hues and waning light of 
blazing stars, and declares when, rayless and dark, 
with retinues of dead worlds, they shall journe}- on in 
the awful stillness of eternal night. Well may he 
who deals with these, the problems of the skies, dwell 
alone and apart from other men. 

In the central pier, which supports the great tele- 
scope, is the tomb of Jarnes Lick. Lonely in this life, 
alone in his resting-place; this seems indeed his fit 
mausoleum, and the visitor reads, though it be un- 
written, as his epitaph, the inscription in England's 
great cathedral on the tomb of its architect : " Si 
inonumentiim requiris, ciraunspice." 

The return trip is much more agreeable than the 
ascent. As the carriage sweeps down the mountain 
road, with its many curves, the landscape again un- 
folds with scenes and shades that come and go like 
the figures of a kaleidoscope; and, in three short 
hours, the traveler is again in San Jose, with recol- 
lections of the mountain road, the marvelous prospect, 
the lofty mountains, and the lonely tomb, that can 
never be effaced. ****** 

Muchof the happiness of a communits- depends upon 



26 



PEN PICTURES FEOM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



the social habits of its people. In San Jose, social 
gatherings and festivities, picnics and excursions, are 
more frequent than in most Eastern communities. 
The weather permits, and the disposition of the people 
encourages them; and those relaxations which, in 
most places, are the privilege of the few, are here the 
practice of the many. In the summer, many families 
resort to the hills or to the shores of Monterey Bay. 
Here, in cottages readily hired, in tents or booths, 
they remain for weeks, relieved of much of the 
formality, as well as the drudgery, of ordinary domes- 
tic life. Others, more adventurous, make up expedi- 
tions to the Sierras, Yosemite.or even Shasta. They 
take their own teams, and in capacious wagons store 
the bedding and supplies required for a month or 
more of nomadic life. Of the weather they take no 
heed, for that is assured. 

Wherever night overtakes them they camp, and 



remain or move on as inclination or fancy may prompt- 
From the farm-houses they replenish their larder and 
procure feed for their teams. And they return after 
weeks of this gypsy life, with bronzed cheeks, to re- 
sume with vigor the duties of life, to live over their 
past wanderings, and to plan new expeditions for the 
future. ********* 
In this paper I have endeavored to represent to the 
visitor the surroundings he will here find; to the 
settler, the conditions with which he will have to deal. 
I shall make no attempt to forecast even the near 
future; it is proclaiming itself The tramp of a 
coming host is upon every hand — the tide of a human 
sea, impelled by forces that permit no ebb. It comes, 
and between the desert and the sea it finds the prom- 
ised land^ — Egypt in its fertility; Sicily in its fruits 
and flowers; Italy in its beauty; America in its free- 
dom, its enterprise, and its energy. 








The Native races. 



THE reader will have acquired a good idea of the 
topography of climate and general character- 
istics of Santa Clara County from the foregoing 
sketch from the pen of the Honorable D. Belden. 
In regard to the people who inhabited this lovely 
spot prior to its occupancy by the whites, we have 
very little knowledge either by record or tradition, 
nor is it necessary that we should have. They were 
a race of mild-mannered, ignorant, and generally 
inoffensive Indians, without language, customs, or 
history, that would be either instructive or entertain- 
ing to the general reader. The only interest we have 
in them is that they were the immediate predecessors 
of the white race in this beautiful valley. They were 
called the Olhones, sometimes Costanes, and subsisted 
on the spontaneous fruits of the soil, together with 
small game which they were enabled to kill or capture 
with their rude implements or weapons. Like nearly 
all the natives of the Pacific Coast, both of North 
and South America, they worshiped the sun, but 
this was about the only point in which they resembled 
their Southern neighbors. While Cortez and Pizarro 
found in Mexico and Peru a sort of civilization, the 
natives of California had nothing that redeemed 
them from absolute barbarism. They believed in an 
evil spirit, and their religious rites and ceremonies 
were principally devoted to its propitiation rather than 
to the adoration of a Supreme Being, with power to 
protect them from the anger of their evil god. In 
this they seem to have resembled the Chine.se. 

Their religious idea of rewards and punishments 
appertained to their material existence. If they had 
any belief in a future state they had nothing to indi- 
cate it except, perhaps, in their funeral ceremonies, in 
which they decorated the corpse with feathers, flowers, 
and beads, and, placing his bows and arrows beside 
the remains, burned them amid shouts and cries. 
They had one custom which was common to all the 
Indians along the coast, but whether it was a religious 



ceremony, a sanitary measure, or a recreation, we are 
not informed. It was called the temescal. An adobe 
house, in the shape of a dome, was built on the banks 
of a creek. It had a hole in the top for the escape of 
the smoke, while an aperture at the side served the 
purpose of a door. The ceremony, if it can properly 
be called such, consisted in packing the interior of the 
hut with people, raising the temperature by means of 
fires to as high a degree as possible. When the heat 
became unendurable they would rush from the hut 
and with cries and shouts plunge into the waters of 
the creek. 

They had no villages, in the ordinary sense of 
the term, but at certain seasons of the year they 
would herd together at certain fixed places, which the 
Spaniards named randiei'ias. They were generally 
peaceable. We have no record of any wars in which 
they were engaged, nor have any relics of pre-historic 
battle-fields been found by their successors. After 
the secularization of the missions there was at one 
time a rumor that the Indians were on the war-path 
and were making threatening demonstrations toward 
this valley; but it was only a rumor, and we can find 
no authentic account of any overt act that could be 
logically construed into organized hostility. 

They had no prominent men or noted chiefs whose 
names survive. The Seminoles had their Osceola, the 
Shawnees had Tecumseh, the Pokanokets had King 
Philip, the Sacs and Foxes had Blackhawk, the Cayu- 
gas had Logan, but the Olhones have left not even a 
ripple on the sea of oblivion into which they have so 
recently passed. Not much can be said of these 
natives that would be interesting — nothing that would 
be instructive. Our history begins where theirs ended. 
Their existence here served as a motive for the estab- 
lishment of the Mission of Santa Clara, which was the 
beginning of civilization in Santa Clara Valley, and 
the real starting-point for our history. 

(27) 



28 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



SPANISH OCCUPATION. 

In 1776, the natal year of our republic, Califor- 
nia was a province of Spain and was governed 
through the viceroy of Mexico, whose headquarters 
were established at the city of Mexico. The Span- 
ish monarch at that time was Don Carlos III., and 
the Mexican viceroy was Felipe de Neve. The 
banner of the Holy Church had been carried in the 
van of the Spanish forces in all their military opera- 
tions in the Western Hemisphere, and all their con- 
quests had been made in noniitie Doininis. The 
introduction of the arts of civilization into the con- 
quered provinces proceeded on the same principle. 
The first step was to afford religious instruction to 
the natives, and to this end missions under the control 
of the church were established at such points as were 
deemed advisable. At the time of which we write, 
seven of these missions had been established in 
Upper or Alta California, to wit: The Mission San 
Diego, at San Diego, July 16, 1769; the Mission Car- 
mel, or San Carlos, at Monterey, June 3, 1770; the 
Mission San Antonio, at San Luis Obispo, July 14, 
1771; the Mission San Gabriel, at Los Angeles, 
September 8, 1771; the Mission San Luis Obispo, at 
San Luis Obispo, September i, 1772; the Mission 
Dolores, at San Francisco, October 9, 1776; the 
Mission San Juan Capistrano, at Los Angeles, 
November 10, 1776. 

At this time the Spaniards had a military post, 
called a presidio, at San Francisco, which was then 
known as Yerba Buena. It seems that in all the 
enterprises undertaken by the Spaniards in the New 
World, the church had concurrent jurisdiction with 
the military authority. In fact, almost all the com- 
mands issuing from the crown placed the church first, 
and the military force was treated simply as an 
auxiliary in the work of introducing the Christian 
religion to the heathen inhabitants of New Spain. 
These two powers generally acted in harmony. There 
was no restriction of the Holy Fathers in their selec- 
tion of sites for their missions, and no hesitation on the 
part of the military authorities in granting a guard of 
soldiers for their protection when asked for. Official 
information in regard to the founding and conduct of 
the missions was conveyed to the headquarters of 
church and State through two distinct channels, that 
is to say, the church received its report through the 
priesthood and the State through the commandants 
of the districts furnishing the military support. 

In 1776 the viceroy of Mexico learned, unofficially, 



that two new missions had been established near the 
Bay of San Francisco, and in September of that year 
he sent a communication to Don Fernando Riviera, 
who was at that time commanding at San Diego, 
conveying this intelligence and asking him to make 
an inspection and return a full report. This meant, 
for Don Fernando, a march of several hundred miles 
through a wild country and over rugged mountains, 
but military discipline did not permit him to hesitate. 
Accompanied by twelve soldiers, intended as guards 
for the new missions, he proceeded northward. After 
a long and tiresome journey the party arrived at 
Monterey. Here Don Fernando learned that the 
viceroy had been misinformed ; that, instead of two 
new missons, only one had been established, and that 
one at San Francisco (Dolores). Father Tomas de la 
Pena, and another priest, who had been appointed to 
perform the religious duties of the expedition, joined 
the party at Monterey, and together they started on 
their journey to San Francisco. Their route was 
nearly identical with that now occupied by the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad. During the march the party 
made a halt near the present town site of Santa Clara, 
and being impressed with the salubrity of the climate 
and the wonderful fertility of the soil, as evidenced by 
the natural vegetation, they determined to there 
locate a mission for the instruction of the mild- 
mannered natives, whose curiosity was barely sufficient 
to conquer their timidity. 

This was in the latter part of the month of Novem- 
ber, a season when our lovely valley possesses a 
peculiar beauty, and which, it seems, was sufficient to 
entrance these holy friars, although they had long 
been accustomed to the delightful climate of what is 
now known as Southern California. This valley was 
then known as the San Bernardino. The party pro- 
ceeded to San Francisco, which they reached on 
the twenty-sixth of November. Having discharged 
his official duties at the presidio, Don Fernando re- 
turned to Monterey, and, at the Mission Carmel, took 
the preliminary steps toward establishing a mission at 
the place which had so charmed him on his journey to 
San Francisco. A party, under the direction of Rev. 
Father Murguia, was organized and started for their 
new field. By the last of December all the soldiers 
intended for guards, together with their families, were 
mustered at San Francisco, and on the sixth day of 
January took their departure for this valley. The 
party consisted of Rev. Father de la Pena, the com- 
mandant of the presidio, and the soldiers and their 
families. On reaching their destination a cross was 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



29 



erected, and on the twelfth day of January, 1777, the 
first mass ever said in the valley was celebrated by 
Father Pefia. 

This planting of the symbol of the church and the 
celebration of its rites marks the true beginning of the 
history of the Santa Clara Valley. The cross which 
was then upraised still stands erect and marks the 
dividing line between idolatry and Christianity — be- 
tween barbarism and civilization. A few days after 
this Father Murguia arrived from Monterey with his 
party, and on January 18, 1777, the formal ceremonies 
prescribed by the church for the founding of missions 
were performed, and the Mission of Santa Clara was 
established; and from this time this valley, which had 
hitherto been known as San Bernardino, became the 
Valley of Santa Clara. That our readers may more 
readily comprehend the work of the missions we 
present the followi g brief general description, as 
given by Father Gleeson in his work entitled, "History 
of the Catholic Church in California:" — 

"The buildings were generally quadrilaterals inclos- 
ing a court ornamented with fountains and trees, the 
whole containing the church, the Fathers' apartments, 
storehouses, barracks, etc. Within the quadrangle, at 
the second story, was a gallery running round the entire 
structure, upon which opened the workshops, store- 
rooms and other apartments. The entire manage- 
ment of each establishment was under the care of two 
religious; the elder attended to the interior and the 
younger to the exterior administration. One portion 
of the building, which was called the 'monastery,' 
was inhabited by the young Indian girls. Tiiere, 
under the care of approved matrons, they were care- 
fully instructed and trained in those branches neces- 
sary for their condition in life. They were not per- 
mitted to leave till of an age to be married — this 
with a view of preserving their morality. 

" In the schools, those who exhibited more talent 
than their companions were taught vocal and instru- 
mental music, the latter consisting of the flute, horn, 
and violin. In the mechanical departments, the most 
apt were promoted to the position of foremen. The 
better to preserve the morals of all, none of the 
whites, except those absolutely necessary, were em- 
ployed at the mission. The daily routine was as 
follows: At sunrise they arose and proceeded to the 
church, where, after morning prayer, they assisted at 
the holy sacrament of the mass. Breakfast next 
followed, after which they proceeded to their respect- 
ive employments. Toward noon they returned to the 
mission and spent the time from then till two o'clock 



between dinner and repose, after which they repaired 
to their work and remained engaged until the even- 
ing angelus, about an hour before sundown. All 
then betook themselves to the church for evening 
devotions, which consisted of the ordinary family 
prayers and the rosary, except on special occasions, 
when other devotional exercises were added. After 
supper, which immediately followed, they amused 
themselves in divers sports, games, and dancing, till 
the hour for repose. Their diet consisted of an 
abundance of beef and mutton, with vegetables in 
the season. Wheaten cakes and puddings or por- 
ridges, called atole and pinole, also formed a portion of 
the repast. The dress was, for the males, linen shirts 
and pants, and a blanket which was to be used as an 
overcoat. The women received each, annually, two 
undergarments, a gown, and a blanket. In years of 
plenty, after the missions became rich, the Fathers 
distributed all the surplus moneys among them in 
clothing and trinkets." 

From this it will be seen that the good Fathers had 
a care over the temporal as well as the spiritual wel- 
fare of their charges. Santa Clara Mission soon 
became a flourishing institution. The natives were 
teachable, willing to learn, and reasonably industrious. 
The land was fertile and yielded abundant harvests, 
and each year saw a gratifying increase in the num- 
bers of those who relinquished heathenism for Chris- 
tianity, and the habits of savagery for the arts of 
civilization. 

In 1784, nearly seven years after the establishment 
of the mission, came the ceremony of formal dedica- 
tion, under the ministration of the Father Junipero 
Serra, president of the missions of California. This 
occurred May 16, and was attended by Don Pedro 
Fages, who had succeeded Neve as Governor of Cali- 
fornia. Father Murguia did not live to witness this 
imposing ceremony, he having died of a slow fever 
five days prior to the event. 

In June of the same year in which the Santa Clara 
Mission was established, Don Felipe de Neve sug- 
gested to his superiors the advisability of establish- 
ing a settlement on the Guadalupe River, forty- eight 
miles from the presidio at San Francisco and seventy- 
eight miles from Monterey. He described the ex- 
traordinary fertility of the country and demonstrated 
that it would not only furnish ample supplies for the 
troops quartered at the presidio, but would in a very 
short time yield a handsome revenue to the crown. 
The suggestion was several months in traveling 
through the Spanish circumlocution office, but it 



30 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



finally reached the end of its journey and was ap- 
proved, and in November of that year, Don Jose de 
Moraga, a Spanish lieutenant commanding at the 
presidio at San Francisco, received orders to detail 
nine soldiers who had experience as agriculturists, 
two settlers, and three laborers, and proceed to form a 
settlement at the point indicated in the Governor's 
suggestion. This he did, and located his camp on 
the banks of the creek just north of the present city 
limits, and called it the " Pueblo de San Jose de 
Guadalupe." 

He reported his location to the central government 
through the usual channels, and two years afterward, 
March 6, 1779, his actions were approved. In 1782, 
Lieutenant Moraga was directed to make an allot- 
ment of land to each of his troops, which he did, as 
will be seen by the accompanying diagram. The 
names of the original settlers were: Ygnacio Archuleta, 
Manuel Gonzalez, Jose Tiburcio Vasquez, Manuel 
Amesquita, Antonio Romero, Bernardo Rosalez, 
Francisco Avila, Sebastian Alvitre, and Claudio 
Alvirez. 

It was not long until the settlers discovered that 
they had made a mistake in the selection of a site 
for their town. The place was comparatively low, 
and during the winter frequently overflowed, much to 
the discomfort of the settlers. This caused much dis- 
content, but no direct steps were taken to secure a re- 
location of the pueblo until 1785, when a formal 
petition was sent to the central authorities asking per- 
mission to move the settlement to higher ground. 
In his report on the subject. Lieutenant Moraga 
states: — 

"At the time I obtained command as commis- 
sioner of the pueblo, the water raised so high that 
a little more would have carried off our houses. 
Some of them were much injured, and we were 
deprived of going to mass and confession, not being 
able to pass to the mission without going round 
circuitously a distance of three leagues, to avoid the 
bad places, which were so numerous in such weather. 
And in the bad places many were left afoot without 
being able to use their horses; nor could they look 
after their cavallado (meaning their horses turned out 
to graze), nor use them to notify each other in case of 
any trouble or accident. Already in the pueblo, and 
in the adjoining mission, on such occasions, the wild, 
unchristianized Indians have committed depredations. 
Finally, for sowing wheat, corn, and other grains, 
the carrying of the mails, and the passage of pack 
trains, it (the new site recommended), offers great 



advantage, as well as for timber and wood; every- 
thing is nearer and more convenient, and I fully 
approve of the view of the citizens." 

Some of our older citizens now living can remem- 
ber the miserable condition in which these lowlands 
were plunged at the time of high water, and could add 
something to Lieutenant Moraga's list of incon- 
veniences. But since the improvement of the chan- 
nel of the creek, under American occupation, nothing 
of this kind has been known. - It required twelve 
years from the time the first petition was transmitted 
to the Governor before the removal could be accom- 
plished, but it was finally effected in 1797, the center 
of the new site being at about the present northwest 
corner of Market and El Dorado Streets. 

At the death of Father Murguia, as noted above, 
the Mission of Santa Clara was placed under the di- 
rection of Father Diego Noba, and under his super- 
vision continued the successful work of the institution. 
Looking at our beautiful valley at the present time, 
covered with orchards and vineyards and stately 
edifices, it is difficult to imagine what its appearance 
was at that time. The only writing which will ap- 
proach a description is from the report of Captain 
Vancouver, the great navigator, who, having come into 
San Francisco Bay, visited the mission in 1792. It 
contains not only a statement of the appearance of 
the country, but the condition of the mission. He 
says : — 

"We continued our course parallel to the sea-coast, 
between which and our path the ridge of mount- 
ains extended to the southeastward, and, as we 
advanced, their sides and summits exhibited a high 
degree of luxuriant fertility, interspersed with copses 
of various forms and magnitude, and verdant open 
spaces encircled with fruit trees of different descrip- 
tions. About noon we arrived at a very enchanting 
lawn, situated amid a grove of trees at the foot of 
a small hill, by which flowed a very fine stream of 
excellent water. We had not proceeded far from this 
delightful place, when we entered a country I little 
expected to find in these regions. 

"For almost twenty miles it could be compared to a 
park which had originally been planted with the true 
old English oak; the underwood, that had probably 
attained its early growth, had the appearance of 
having been cleared away, and had left the stately 
lords of the forest in complete possession of the soil, 
which was covered with luxuriant herbage, and beauti- 
fully diversified with pleasing eminences and valleys, 
which, with the lofty range of mountains that bounded 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



31 



the prospect, required only to be adorned with neat 
habitations of an industrious people, to [iroduce a 
scene not inferior to the most studied effect of taste in 
the disposal of grounds. * * * * 

"Soon after dark we reached the Santa Clara Mis- 
sion. Our journey,except through the morass.had been 
pleasant and entertaining, and our reception at Santa 
Clara, by the hospitable Fathers of the mission, was 
such that e.xcited in every breast the most lively sen- 
sations of gratitude and regard. Father Tomas de la 
Peua appeared to be the principal of the missionaries. 
The anxious solicitude of this gentleman and of his 
colleague. Father Joseph Sanchez, to anticipate all 
our wishes, unequivocally manifested the principles 
by which their conduct was regulated. The buildings 
and offices of the mission, like those of San Francisco, 
form a square, but not an entire inclosure. 

"It is situated in an extensive, fertile plain, the soil 
of which, as also that of the surrounding country, is a 
rich, black, productive mold, superior to any I had 
before seen in America. The church was long and 
lofty, and as well built as the rude materials of which 
it is composed would allow, and, compared with the 
unimproved state of the country, was infinitely more 
decorated than might have been reasonably expected. 
Apartments, within the square in which priests re- 
sided, were appropriated to a number of young female 
Indians, and the like reasons were given as at San 
Francisco for their b:ing so selected and educated. 
Their occupations were the same, though some of 
their woolen manufactures surpassed those we had 
seen before, and wanted only the operation of fulling, 
with which the Fathers were unacquainted, to make 
them very decent blankets. The upper story of their 
interior oblong square, which might be one hundred 
and seventy feet long and one hundred broad, was 
made use of as granaries, as were some of the lower 
rooms; all of which were well stored with corn and 
pulse of different sorts; and, besides these, in case of 
fire, there were two spacious warehouses for the re- 
ception of grain, detached from each other and the 
rest of the building.s, erected at a convenient distance 
from the mission. These had been recently finished, 
contained some stores, and were to be kept constantly 
full, as a reservoir in the event of such a misfortune. 

"The maize, peas, and beans are sov\n in the spring 
months and succeed extremely well, as do hemp and 
flax, or linseed. The wheat affords, in general, from 
twenty-five to thirty for one, according to the season, 
twenty-five for one being the least return from their 
fields, notwithstanding the enormous waste occasioned 



by their rude method of threshing, which is performed 
in the open air by the treading of cattle. Neither 
barley nor oats were cultivated. As the superior 
grains could be cultivated with the same labor that 
the inferior ones could, they had some time ago de- 
clined the cultivation of them. Here were planted 
peaches, apricots, apples, pears, figs, and- vines, all of 
which, except the latter, promised to succeed well. 
The failure of the vine here, as well as at San Fran- 
cisco, is ascribed to a want of knowledge in their cult- 
ure, the soil and climate being well adapted to some 
sorts of fruits. The priests had a guard of a corporal 
and six soldiers." The great navigator did not dream 
that in less than a hundred years, this fertile valley 
would be sending her fruits to all parts of the globe, 
and that her wines would be in competition with the 
products of the most noted vineyards of the Old World. 

The beginning of the present century saw both the 
religious colony at the mission and the civil colony at 
the pueblo fairly settled. There had been some dis- 
pute as to the line dividing the two jurisdictions, but it 
had been finally determined by locating it midway 
between them, or about the position of the Mt. Diablo 
meridian. The present Alameda was also laid out, 
for the purpose of affording easy communication be- 
tween the pueblo and the mission. It was about one 
hundred feet wide, with a row of trees on each side, 
and one through the center. The trees were of black 
willow and sycamore, but the sycamores have long 
since disappeared. There was, originally, a ditch run- 
ning through the center of the road for the purpose 
of drainage, but when the adjoining fields began to 
be cultivated, the water was diverted from the ditch, 
and it gradually filled up and was obliterated. There 
is a tradition among the older inhabitants that the 
trees were planted on the Alameda for the purpose of 
affording a refuge from the attacks of the cattle that 
were running at large through the country. This, 
however, must have been a mistake, for, at the time 
the Alameda was constructed, there were only one 
hundred and fifteen head of cattle owned in the district. 
Although this was not the object of their planting, 
there are many well-authenticated cases where these 
trees have afforded protection to pedestrians from the 
horns of infuriated steers. 

The history of Santa Clara County is divided into 
three distinct periods : The grazing, or stock-growing 
era; the agricultural, or grain-growing era; and the 
horticultural, or fruit-and-vine-growing era, and the 
lines between them are plainly marked. The mission 
and the pueblo were both pastoral communities, and 



32 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



by them was inaugurated the first era; the second 
came with the American occupation, while the third 
dates its birth from the advent of the transcontinental 
railroads. 

From the founding of the two original colonies up 
to the American occupation, the Santa Clara Valley- 
has no history of importance, and, in fact, no records 
from which history could be written, except the mis- 
sion archives. The population increased as the fer- 
tility of the soil became known, and in a very few 
years the Spaniards had taken possession of all the 
then desirable land without reference to the rights of 
the natives. In fact, the Indians were not considered 
to have any rights, unless they had placed themselves 
under the protection of the mission. The herds 
increased more rapidly than the population, and it was 
but few years until the entire plain was covered with 
cattle, horses, and sheep. The latter were grown 
principally for their wool, from which the people 
manufactured their clothing; the horses were used for 
transportation and in the care of their herds, while 
their chief dependence was their cattle. Money was 
exceedingly scarce, and its substitute was hides and 
tallow. 

Outside of the pueblo all was grazing land, 
and any citizen of good character, who had cattle, 
could have assigned to him a tract of any reasonable 
extent. These grants were called rauclios, and ihe 
grantees, ranclieros. There were no regular lines 
dividing the ranchos, their boundaries being deter- 
mined by certain permanent landmarks. The grants 
usually ran f jr a specified number of leagues, which 
were measured in a very primitive manner. Two 
men on horseback, with a measuring line of rawhide, 
would ride around the boundaries, accompained by a 
judge and witnesses. In addition to the impossi- 
bility of horsemen making accurate measurements, 
the rawhide rope would either stretch or shrink 
according to the state of the atmosphere. But this 
was a matter of little consequence at that time. The 
land was worth nothing to the Government, and if 
the measurements varied a few leagues from the 
amount specified in the grant it made no particular 
difference so long as it did not conflict with previ- 
ous grants. There were generally no improvements 
except some rough buildings and corrals, many of 
the rancheros residing at the pueblo. There were 
no fences, the cattle roaming at will through the 
country, the owners relying on their brands and ear- 
marks for identification. At a specified time each 
year, generally about the middle of March, earlier or 



later according to the peculiarities of the season, all 
of the cattle were brought up, the proper brands and 
marks placed on the calves, and returned to their 
respective ranchos. 

These annual segregations were termed rodeos, and 
were attended by all the rancheros and their vaqueros^ 
or herdsmen, in the district. This was necessary, for 
the reason that cattle would sometimes stray for a 
distance of fifty or sixty miles, and owners of large 
herds would find some of their property on nearly 
every rancho in the country. Notice of a rodeo 
would be given by sending messengers to all the cattle 
owners in the district, and these, with their vaqueros, 
would assemble on the appointed day at the designated 
place. All the cattle on the rancho were gathered in 
one place, where each ranchero would take out those 
bearing his brand, including unbranded calves which 
followed their mothers. What was left belonged to 
the owner of the ranc o. It often happened that 
calves would escape the rodeo and reach maturity 
without branding. These were termed orejana, and 
belonged to no one, or, more properly, they belonged 
to any ranchero, who, finding them on his rancho, 
would take them up and mark them. The party 
would move from rancho to rancho until all the cattle 
in the district had been through the rodeo. The 
rodeo season was one of festivity. On each rancho 
entertainment was furnished for all, and evenings 
devoted to music, dancing, and feasting would follow 
each day's work. 

Some idea of the number of cattle in this district may 
be had from the statement that one ranchero, Joaquin 
Bernal, who occupied the Santa Teresa Rancho, about 
eight miles south of San Jose, branded about five thou- 
sand head of calvjs each year. This cattle business 
developed the settlers into the best horsemen in the 
world. They lived in the saddle, and it was said that 
any one of them would walk two miles for the purpose 
of catching up a horse, in order that he might ride 
half a mile. In fact, it was unsafe for a pedestrian to 
be outside the pueblo. The wandering cattle would 
often attack a man on foot, while they would make 
no demonstration against one who was mounted. 
Some of the feats of these horsemen seem incredible. 
They would, at full gallop, ride down a wild bull, 
seize it by the tail, pass it under his legs, and throw 
him on his back without slacking speed. Placing a 
Mexican dollar between each knee and the saddle, 
they would leap hurdles without displacing the coin. 
They could pick up any article from the ground with 
their horses running at the top of their speed. Their 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



33 



animals were trained so that they hardly needed the 
rein for their control. The young men especially 
took great pride in the education of their horses, and 
it was not an unusual thing to see a party of these 
caballeros with guitars in their hands and mounted on 
their gaily-caparisoned steeds, marching through the 
streets of the pueblo, playing on their instruments^ 
and at the same time controlling their animals so 
that they kept perfect time to the music. Their 
dexterity with the lasso or riata, as it was more fre- 
quently called, was no less astonishing. As an 
offensive weapon it was more effective in their hands 
than knife or pistol. With it they could, without dis- 
mounting, catch, throw down, and tie the wildest and 
fleetest steer on the plains; and there are many 
stories now current of the same exploit having been 
performed on the fierce grizzly of the mountains. 

After the rodeo came the butchering season, or 
matansa, as they called it. This was the annual 
slaughtering of cattle for their hides and tallow, and 
usually occurred in May, or at a time in the spring 
when the season was far enough advanced to predict 
with sufficient certainty as to the amount of feed that 
would be produced ; and on this depended the number 
of cattle slaughtered, as their object was to keep only 
as many as they could furnish pasturage for. The 
matanza, from an esthetic point of view, is not near!)- 
so attractive as the rodeo, but it was fully as neces- 
sary, for this was, practically, the gathering of the 
annual crop. The beeves were killed and skinned and 
the hides dried in the sun; the best of the tallow was 
removed and placed in bags made of hides; the other 
fat was made into soap. The best pieces of meat were 
cut into thin strips or torn into shreds and dried in 
the sun, thus making what the Mexicans called came 
seca, and which was known to the Americans as 
"jerked beef" The hides and tallow were sold either 
to the vessels at San Francisco or to local dealers at 
the pueblo, and these two articles were all that these 
primitive people had to export from this fertile valley, 
the "Garden of the World." What a change has 
half a century wrought ! The average market price 
of the hides was a dollar and a half in cash or two 
dollars in trade, while tallow brought three cents per 
pound in trade. These prices were within the recol- 
lection of the "oldest inhabitant," and they must have 
been much less before the advent of the Americans. 

The old records of Eastern commercial houses show 

that their vessels were sometimes compelled to remain 

a full year on this coast before they could obtain 

sufficient quantity of hides and tallow to pay for the 

5 



goods brought out for barter with the rancheros. 
This, however, was only when the season was unfavor- 
able for stock. The dwellings of these people, although 
lacking in architectural adornment, were solidly built 
and very convenient. The material used was the 
black soil of the lowlands, which was mixed with straw 
and moulded into bricks eighteen inches square and 
three inches thick. These bricks were dried in the 
sun and laid in the walls with a mortar made of the 
same material. The rafters were rough poles denuded 
of bark, while the roof was of rushes, called tides, and 
fastened with rawhide thongs. In later days the tule 
roof, in the more pretentious buildings, gave place to 
the tile, a heavy, cumbrous arrangement, but less 
impervious to water and not so susceptible to fire. 
The bricks were called adobes, and they gave their 
name to the soil from which they were made. 

Their agricultural products were limited, and their 
implements rude. They cared to raise no more than 
was necessary for their own subsistence. Wheat, 
beans, maize, melons, and pumpkins constituted nearly 
their entire crop, although the different fruits were 
cultivated to some extent at the mission. Stewed 
beef and beans, well seasoned with red peppers (cJiili 
Colorado) was their principal dish, while for bread they 
used the tortdla, a flat, wafer-like cake made generally 
of wheat flour, but frequently of corn meal, and was 
baked on flat irons before the fire. This was a rude 
sort of diet, but, with their skill in preparation, it was 
very palatable and wholesome; dyspepsia was an un- 
known disease among them. Their plows were con- 
structed from branches of trees, where a proper crook 
could be found, the portion representing the point and 
share being sometimes shod with a bullock's horn or 
iron. An oak branch served the purpose of a harrow. 
Their beasts of burden were o.xen ; horses, although 
numerous, were hardly ever used for this purpose. 
The yoke was placed across the foreheads and fastened 
with rawhide thongs. Their vehicles had but two 
wheels, and these were sections of a log with holes 
bored through the center for the insertion of the axles, 
which were held in place by hard-wood pins on each 
side. There was no lubricator known that would 
modify the unearthly screeching emitted from these 
rude carts when in motion. A good representation 
of these rude vehicles will be found in the picture of 
the Santa Clara Mission on the following page. 

The crops were cut with a sickle or any other im- 
plement that would serve the purpose. The grain- 
fields were protected from invasion by the wandering 
herds of horses and cattle by means of rows of brush. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



or ditches. Their methods of threshing were still 
more rude. The process is thus described by Judge 
R. F. Peckham, a pioneer of 1846 : — 

" The floor of the corral, into which it was custom- 
ary to drive horses and cattle in order to lasso them, 
from constant use had become hardened. Into this 
inclosure the grain would be piled, and upon it, the 
manatlia, or band of mares, would be turned loose to 
tramp out the seed. The wildest horses, or mayhap 
the colts that had been driven but once, and then 
to be branded, would be turned adrift upon the 
straw, when would ensue a scene of the wildest con- 




SA.NTA. CLARA IVIISSION 



fusion, the excited animals being urged, amidst the 
yelling of vaqueros and the cracking of whips — here, 
there and everywhere, around, across, and length- 
wise — until the whole was trampled and naught waS 
left but the grain and chaff. The most difficult 
part, however, was the separating of these two ar- 
ticles. Owing to the length of the dry season there 
was no urgent haste to effect this; therefore, when 
the wind was high enough, the trampled mass would 
be tossed into the air with large wooden forks cut 
from the adjacent oaks, the wind carrying away the 
lighter chaff and leaving the heavier grain. With a 
favorable breeze several bushels of wheat could thus 
be winnowed in the course of a day; while strange 
as it may appear, it is declared that grain so sifted 
was much cleaner than it is now." 

From the same source, also, we have the following 
description of an old-time Spanish mill:^ 



"The mill in which their grain was ground was 
made of two stones, as nearly round as possible, 
of about thirty inches in diameter, and each being 
dressed on one side to a smooth surface. One was 
set upon a frame some two feet high, with the smooth 
face upwards; the other was placed on this with 
the even face downwards, while through an inch 
hole in its center was the wheat fed by hand. Two 
holes drilled partly through each admitted an iron 
bolt, by means of which a long pole was attached. 
To its end was harnessed a horse, mule, or donkey, 
and the animal being driven round in a circle caused 
the stone to revolve. We 
are informed that these 
mills were capable of grind- 
ing a bushel of wheat in 
about twelve hours \ " 

The people themselves 
were of a light-hearted, 
joyous temperament, best 
described by our word 
"jolly." They never made 
a toil of a pleasure, nor 
permitted labor to inter- 
fere with their amusements. 
With all this they were rev- 
erent in religious matters, 
the women in particular 
being very devout in their 
observance of all the church 
ordinances. The men al- 
ways uncovered in passing 

the church door, which 

was always open. Their principal amusements were 
competitive trials of horsemanship, music, dancing, 
bull-fighting, and gambling. Bull-fighting was abol- 
ished by law in 1854, but no legislative enactment 
could ever restrain the Spaniard's passion for gam- 
bling. They would gamble on horse-races, cock-fights, 
bull and bear-fights, but their principal game was 
monte, and at this they would wager money, horses, 
cattle, and even the clothing from their backs. With- 
in the memory of some of the older pioneers are the 
names of many rich families who were reduced from 
affluence to poverty by this vice. To obtain money 
with which to gratify this passion, lands would be 
pledged or sold, and, in this manner, vast domains 
were lost to the original holders. With all this, they 
were a temperate people, into.xication being almost 
entirely unknown prior to the American occupation. 
Their disputes were few and easily adjusted. The 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



35 



administration of justice was simple and effective, and 
the results j^enerally satisfactory, the more so because 
cases were decided on their merits and not on techni- 
calities. Judge Peckham says of the administration 
of justice under the Mexican regime: — 

" There were neither law books nor lawyers, while 
the laws were mostly to be found in the traditions of 
the people. The head officer in each, village was the 
Alcalde, in whom was vested the judicial function, who 
received, on the enactment of a new law, a manuscript 
copy called a baiido, upon the obtaining of which a 
person was sent round beating a snare drum, which 
was the signal for the assemblage of the peo[ile at the 
Alcalde's office, where the act was read, thus promul- 
gated, and forthwith had the force of law. When a 
citizen had cause of action against another, requiring 
the aid of court, he went to the Alcalde and verbally 
stated his complaint in his own way, and asked that 
the defendant be sent for, who was at once summoned 
by an officer, who simply said that he was wanted by 
the Alcalde. The defendant made his appearance 
without loss of time, where, if in the same village, the 
plaintiff was generally in waiting. The Alcalde com- 
menced by stating the complaint against him, and 
asked him what he had to say about it. This brought 
about an altercation between the parties, and, nine 
times out of ten, the Alcalde could get at the facts in 
this wise, and announce judgment immediately, the 
whole suit not occupying two hours from its begin- 
ning. In more important cases three ' good men ' 
would be called in to act as co-justices, while the tes- 
timony of witnesses had seldom to be resorted to. A 
learned American judge has said that the native Cal- 
ifornians were, in the presence of their courts, gen- 
erally truthful. What they know of false swearing or 
perjury they have learned from their associations 
with the Americans. It was truthfully said by the 
late Edmund Randolph, that the United States Board 
of Commissioners to settle private land claims in Cal- 
ifornia had been the graves of their reputations." 

Until 1803 the only church in the jurisdiction was 
the mission church at Santa Clara. In that year the 
population of the pueblo and surrounding country 
had increased to such an extent that it was considered 
necessary that a place of worship should be erected 
nearer home. 

The petition for the establishment of a chapel within 
the limits of the pueblo set forth not only that the 
mission church was too distant for the poblanos to 
attend regularly, but that the journey was fraught 
with too many dangers. What constituted the haz- 



ard in passing this short distance we are not informed 
by the petitioners, and whether it was the danger of 
being gored by wild cattle or of being drowned by the 
high waters of the Guadalupe, is left to conjecture. 
Whatever criticisms might have been made on the 
petition, they did not amount to serious objections, 
and the building of the new church was agreed to. 
An invitation was sent to Don Jose de la Guerra, 
commandante at San Carlos or Carmel, near Mon- 
tery, to act as sponsor. He replied that, while he felt 
flattered by the invitation, his daily walk was so full 
of errors, or, as he put it, so full of impiety, that he 
did not feel himself fit for the duty; but he appointed 
Don Jose Estudillo, a cadet, to officiate in his place. 
The corner-stone was laid on the twelfth day of July, 
with appropriate ceremonies. The following state- 
ment, written in the Spanish language, was deposited, 
among other things, in the stone, and gives a full ac- 
count of the proceedings: — 

" In the pueblo of San Jose de Guadalupe, the 
twelfth of July, 1803, Sefior Don Carlos IV. being King 
of Spain, Don Jose Joaquin de Arrillaga, Governor ad 
interim and Lieutenant-Colonel of the Royal Army; 
the retired sergeant, Macario de Castro, Commissioner 
of the Pueblo; Ignacio Archuleta, ordinary Alcalde, 
and Bernardo Heridia and Francisco Gonzale.s, regi- 
dores, at six o'clock on the evening of said day was 
made the consecration of the first stone and mortar 
of the church, which was commenced in the said pu- 
eblo, dedicated to the patriarch Senor St. Joseph and 
the virgin Guadalupe; which ceremony was celebrated 
with much solemnity by the Reverend Friar, Jo eph 
Viader, minister of the Santa Clara Mission; Don 
Jose Maria Estudillo, cadet, acting as god-father, by 
proxy, from Alferez de Jose Antonio de la Guerra y 
Noriega, commandante at the presidio at Monterey, 
and who placed under the first stone money of every 
sovereign, and a duplicate of this document, in a bottle 
sealed with wax, for its preservation in the future; and 
for the present we sign it in the said pueblo, the day, 
month, and year aforesaid. 

■f ^ t-Qi-'-'M? "Fr. Jose Viader, 

-^-*-'^'^'^-'' * '^ "Jose Maria Estudillo, 
" As proxy for Alferez de la Guerra y Noriega. 

"Macario de Castro, Commissioner^ 

In the first quarter of the present century two im- 
portant events occurred which had a marked effect 
upon the country. We refer to the throwing off by 
Mexico of the yoke of old Spain and the establish- 
ment of the Mexican republic, and the secularization 
of the missions. The independence of Mexico was 



36 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



acknowledged in 1 821, and the practical destruction 
of the missions followed soon after. As early as 18 13 
it was suggested by the home government that the 
missions, as a distinct institution, had accomplished 
their work and could be turned over to the secular 
clergy, and the services of the Fathers be dispensed 
with. It is thought that this suggestion was animated 
by a desire on the part of the government to absorb 
the " pious fund," a revenue which had been set aside 
for the support of the missions. Whether or not this 
suspicion was true, it had that effect. Some idea of 
the work accomplished by the Fathers up to this 
period may not be uninteresting. Between the years 
1802 and 1822 seven thousand, three hundred and 
twenty-four Indians were baptized at Santa Clara 
Mission, two thousand and iifty-six were married, six 
thousand five hundred and sixty-five had died, and 
one thousand three hundred and ninety-four still lived. 
It is estimated that there were four thousand Indians 
in the surrounding rancherias who had not succumbed 
to the influence of the Fathers, and were what were 
called "wild." 

The proposition to confiscate the pious fund was 
a menace which tended to unsettle affairs at the mis- 
sion. As Father Gieeson says : "It was not to be ex- 
pected that with such a resolution before their eyes 
the Fathers would be as zealous in developing the nat- 
ural resources of the country as before, seeing that 
the result of their labors was, at any time, liable to 
be seized on by the government and handed over to 
strangers." The converts soon perceived this lack of 
zeal and became imbued with the .same spirit. The 
new republic showed as much hostility to the mis- 
sions as the Spanish crown had done, and finally, 
in 1826, the Federal government issued an order to 
the authorities in California directing the liberation 
of the Indians, and a few years later an act was 
passed by the Legislature ordering the whole of the 
missions to be secularized and the religious to with- 
draw. To justify this act, it was stated that the 
missions were never intended to be permanent estab- 
lishments, but were to give way, after a time, to the 
regular ecclesiastical system, when the people would 
be formed into parishes, attended by a secular clergy. 
The decree was passed in 1833 and put in force in 
1834. The lands were handed over to the Indians to 
work or to abandon, and they generally chose the 
latter. 

When the decree went into effect there were 
eighteen hundred Indians at the mission of Santa 
Clara, while the mission owned seventy-four thou- 



sand two hundred and eighty head of cattle, four 
hundred and seven yoke of working oxen, eighty-two 
thousand five hundred and forty sheep, one thou- 
sand eight hundred and ninety horses broken to 
the saddle, four thousand two hundred and thirty- 
five brood mares, seven hundred and twenty-five 
mules, and one thousand hogs. Eight years later 
there were only four hundred Indians at this mis- 
sion, with fifteen hundred head of cattle, two hun- 
dred and fifty horses, and three thousand swine. This 
decrease continued until in a few years the work of 
the missions was only a matter of history. The orig- 
inal cross erected by Father Pefia still stands as a 
monument to the memory of the fathers whose relig- 
ious zeal led them into the wilderness of the new 
world for the purpo.se of teaching to the benighted 
natives the doctrines of Christianity and the arts of 
civilization. Some remnants of the orchards planted 
by them are still in existence, and show how, at the 
very commencement of the history of this country, its 
future destiny was indicated. 

The first enumeration of the inhabitants of the pu- 
eblo was taken in 1831, and showed one hundred and 
sixty-six men, one hundred and forty-five women, one 
hundred and three boys, and one hundred and ten 
girls, making a total of five hundred and twenty-four. 
This would not seem, now, as a very great increase of 
population for a period of forty years, but when we 
consider that this was drawn principally from colo- 
nies which were themselves sparsely peopled, the 
growth of the pueblo of San Jose de Guadalupe will 
be more justly estimated. The colonists had nearly 
the whole Pacific Coast from which to select their lo- 
cations, and the fact that so many chose the Santa 
Clara Valley shows that even then its wonderful fer- 
tility and magnificent climate were duly appreciated. 

While these events were transpiring in this locality, 
other portions of the Pacific Coast were being looked 
over by a different class of people. Adventurous 
navigators had visited the different natural ports, while 
Vancouver had made his survey of the coast along 
the present California line. The Russian fur traders 
had founded Sitka, and extended their operations even 
to California. Ships from the East India Company 
visited here in the latter part of the last century, at 
which time American vessels began to make their ap- 
pearance. The British fur companies came in later, 
and in 181 1 John Jacob Astor, the organizer and leader 
of the Pacific Fur Company, founded the town of 
Astoria near the mouth of the Columbia. This colony, 
however, soon succumbed to the British traders, and 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



37 



many of the colonists came to California. It was 
from the ships that visited this coast that the first 
foreigners came to this valley. Overland travel to 
California did not commence until the forties. The 
first foreigner to locate in this valley was John Gilroy, 
who was a sailor on board a vessel belonging to the 
Hudson Bay Company, that touched at Monterey in 
1 8 14. He was a Scotchman and the causes for his 
abandoning his ship are differently stated. One re 
port is that he had a quarrel with one of his officers 
and deserted, while it is just as positively stated that 
he had a severe attack of the scurvy and was left on 
shore to be cured. However that may have been, it 
is well authenticated that, in that year, he found his 
way into this valley from Monterey, and stopped at 
San Ysidro, which was afterwards named Gilroy from 
him. 

He was hospitably received and finally married 
into the wealthy family of the Ortegas. He was a 
man of considerable force of character, and accumu- 
lated a large property in lands and cattle, but at last 
died poor in 1869. His real name was said to be 
John Cameron, but he was always known here as 
Gilroy. He was accompanied, on his advent into this 
valley, by a comrade whom he called "Deaf Jimmy," 
who tarried but a short time and then went north of 
the bay. 

Prominent in the history of California is the 
name of Robert Livermore, also a native of Scotland, 
who came here in 18 16, but remained only a short 
time, when he went north and settled in the valley 
which now bears his name. In those early days 
every person was called a foreigner who was not a 
Spaniard or a Mexican, and there was a distinction 
made even between these. The Spaniards, or Cas- 
tilians, as they insisted on calling themselves, were 
those whose families came from Spain and whose de- 
scendants had never intermarried with the natives of 
the New World. They were very proud of the purity 
of their blood. The Mexicans were the descendants 
of those who had mixed with the native races of 
Mexico, and into whose language had crept many of 
the old Aztec words and phrases. 

In i8i8 there came here a man whose name is his- 
toric in this community, Don Antonio Sunol. He 
was a native of Barcelona, Spain, but had served in 
the French navy under the First Empire. He was 
an officer of distinction and was present when Napo- 
leon surrendered after Waterloo. He then sought the 
New World andsettled inthis valley, where he achieved 
distinction, wealth, and respect. He died in San Jose 



in 1865, after an experience here of nearly half a 
century. The first citizen of the United States to 
settle in the Santa Clara Valley was Philip Doak. 
He was a block and tackle maker employed on a 
whaling vessel. He left his vessel in 1 822 at Monterey 
and came here, settling near Gilroy. He located him- 
self on the ranch of Mariano Castro, afterwards 
known as the "Las Animas," and finally married one 
of Castro's daughters. Matthew Fellom came here in 
the same year and located near San Ysidro, or Old 
Gilroy, as it is now called. Fellom was a Dane, and 
also belonged to a whaler, which he left at one of the 
northern ports and made his way overland to San 
Jose. The land on which he made his location is 
now owned by W. N. Furlong. He lived until 1873. 

These were the only foreigners that we have any 
record of as living here up to 1830, if we except one 
William Willis, an Englishman, who was known to 
be in the pueblo in 1828, but whose antecedents or 
subsequent history are unknown. It has been esti- 
mated that, at this time, the number of foreigners in 
the whole of California did not exceed one hundred. 
From this time on the arrivals in this valley became 
more frequent. John Burton came here in 1830; he 
was afterwards Alcalde of the pueblo. Harry Bee, 
the oldest living inhabitant of the county, came to 
this valley in 1833, but he had been on the coast for 
six years prior to that time. He had passed most of 
the intervening time at Monterey, where he had come 
in 1827 with a Dr. Douglas, a naturalist. He was 
quite active during the Mexican War, performing valu- 
able services for General Fremont as scout and 
courier. At the same time came William Gulnac, 
James Alexander Forbes, James Weekes, Nicholas 
Dodero, John Price, William Smith, nicknamed "Bill 
the Sawyer," George Ferguson, Thomas Pepper, who 
the Californians called "Pimiento," William Welsh, 
a man called "Blind Tom," Charles Brown, and a per- 
son called "Moche Dan." Thomas Bowen and Will- 
iam Daily came in 1834. Of these, several were 
prominent, either in the early days or in the later 
history of the county. Gulnac was for many years 
mayor domo at the Mission San Jose. He married into 
the Ceseiia family. Forbes was vice-consul for Great 
Britain. Weekes served as Alcalde in 1847. In 1838 
Henry Woods and Lawrence Carmichael arrived. 

These people all came by vessel and chance decided 
their location. They affiliated with the Spanish popu- 
lation, in many instances marrying into their families 
and adopting, to a great extent, their customs and 
methods of living. Overland ti avel commenced about 



38 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



1841. Even before this tim.e settlements had been 
made in Oregon, and that country was much better 
known than California. For this reason, and because 
California was a foreign country, nearly all the over- 
land trains were pointed to Oregon. Some of these 
having reached the Sierras and hearing something of 
California, came here instead. In 1841 Josiah Bel- 
den, Charles M. Weber, and Grove C. Cook came 
overland, as did also Henry Pitts, Peter Springer, 
William Wiggins, and James Rock. In 1843 Major 
S. J.Hensley, Julius Martin, Thomas J. Shadden, and 
Winston Bennett made the trip across the plains. 
The advent of this party was an important incident, 
as with it came three ladies, wives of Martin, Shad- 
den, and Bennett, the first foreign ladies to settle in 
the district. The next year, 1844, came the Murphy 
party. The history of these people is important, from 
the fact that they were the first to cross the mount- 
ains with wagons, and that from their advent to the 
present time they have been an important factor in 
the development of the State. 

STORY OF THE MURPHY PARTY. 
Martin Murphy, Sr., was bom in County Wexford, 
Ireland, November 12, 1785. Here he grew to man's 
estate, an intelligent, industrious, and pious man, but 
dissatisfied with the meager amount of political liberty 
accorded to the Irish citizens of Great Britain, in Ire- 
land. He married, at an early age, a Miss Mary 
Foley, whose family afterwards became prominent in 
America, two of them becoming archbishops and 
others achieving high places in commercial and 
manufacturing pursuits. Several children were born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Murphy in Ireland. As the family 
increased, so did Mr. MurpSy's desire for larger free- 
dom, and in 1820 he emigrated to Canada, taking all 
his children except his oldest son, Martin, and his 
daughter Margaret. He settled in the township of 
Frampton, near Quebec, v/here he purchased a tract 
of land and commenced to create a home. Two years 
afterwards his son Martin and his daughter Margaret 
joined them from Ireland. Martin, Jr., went to work 
at Quebec, where he met and married Miss Mary 
Bulger, July 18, 1831. The next year, the cholera 
having become epidemic at Quebec, young Martin 
purchased a tract of land near his father, and moved 
onto it with his family. Old Mr. Murphy was still 
not satisfied with his political surroundings and looked 
longingly across the border to the great republic, 
beneath the folds of whose starry flag perfect re- 
ligious and political liberty was maintained. Finally, 
in 1840, he removed his family (except his sons Mar- 



tin and James, with their families) across the then 
western wilds to the State of Missouri, and settled in 
Holt County, on what was then called the Platte Pur- 
chase. Martin Murphy, Jr., who, when he left Quebec, 
had settled in Frampton, bought land, hewed timbers, 
and erected a roof-tree for his young family, remained 
in Canada until 1842, when he sold his property, and, 
with his brother James, joined his father in Missouri. 

The Murphys were essentially a family of pioneers; 
not from a nomadic disposition that rendered them 
uneasy unless in motion, but because they were seek- 
ing certain conditions and were determined not to 
rest until they found them. That no obstacle would 
stop them in their search for political liberty was 
demonstrated when they abandoned their native land 
to seek a home in America, and still further proved 
when they left the home built up in Canada, for the 
unknown wilds of Missouri. This second journey 
was full of inconvenience, and at that early day was 
an undertaking formidable enough to cause the 
bravest to hesitate. The course was as follows : Up 
the St. Lawrence River past Montreal and across 
Lake St. Louis to Kingston; thence across Lake 
Ontario and up the Niagara River to Lewiston, near 
the Falls; thence across the country to Buffalo; 
thence across Lake Erie to Cleveland; thence by 
canal south, across the State of Ohio, to the town of 
Portsmouth; on the Ohio River; thence down the 
Ohio to the Mississippi, touching at Cincinnati and 
Louisville; thence up the Mississippi to St. Louis, and 
thence up the Missouri to the Platte Purchase. 

The location of the Murphy settlement was a few 
miles below the present site of the city of St. Joseph, 
but at that time there was nothing but a primitive 
mill used for grinding corn. The place occupied by 
our pioneers was called by them the " Irish Grove," 
in memory of their native land. They had purchased 
several hundred acres, which they cultivated, and 
proceeded to lay the foundations of a home. Here 
was a rich soil, which responded with bounteous 
crops to the efforts of the husbandman, and here also 
was the perfect political liberty in pursuit of which 
the patriarch had traveled thousands of miles, en- 
countering dangers by land and by sea. But there 
were two things lacking — health and educational and 
religious privileges. The virgin soil, covered with 
decayed vegetation, the deposit of centuries, was the 
lurking-place of deadly malaria, and, when turned up 
by the plow, the atmosphere was filled with germs of 
that dread disease, fever and ague, the scourge of the 
West in the days of its early settlement. There were 




^yi€aji^^t^7^ ^.y^LMy 




PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



39 



no schools or churches, teachers or ministers of the gos- 
pel. 

All of our settlers were attacked by the prevalent 
disease, and some of them died. Among these were 
his wife, and Eliza, Mary, and Nellie, daughters of his 
son Martin. Martin Murphy, the head of the family, 
was in anguish of mind at the condition of affairs. He 
was a devout Catholic and had reared his family in that 
faith. He saw his younger children and his grand- 
children growing up in the wilderness with no religious 
instruction, and no holy priest to administer the con- 
solation of the church to the sick or dying. The 
absence of these things was a heavy price to pay for 
the broad domain whose fertile soil would soon 
blossom into a valuable estate. While matters were 
in this condition the settlement was visited by Father 
Hookins, a Catholic missionary, who had penetrated 
the wilderness to administer the sacraments to those 
of his faith who located their homes on the outskirts 
of civilization. He found the Murphys in much dis- 
tress, mourning over loss of loved ones and full of 
anxiety as to the fate of others who were sick. He 
was a man of wide information and had traveled 
much. He had met brothers in the church who had 
described the glorious climate and fertile soil of Cali- 
fornia, a country which owed its settlement to the 
Mission Fathers, and where the cross was planted on 
every hill-side and in every valley, and which was 
under a government of which Catholicism was the 
established religion. All these things Father Hook- 
ins told the bereaved family in the days that he passed 
with them, trying to answer their eager inquiries 
with detailed information. As to the location of this 
wonderful land he could tell them that it was on the 
shore of the Pacific Ocean, and that it lay in a westerly 
direction from fever-stricken Missouri, but as to the 
distance, route, or character of the country or people 
intervening, he had no knowledge that would be use- 
ful to anyone attempting the journey. But in spite 
of this lack of all information as to how to reach this 
Arcadia, when Martin Murphy announced his inten- 
tion to seek it, he found his entire family ready to 
follow him. We cannot sufficiently admire the 
indomitable mind that could make so great a deter- 
mination with so little hesitation. 

Men have made perilous expeditions upon com- 
pulsion or in quest of glory, but this proposition of 
the Murphy family to cross pathless plains and track- 
less deserts, and scale inaccessible mountains, with 
uncertainty as to food supplies and the certainty of 
meeting tribes of Indians, almost sure to be hostile, 



and to do this with half a dozen men and boys, with 
a larger number of helpless women and children, 
meets no parallel in history. The voyage of Colum- 
bus when America was discovered, contained no 
element of danger — only uncertainty. His path was 
defined; he would sail due west, taking sufficient pro- 
visions; if in a certain time he met no land he would 
return by the same easy route. It was a venture that 
required but a small portion of the courage, and 
involved none of the labor, entailed upon the Murphy 
party. Much has been said and written to the glory 
of Fremont, called the Pathfinder, who, two years 
later, crossed the continent. He had with him a 
large body of hardy and experienced frontiersmen, 
versed in all knowledge of woodcraft, and inured to 
exposure and hardships of all kinds. He had Kit 
Carson and his company of scouts, the most skillful 
ever known on the continent. He had abundant 
supplies, with a force sufficient to cope with any hostile 
band he might encounter. He had no women or 
helpless children to impede his movements, and he 
had the trail of the Murphy party to guide him. In 
view of all the circumstances, the journey of these 
Missouri emigrants in its inception and consumma- 
tion transcends everything of the kind of which we 
have any record. 

But little time was allowed to escape after the 
decision was made to seek the new El Dorado, and 
the first of March, 1844, found them with their 
belongings at Nisnabotna, a point on the Missouri 
River, in the northwest corner of Missouri, and about 
fifty miles south from Council Bluffs. Here they 
were joined by a party made up by Dr. Townsend, 
and they also found a large number of others, some 
forty wagons in all, but most of these were going to 
Oregon. Those bound for California were only eleven 
wagons, with the following-named persons composing 
the party: Martin Murphy, Sr.; Martin Murphy, Jr., 
wife and four children, James, Martin, Patrick W., 
Bernard D.; James Murphy and wife and daughter 
Mary; Bernard Murphy, John Murphy, Ellen Murphy, 
Daniel Murphy, James Miller and his wife, inr Mary 
Murphy, and family; Mr. Martin, father of Mrs. 
James Murphy; Dennis Martin, Patrick Martin, Dr. 
Townsend and wife, Allen Montgomery and wife. 
Captain Stevens, Mr. Hitchcock, Mrs. Patterson and 
family. Mat Harbin, Mr. Calvin, John Sullivan and 
sister, Robert Sullivan, Michael Sullivan, John Flom- 
boy, Joseph Foster, Oliver Magnet (a Frenchman), 
Francis Delanct, old Mr. Greenwood, John Green-, 
wood, Britton Greenwood, and M. Schallenbcrger. 



40 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



Notwithstanding the smallness of their numbers, 
they determined to go on, keeping with the Oregon 
party as far as their paths ran together; after that 
they would trust to their own resources to bring them 
safely through to the promised land. They proceeded 
north to Council Bluffs, where they organized the 
entire company for offense and defense. Mr. Stevens 
was chosen captain, and corporals of guard were 
selected from among the younger men. After laying 
by for a few days in order to make repairs and perfect 
their organization, the crossing of the Missouri River 
was commenced. 

From Mr. Moses Schallenberger we have obtained 
many of the particulars of this famous expedition. 
The difficulties that met the party at this, the first 
stage of their journey, would have stopped many 
stout-hearted men. The wagons were safely crossed 
in a rude flat-boat, and it was intended to swim the 
cattle. The river was full and they refused to take 
the water, and when forced in would swim in a circle, 
trying to save themselves by climbing on each other's 
backs. They were finally permitted to return to the 
bank, but some were stuck in the sand, which had 
been tramped by them until it was as tenacious as 
quicksand. When the water receded, a few of the 
mired cattle were dug out with pick and spade, but 
others were fastened so securely and deep that it was 
impossible to rescue them, and they were abandoned. 
It was a question whether they would be able to cross 
their cattle at all. At last an expedient was hit 
upon. Two men got into a canoe with a line, which 
was tied round the horns of one of the gentlest of the 
oxen. The ox was urged into the water until he was 
compelled to swim, after which the men in the canoe 
could easily guide him. Other cattle were then 
forced into the stream, and following the lead of the 
first, they were all safely crossed to the other side. 

They were now in the country of the Otoe Indians, 
a tribe which, though not considered hostile, had a 
very bad reputation for honesty. Of the people of 
the train only a few had crossed over when night 
came, and the young men volunteered to go over and 
stand guard. Those who were on the Otoe side 
were Martin Murphy and his family, and John Sulli- 
van with his two brothers and his sister Mary, who 
afterwards married Mr. Sherbeck, of San Francisco. 
John Murphy and Moses Schallenberger had been 
chosen corporals of the guard. They were mere boys 
in age, not over seventeen years, but were excellent 
marksmen, and had a reckless bravery born of 
frontier life. The wagons were formed into a corral 



by drawing them into a circle and placing the tongue 
of one wagon on the hind wheel of the one in front, 
thus making a very good sort of a fortification. The 
guard was placed outside of the corral and relieved 
every two hours, each relief being in charge of a 
corporal, whose duty it was to go from post to post 
and see that each sentinel was alert. While in places 
where the cattle might be lost or stolen, it was cus- 
tomary to graze them under charge of herdsmen 
until dark and then to bring them to the corral and 
chain them to the wagons. This precaution was 
taken on this first night across the river, on account 
of the bad reputation of the Otoes. 

The time passed quietly until midnight, when the 
young corporals became disgusted with the monotony 
and resolved to play a joke on John Sullivan. The 
proposition was made by John Murphy, and in- 
dorsed by Schallenberger, though not without some 
misgivings as to what the result would be if Martin 
should detect them. But to be assured, they informed 
Mr. Murphy of the plot, who entered heartily into the 
spirit of the scheme. Accordingly, John unfastened 
Sullivan's cattle and drove them some distance into 
the woods, and he then gave the alarm. Sulli- 
van, who t seems had all night been convinced in his 
own mind that the Indians were hovering about the 
camp, jumped up with his gun in his hand, and all 
joined in pursuit of the oxen. After a long chase, in 
which Sullivan was given a due amount of exercise, 
the cattle were again captured and secured to the 
wagon, Sullivan returning to his slumbers. He had 
barely got to sleep when the alarm was again given, 
and he again turned out, with some words not indicat- 
ing much respect for the thieving Otoes. This time 
the boys had driven the cattle further than before, and 
the only way they couldbefoUowed was by theclinking 
of the yoke ring. During the chase, Sullivan climbed 
to the top of a log, and stood listening intently for 
this sound. John Murphy, who was lying concealed 
behind this log, when he saw Sullivan in this position, 
fired into the air with his gun, which was a shotgun 
heavily loaded. Sullivan leaped into the air, and, as 
soon as he could recover himself, ran at full speed to 
the wagons, crying out that he had been shot by an 
Indian. In the meantime the cattle were recovered 
and secured to the wagon, and Sullivan stood guard 
over them until daylight. He frequently afterwards 
referred to the narrow escape he had from the Indians 
in the Otoe country. 

The next morning the captain, in commending the 
courage and skill of the young men in twice recaptur- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



41 



ing the cattle, expressed his surprise that Sullivan's 
oxen should have been taken each time and none of 
the others disturbed. The boys explained this by 
calling attention to the fact that Sullivan's cattle 
were white, and could, on that account, be seen better 
in the dark. Two days aftel" this event the entire 
train had been brought across the Missouri and was 
rolling toward the West. The "Horn," a stream en- 
countered before reaching the Platte River, wascrossed 
by sewing rawhides over one of the wagon boxes and 
thus constructing a rude ferry-boat. The wagons 
were unloaded and taken apart and put across the 
stream in this boat, which occupied much time and 
was tedious work. The horses and cattle were com- 
pelled to swim. This was the last stream where they 
were compelled to swim their stock; all the others 
they were able to ford. No striking incident occurred 
during their journey through the Otoe nation. 

Arriving at the country of the Pawnees, they found a 
village deserted by all but women, children, and infirm 
old men. It seems that a short time previously the 
Sioux had made a raid on them and exterminated 
nearly all their able-bodied men. When the party 
received this intelligence they knew they would not 
be molested while in the Pawnee country. This gave 
them more confidence in grazing their cattle, but the 
vigilance of the guard was not relaxed at night. In 
fact, the Pawnees were not considered hostile ; it was 
the Sioux nation from which they had most to fear, 
they being the most warlike, cruel, and treacherous 
Indians at that time known to the whites. 

Before reaching Laramie, herds of buffaloes were 
encountered. The first were a few old bulls which, 
not being able to defend themselves from the at- 
tacks of the younger animals, had been driven from 
the herd. They were poor and scrawny, but as they 
were the first that the boys had seen they must neces- 
sarily have a hunt. After putting about twenty 
bullets into the body of one old patriarch, they suc- 
ceeded in bringing him to the ground within fifty feet 
of the wagons, in the direction of which he had charged 
when first wounded. The meat was poor and did not 
pay for the ammunition expended in procuring it. 
However, before Fort Laramie was reached, the party 
were able to secure an abundance of meat from 
younger buffaloes, which is generally conceded to be 
superior to that from any other animal. 

The party reached Fort Laramie with little fatigue 

and no loss. Here they found about four thousand 

Sioux encamped round the fort. They had their 

squaws and children with them, and for this reason 

6 



were not considered dangerous, this tribe being loth 
to fight when accompanied by their families. While 
there was no immediate danger to be apprehended, 
there was great probability that, after leaving the fort, 
they would encounter a hunting or war party. These 
bands usually consisted of from one hundred to five 
hundred men, unencumbered by women or children, 
and never were known to waste an opportunity to 
take a scalp. The party remained at Laramie several 
days, having a good camp, with plenty of grass for 
their stock. They traded some of their horses for 
Indian ponies, thinking they were more hardy and 
accustomed to the work on the plains. They also 
bought moccasins to replace their boots and shoes, 
which were pretty well worn out by their long tramp. 
In resuming the march, still greater precautions were 
taken to prevent surprise by the Indians. The wag- 
ons were kept close together, so that they could be 
formed into a corral with no unnecessary delay. As 
the Indians in those days had no fire-arms it was 
thought they could be kept at such a distance that 
their arrows could not reach the pioneers. Fortu- 
nately, the party had no use for these precautions, for 
no Indians were encountered until the Snake nation 
was reached. 

For so large a train, the party was unusually har- 
monious, only one occasion of discord having arisen 
among them. This occurred while passing through 
the Sioux country. The orders were that no fires 
should be lighted after dark. This order was disre- 
garded by an old gentleman named Derby, who 
kept his fire burning after hours. Dr. Townsend, 
who had charge of the watch that night, remonstrated 
with the old man. Derby said that Captain Stevens 
was an old granny, and that he would not put out his 
fire for him or any other man. However, the fire was 
extinguished by Townsend, who returned to his duties. 
A few minutes only had elapsed until the fire was 
burning as brightly as before. Dr. Townsend went 
again to Derby and told him he must put the fire out. 
"No," answered Derby, "I will not, and I don't think 
it will be healthy for anyone else to try it." The 
Doctor, seeing that argument was useless, walked up 
to the fire and scattered it broadcast, saying to Derby 
at the same time, "It will not be well for you to light 
that fire again to-night." The Doctor was known to 
be very determined, although a man of few words, 
and Derby's fire was not again lighted. But the next 
morning he complained to the captain, who it seems 
had been a witness to the transaction of the night be- 
fore. Captain Stevens sustained Dr. Townsend, and 



42 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



Derby, with an oath, declared that he would not travel 
with such a crowd, and he actually did camp about 
half a mile behind the train for a week afterwards; 
but he lighted no fires after dark. One day when the 
party had stopped for noon, some of the boys, return- 
ing from a buffalo hunt, reported that they had seen 
a band of Sioux. That night Derby camped with 
the train and remained with them afterwards, cheer- 
fully submitting to all the rules. 

John Murphy had been quite ill for some time, but 
was now recovered sufficiently to get around. He 
was anxious to go on a buffalo hunt and persuaded 
Schalienberger to accompany him. The boys were 
quite proud of their skill as hunters, and promised the 
camp a good supply of fresh meat on their return. 
They started early in the morning, well mounted and 
equipped for their expedition. They saw several 
bands of buffaloes, and followed them nearly all day, 
but in spite of all their strategy they were unable to 
get near enough to shoot with any certainty. Each 
herd had bulls stationed as sentinels on the higher 
grounds, who would give the alarm before our hunters 
could get within reach. Finally, the declining sun 
warned them that they must return. Reluctantly 
they turned their horses' heads toward camp, revolv- 
ing in their minds the big promises they had made 
before setting out in the morning, and the small chance 
there was of their fulfillment. They had seen plenty 
of antelope, but to carry antelope into camp, when 
they had promised buffalo, would be considered a sort 
of disgrace. 

On the return, however, the herds of antelope be- 
came more numerous, and some came so near to the 
hunters that Murphy declared he was afraid they 
would bite him, and, drawing up his rifle, killed one 
in its tracks. Schalienberger suggested that since the 
antelope was dead they had better save the meat. 
They dismounted and commenced the process of 
butchering. While thus engaged their horses strayed 
towards camp. They had only got about a hundred 
yards when Schalienberger, fearing they might go be- 
yond recall, proposed to bring them back. Taking 
from his waist a handsome belt containing a fine 
brace of pistols, which Mr. Montgomery had made for 
him, together with shot pouch and powder horn, he 
started in pursuit of the horses. He overtook them 
without trouble, and, noticing that a blanket that had 
been on Murphy's horse was gone, he looked for it on 
his way back to the antelope. Not finding it, he 
called to Murphy, who joined in the search. They 
soon found the blanket and started to return to their 



game and guns. Much to their surprise they could 
find neither. They hunted until dark without success, 
and then turned their unwilling course towards camp. 
They fully realized the ridiculousness of their position. 
Starting from camp with much boasting of the large 
amount of buffalo they were going to bring in, and re- 
turning, not only with no meat, but without arms or 
ammunition — the affair was altogether too humiliat- 
ing. As they went along they concocted one story 
after another to account for their unfortunate con- 
dition, but each was rejected. The plan that seemed 
most likely was to say that they had been captured 
by Indians and robbed of their arms; but this story, 
after careful consideration, was voted to be too trans- 
parent, and they finally resolved to face the music and 
tell the truth. Their reception at camp can better be 
imagined than described. 

The next day, with a party of six men, they went 
to a spot they had marked as not being more than 
three hundred yards from where they had left their 
guns, and, although they continued the search for 
several hours, could find nothing. There were thou- 
sands of acres covered with grass about four feet high, 
and all presenting exactly the same appearance; it 
would have been impossible to find their property ex- 
cept by accident. 

Thus far on their journey the emigrants had been 
taking things very easy, and had not made the 
progress they intended, but they had no fears 
that they would not get through. Some of tl-.e 
party were getting short of provisions, but this gave 
them little trouble, as they were still in the buffalo 
country. They determined to stop before they got 
entirely out of the buffalo grounds and kill and dry 
enough meat to last them through; if their flour be- 
came exhausted, they could use their dried meat for 
bread with bacon for meat, and thus get along very 
well. Their route continued up the Platte and Sweet- 
water, the ascent being so gradual that it was hardly 
perceptible. They lived almost entirely on fresh 
meat, from three to five men being detailed as hunters 
each day. After going some distance up the Sweet- 
water, it was resolved to go into camp and remain 
long enough to accumulate sufficient meat for the 
remainder of the journey. 

As the American bison, or buffalo, is now practi- 
cally extinct, and their existence will soon be beyond 
the memory of even the oldest inhabitant, a descrip- 
tion of this hunt may not be out of place in these 
pages. John Murphy, Allen Montgomery, Joseph 
Foster, and Moses Schalienberger started out at day- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



43 



light, intending to hunt together, but they soon became 
separated, Murphy and Foster following one herd of 
cows and Montgomery and Schallenberger another. 

We will follow the latter party, gathering our facts 
from Mr. Schallenberger's narration. They kept after 
the herd all day without being able to get within 
rifle range, owing to the fact that a picket guard of 
bulls was always kept on the highest points, who gave 
the alarm on the approach of the hunters. Finally 
they reached a large mound of rocks, under shelter of 
which they thought they might reach a ravine which 
would furnish cover within range of the game. They 
reached the top of the mound, and, looking over, dis- 
covered an old bull on the other side, fast asleep. To 
keep out of sight of the herd they would be compelled 
to pass in front of his nose. They crawled along 
cautiously, near enough to touch him with their guns, 
and they began to hope for success in their under- 
taking; but as soon as they came in front of his nose, 
he seemed to wind them, and, starting up with a snort, 
he rushed off toward the cows at full speed. Aggra- 
vated by their failure, Montgomery sent a bullet after 
the bull, which tumbled him on the plain. The report 
of the rifle startled the herd and caused them to move 
on. 

The hunters followed them until nearly dark, when 
they stopped at a small tributary of the Sweetwater 
to drink. Here the men, by crawling on their stom- 
achs and taking advantage of a few grcasewood 
bushes that were growing here and there over the 
plain, succeeded in approaching within about two hun- 
dred yards of the game. It was now nearly night- 
fall, and although the distance was too great for ac- 
curate shooting, it was their last chance, and they re- 
solved to make the venture. Selecting a good-look- 
ing cow, they both aimed at her heart. At the word 
"fire" both rifles were discharged simultaneously. 
The bullets struck the quarry just above the kidneys, 
and her hind parts dropped to the ground. The hunt- 
ers concealed themselves behind the brush and re- 
loaded their rifles. In the meantime the entire herd 
gathered round the wounded cow, sniffing the blood 
and pawing and bellowing. 

While thus engaged, Montgomery and Schallen- 
berger emerged from their concealment, and, advanc- 
ing to about seventy-five yards, shot down seven of 
the best of them; but as they advanced nearer, the 
herd took fright and galloped off, all but one bull, 
which remained near the broken-backed cow, and 
showed fight. Two bullets were fired into him, and 
he walked off about forty yards and laid down and 



died. On examining the cow first shot, they found 
the two bullet-holes not two inches apart, but neither 
one was within three feet of the point aimed at. 

It was now quite dark, and they could not return to 
camp. Accordingly, they made their bed between 
the carcasses of the two cows, and, butchering the 
others, carried the meat to this place to protect it from 
the wolves These animals gathered in large numbers 
and made night hideous until, towards morning, they 
were driven off by a huge bear, who had come for his 
breakfast. As soon as it became light enough to 
shoot, Montgomery and Schallenberger attempted 
to kill the bear, but he went away so rapidly that 
they could not follow him. After returning from pur- 
suit of the bear, they finished butchering their game, 
which process consisted of cutting out the choice 
pieces and leaving the rest to the wolves. Packing 
the meat on their horses, they started for camp about 
three o'clock in the afternoon. They traveled until 
after dark, but could find no camp. The moon was 
in the third quarter, but the night was cloudy, and 
they became bewildered. They traveled all night, 
walking and leading their horses. At daybreak they 
crossed the trail of the wagons about a quarter of a 
mile from camp. They arrived at the wagons just as 
the guard was taken off They were nearly worn out 
with fatigue, but Schallenberger says he felt a great 
deal more cheerful than when he and Murphy came 
into camp with neither meat nor arms. The other 
hunting parties had been equally successfully, and a 
week was spent in this camp killing and curing meat, 
after which they resumed their journey up the Sweet- 
water. In this camp was born to Mr. and Mrs. 
James Miller a daughter, who was named Ellen In- 
dependence, from Independence Rock, which was 
near the place. 

They continued sending out hunting parties until 
they reached the summit of the Rocky Mount- 
ains, when the buffalo disappeared. There was still 
plenty of deer and antelope, which rendered it un- 
necessary to draw on their supply of dried meat. On 
reaching the summit they saw that the water ran to- 
wards California, and their hearts were rejoiced as 
though already in sight of the promised land. They 
had no idea of how much farther they had to go. 
They had already come hundreds of miles and natu- 
rally supposed that their journey was nearing its end. 
Neither did they realize that they were still to en- 
counter obstacles almost insurmountable and undergo 
hardships compared to which their journey thus far 
had been a pleasure excursion, 



44 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



The emigrants now moved towards Green River, 
by way of Little and Big Sandy. They camped on 
Big Sandy twenty-four hours, and there old man 
Hitchcock was appointed pilot for one day, he saying 
that, from information he had, he could take them to 
Green River by a cut-off that would save a hundred 
miles' travel. By this route he thought the distance 
from Big Sandy to Green River was about twenty- 
five miles. Not knowing the character of the country, 
and thinking the distance was short, the emigrants did 
not prepare a supply of water to take with them, as they 
might have done and saved themselves much suffering. 

Starting at daylight they traveled until dark, 
most of the distance being across a rough, broken 
country, but found no Green River or water of 
any kind. At last they were compelled to halt in 
the midst of a desolate country, tired and nearly 
famished for water. The poor cattle suffered terribly, 
and notwithstanding their precautions in herding 
them, about forty head of cows and young cattle 
broke away in the night. The next morning they 
pushed forward as soon as it was light enough to see, 
and at eleven o'clock reached Green River. 

This was their first real hardship on the march, and, 
coming unexpectedly, it found them unprepared, and 
their sufferings were much greater than they otherwise 
would have been. The next morning after their 
arrival at Green River, they detailed six men to hunt 
for the cattle that had broken loose on the march 
from Big Sandy. This detail consisted of Daniel 
Murphy, William Higgins, Mr. Bean, Perry Derby, 
Mat Harbin and Moses Schallenberger. After start- 
ing on the hunt, a difference of opinion arose as to 
the route the cattle had taken. Murphy, Schallen- 
berger, and Bean thought they had taken the back 
track to the Big Sandy; the others thought they had 
made for the nearest water, which was at Green River, 
some twelve miles below the point reached by the 
emigrants. 

Not being able to agree, they divided the party, 
Murphy, Bean, and Schallenberger going back to the 
Sandy. About half way across, while this party 
were riding along in Indian file, Murphy, who 
was in advance, suddenly ducked his head, threw 
his body over to the side of his horse, and, wheeling 
round, signaled to the others to do the same. They 
obeyed, and, putting their horses to full speed, followed 
Murphy to a small canon, which they ascended for a 
quarter of a mile. During this time not a word 
had been spoken, but now, coming to a halt, they 
inquired what was the matter. Murphy laconically 



replied, " Indians." The party dismounted and tied 
their horses, and, getting down on their stomachs, 
crawled to a point where they could overlook the 
plain. Here they discovered a war party of about a 
hundred Sioux, who were so near that their conversa- 
tion could be distinctly heard. They passed within 
twenty yards of the spot where our emigrants were 
concealed, without discovering them, and the little 
party drew a long breath of relief when the last feath- 
ered top-knot disappeared down the horizon. It was 
a close call, for had their presence been known, the 
little band of whites would never have seen the golden 
plains of California. 

Again mounting their horses, they proceeded to 
the Big Sandy, where they found all the missing 
cattle. Gathering them up, they passed the night 
in their old camp, and the next morning set out on 
their return to Green River. They had proceeded 
only half a mile when they discovered two Indians 
on horseback on the top of a hill about a mile dis- 
tant. In a couple of minutes, two more made their 
appearance in another direction, and within ten 
minutes they were surrounded by a couple of hundred 
Indians, all whooping and charging in a manner to 
strike terror to the bravest heart. There seemed no 
escape, but the little party resolved to sell their lives 
as dearly as possible. In the short time they had for 
consultation, it was determined that when they ap- 
proached within range each man should select his 
Indian, shoot him, and then charge, trusting to Provi- 
dence to get through to camp. They said good-by 
to each other and waited the onset. 

About twenty of the Indians were in advance of their 
party, and when these had approached to a distance of 
two hundred yards, the emigrants signed to them to 
stop. This they did, and sent three men without 
arms to parley. These came on until they were only 
fifty yards distant, when they halted and held out 
their hands as a sign of friendship. Schallenberger 
says that at this sign their hair, which up to this time 
had been standing as erect as the quills on the back 
of a porcupine, began to resume its proper position 
and their blood, which had been jumping through 
their veins like a race-horse, reduced its pace to a 
moderate gait. The Indians proved to be a party of 
friendly Snakes, who were in pursuit of the band of 
Sioux from which our party had had such a narrow 
escape the day before. They were very friendly, and 
some of them accompanied our friends to assist 
them in driving their cattle quite a distance on their 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



45 



way back to Green River, which they reached about 
nine o'clock at night. 

The route of the emigrants now lay across a 
broken country to Bear River, where they found old 
" Peg-leg " Smith, as he was called. He was one of 
the earliest trappers of the Rocky Mountains, and was 
living alone in the hills. He had a band of fat ponies, 
which he exchanged for some of the poor and tired 
horses of the train. Proceeding down Bear River, 
they arrived without adventure at Fort Hall, which 
was the point at which the Oregon party was to 
separate from those going to California. Here they 
were compelled to purchase flour, for which they paid 
a dollar a pound. The Murphy-Townsend party had 
started with a supply of provisions sufficient for 
eight mouths, but others were not so well provided. 
In fact, several had run out of flour and bacon some 
time previously, and the others had divided with 
them. As for meat, the party thought they had 
plenty; if their dried meat and bacon became ex- 
hausted, they could kill the young cattle they had 
brought along for that purpose. The parting with the 
Oregon party was a sad one. During the long journey 
across the plains, many strong friendships had been 
formed, and the separation was deeply regretted by 
all. Our emigrant train now consisted of eleven 
wagons and twenty-six persons, all as determined to 
push on to California as on the day they left Council 
Bluffs. The country they had traversed was more or 
less known to trappers and hunters, and there had 
not been much danger of losing their way; neither 
were the obstacles very formidable. But the re- 
mainder of the route lay for most of the distance 
through an unknown country, through which they 
must find their way without map, chart, or guide, 
and, with diminished numbers, overcome obstacles 
the magnitude of which none of them had any con- 
ception. 

After remaining at Fort Hall for several days, the 
party resumed its march, crossing the country to 
Beaver Creek, or Raft River, which they followed for 
two days; thence westward over a broken country to 
Goose Creek; thence to the head-waters of Mary's 
River, or the Humboldt, as it has since been named. 
Here they encountered the Digger Indians. The 
language of this tribe was unknown to old man 
Greenwood, who had hitherto acted as pilot and 
interperter, but by use of signs and some few words 
of the Snake language, he managed to converse with 
them in a limited way. The journey down the 
Humboldt was very monotonous. Each day's events 



were substantially a repetition of those of the day 
before. 

There was plenty of good grass, and the party 
was not inconvenienced by the alkali water, which 
caused so much trouble to trains that afterwards 
came over this route. The Indians seemed to be 
the most indolent and degraded of any that the 
party had yet encountered. They were totally with- 
out energy. They seemed very friendly and every 
night hundreds of them visited the camp. This they 
continued to do during the entire journey down the 
Humboldt, a distance of five hundred miles. Al- 
though they showed no signs of hostility, the emi- 
grants did not relax their vigilance, and guard duty was 
strictly performed. At the sink of the Humboldt, 
the alkali became troublesome, and it was with diffi- 
culty that pure water was procured either for the peo- 
ple or the cattle. However, no stock was lost, except- 
ing one pony belonging to Martin Murphy, Sr., which 
was stolen. The party stopped at the sink for a week 
in order to rest the cattle and lay out their future 
course. 

Mr. Schallenberger states that their oxen were 
in tolerably good condition; their feet were as sound 
and much harder, and except that they needed a 
little rest, they were really better prepared for work 
than when they left Missouri. The party seemed to 
have plenty of provisions, and the only doubtful 
question was the route they should pursue. A desert 
lay before them, and it was necessary that they should 
make no mistake in the choice of a route. Old Mr. 
Greenwood's contract as pilot had expired when they 
reached the Rocky Mountains. Beyond that he did 
not pretend to know anything. Many anxious con- 
sultations were held, some contending that they should 
follow a southerly course, and others held that they 
should go due west. Finally, an old Indian was found, 
called Truckee, with whom old man Green talked by 
means of signs and diagrams drawn on the ground. 
From him it was learned that fifty or sixty miles to the 
west there was a river that flowed easterly from the 
mountains, and that along this stream there were 
large trees and good grass. Acting on this informa- 
tion. Dr. Townsend, Captain Stevens, and Joseph 
Foster, taking Truckee as a guide, started out to ex- 
plore this route, and after three days returned, report- 
ing that they had found the river just as the Indian 
had described it. Although there was still a doubt in 
the minds of some as to whether this was the proper 
route to take, none held back when the time came to 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



start. In fact, there was no time for further dis- 
cussion. 

It was now the first of October, and they could see 
that if a heavy fall of snow should overtake them 
while yet in the mountains, it would be almost im- 
possible for them to get through. Thus far there had 
been no trouble with the Indians. All that they had 
met had been treated kindly, and the natives had 
rather assisted than impeded them in their journey. 
It had, however, required constant watching on the 
part of the older men to prevent the hot blood of the 
younger ones from boiling over now and then. This 
was particularly the case with John Greenwood, who, 
being a half-breed, had a mortal hatred for the Indians. 
On several occasions, when an ox would stray away, 
he would accuse the natives of having stolen it, and it 
would require the utmost exercise of authority to pre- 
vent him from precipitating hostilities. It seemed as 
if he was more anxious to kill an Indian than to reach 
California. 

On the morning that the start was made from the 
sink of the Humboldt, a general engagement be- 
came very imminent. Schallenberger, whose con- 
duct on the march had been conspicuous for cool- 
ness and discretion, missed a halter from his horse, 
and on searching for it saw one end projecting from 
under the short feather blanket worn by an Indian 
who was standing near. Schallenberger demanded 
the halter, but the Indian paid no attention ; he then 
attempted to explain to him what he wanted, but the 
Indian pretended that he did not understand. He 
then took hold of the halter to remove it, when the 
Indian stepped back and drew his bow. Schallen- 
berger ran to the wagon, took his rifle, and drew a 
bead on the redskin, and was about to pull the trigger 
when Martin Murphy rushed in and threw up the 
muzzle of the gun. The whole camp was in con- 
fusion in a moment, but the matter was explained, 
and the Indians loaded with presents until they were 
pacified. If the Indian had been killed, there is no 
doubt that the entire party would have been mas- 
sacred. It did not need the reprimand that Schallen- 
berger received from his brother-in-law, Dr. Townsend, 
to convince him of his folly, and no one regretted his 
rashness more than he himself did. 

The party left the sink of the Humboldt, having 
cooked two days' rations and filled all the available 
vessels with water. After traveling with scarcely a 
halt until twelve o'clock the next night, they reached 
a boiling spring at what is now Hot Spring Station, 
on the Central Pacific Railroad. Here they halted 



two hours to permit the oxen to rest. Some of the 
party dipped water from the spring into tubs, and 
allowed it to cool for the use of the cattle. It was a 
sad experiment, for those oxen that drank it be- 
came very sick. Resuming the march, they traveled 
steadily until two o'clock the next day, when they 
reached the river, which they named the Truckee, in 
honor of the old Indian chief, who had piloted them 
to it. 

The cattle, not having eaten or drank for forty- 
eight hours, were almost famished. This march was 
of eighty miles across an alkali desert, knee deep in 
alkali dust. The people, having water in their wag- 
ons, did not suffer so much, but there were occasions 
when it was extremely doubtful if they would be able 
to reach water with their cattle. So crazed were they 
with thirst that if the precaution had not been taken 
to unhitch them while yet some distance from the 
stream, they would have rushed headlong into the 
water and wrecked the wagons and destroyed their 
contents. There being fine grass and good water 
here, the party camped two days, until the cattle were 
thoroughly rested and refreshed. 

Then commenced the ever-to-be-remembered jour- 
ney up the Truckee to the summit of the Sierras. At 
first it was not di.scouraging. There was plenty of wood, 
water, grass, and game, and the weather was pleasant. 
The oxen were well rested, and for a few days good 
progress was made. Then the hills began to grow 
nearer together, and the country was so rough and 
broken that they frequently had to travel in the bed of 
the stream. The river was so crooked that one day 
they crossed it ten times in traveling a mile. This al- 
most constant traveling in the water softened the hoofs 
of the oxen, while the rough stones in the bed of the river 
wore them down, until the cattle's feet were so sore 
that it became a torture for them to travel. The whole 
party were greatly fatigued by the incessant labor. But 
they dared not rest. It was near the middle of Octo- 
ber, and a few light snows had already fallen, warning 
them of the imminent danger of being buried in the 
snow in the mountains. They pushed on, the route 
each day becoming more and more difficult. Each 
day the hills seemed to come nearer together and the 
stream to become more crooked. 

They were now compelled to travel altogether in 
the bed of the river, there not being room between its 
margin and the hills to furnish foothold to an o.x. 
The feet of the cattle became so sore that the drivers 
were compelled to walk beside them in the water, or 
they could not be urged to take a step; and, in many 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



47 



instances, the teams had to be trebled in order to drag 
the wagons at all. On top of all these disheartening 
conditions came a fall of snow a foot deep, burying 
the grass from the reach of the cattle, and threatening 
them with starvation. The poor, foot-sore oxen, after 
toiling all day, would stand and bawl for food all night, 
in so piteous a manner that the emigrants would for- 
get their own misery in their pity for their cattle. But 
there was nothing to offer them except a few pine 
leaves, which were of no effect in appeasing their 
hunger. Still the party toiled on, hoping soon to pass 
the summit and reach the plains beyond, and that 
beautiful land so eloquently described to them by 
Father Hookins. In face of all these obstacles, there 
was no thought of turning back. One day they came 
to some rushes that were too tall to be entirely cov- 
ered by the snow; the cattle ate these so greedily that 
two of James Murphy's oxen died. However, by con- 
stant care in regulating the amount of this food, no 
evil effects were experienced, although it was not very 
nourishing. These rushes were scattered at irregular 
intervals along the river, and scouts were sent out 
each day to find them and locate a camp for the night. 
Some days the rushes would be found in a very short 
drive, and sometimes they would not be found at all. 

In this manner they dragged their slow course along 
until they reached a point where the river forked, the 
main stream bearing southwest and the tributary 
almost due west. Then arose the question as to which 
route should be taken. There being an open space 
and pretty good feed at the forks of the river, it was 
decided to go into camp and hold a consultation. 
This camp was made on what is now the site of the 
city of Truckee, and the route pursued by these emi- 
grants is practically that now followed by the Cen- 
tral Pacific Railroad. After considering the matter 
fully, it was decided that a few of the party should 
leave the wagons and follow the main stream, while 
the others should go by way of the tributary, as that 
seemed to be the more promising route for the vehi- 
cles. 

Those who left the party were Mrs. Townsend, Miss 
Ellen Murphy, John Murphj', Daniel Murphy, Oliver 
Magnan, and Mrs. Townsend's servant, Francis. They 
each had a horse to ride, and they took with them two 
pack-horses and some provisions. The ladies had 
each a change of clothing and some blankets, and 
each man had a rifle and ammunition. There was 
still some game to be found, and as the Murphys were 
good hunters there was no thought of their starving. 
In our account of this journey we have followed the 



narrative of Mr. Schallenberger, who has kindly fur- 
nished us with the facts. In regard to this separation, 
John Murphy says that there was no consultation or 
agreement; that the persons spoken of were traveling 
in advance of the rest of the party, and, coming to the 
forks of the river, naturally took the main stream, ex- 
pecting the others to follow, which they did not do. 
However this may be, the fact remains that the par- 
ties here separated and went the different routes as 
above stated. 

The party with the wagons proceeded up the tribu- 
tary, or Little Truckee, a distance of two miles and a 
half, when they came to the lake since known as 
Donner Lake. They now had but one mountain be- 
tween them and California, but this seemed an im- 
passable barrier. Several days were spent in attempts 
to find a pass, and finalh' the route, over which the 
present railroad is, was selected. The oxen were so 
worn out that some of the party abandoned the attempt 
to get their wagons any further. Others determined to 
make another effort. Those who determined to bring 
their wagons were Martin Murphy, Jr., James Murphy, 
James Miller, Mr. Hitchcock, and old Mr. Martin, 
Mrs. James Murphy's father. The others left their 
wagons. 

The snow on the mountains was now about two 
feet deep. Keeping their course on the north side 
of the lake until they reached its head, they started 
up the mountain. All the wagons were unloaded 
and the contents carried up the hill. Then the teams 
were doubled and the empty wagons were hauled up. 
When about half way up the mountain they came to 
a vertical rock about ten feet high. It seemed now 
that everything would have to be abandoned except 
what the men could carry on their backs. After a 
tedious search they found a rift in the rock, just about 
wide enough to allow one ox to pass at a time. 
Removing the yokes from the cattle, they managed to 
get them one by one through this chasm to the top of 
the rock. There the yokes were replaced, chains 
were fastened to the tongues of the wagons, and 
carried to the top of the rock, where the cattle were 
hitched to them. Then the men lifted at the wagons, 
while the cattle pulled at the chains, and by this in- 
genious device the vehicles were all, one by one, got 
across the barrier. 

After reaching the summit a drive of twenty miles 
westerly brought them to the head-waters of the Vuba 
River, where the able-bodied men started for Sutter's 
Fort, then known as New Helvetia, and now as the city 
of Sacramento. They walked and drove the cattle. 



48 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



expecting to return immediately with supplies for the 
train. The others remained in camp. Thus were 
the first wagons that ever made tracks in California 
soil, brought across the mountains. 

Those who remained with the wagons on the 
Yuba were Mrs. Martin Murphy, with her four boys, 
Martin, James, Patrick W., and Bernard D.; Mrs. 
James Murphy, with her daughter Mary; Mr. James 
Miller, wife, and three children; Mrs. Patterson, with 
her children, and old Mr. Martin, Mrs. James Murphy's 
father. Leaving them here for the present, we will 
return to the wagons, which had been abandoned 
when the party divided at the forks of the Truckee. 

Dr. Townsend and Mr. Schallenberger had brought 
with them an invoice of valuable goods, which they 
had intended to sell in California. When the wagons 
were abandoned, Schallenberger volunteered to re- 
main with them and protect the goods until the rest 
of the party could reach California and return with 
other and fresher animals with which to move them. 
Mr. Schallenberger thus describes his experience: — 

" There seemed little danger to me in undertaking 
this. Game seemed to be abundant. We had seen a 
number of deer, and one of our party had killed a 
bear, so I had no fears of starvation. The Indians in 
that vicinity were poorly clad, and I therefore felt no 
anxiety in regard to them, as they probably would 
stay further south as long as cold weather lasted. 
Knowing that we were not far from California, and 
being unacquainted, except in a general way, with 
the climate, I did not suppose that the snow would at 
any time be more than two feet deep, nor that it 
would be on the ground continually. 

"After I had decided to stay, Mr. Joseph Foster 
and Mr. Allen Montgomery said they would stay 
with me, and so it was settled, and the rest of the 
party started across the mountains. They left us two 
cows, so worn out and poor that they could go no 
further. We did not care for them to leave us any 
cattle for food, for, as I said, there seemed to be plenty 
of game, and we were all good hunters, well furnished 
with ammunition, so we had no apprehension that we 
would not have plenty to eat, that is, plenty of meat. 
Bread we had not tasted for many weeks, and had no 
desire for it. We had used up all our supply of 
buffalo meat, and had been living on fresh beef and 
bacon, which seemed to satisfy us completely. 

"The morning after the separation of our party, 
which we felt was only for a short time, Foster, Mont- 
gomery and myself set about making a cabin, for we 
determined to make ourselves as comfortable as possi- 



ble, even if it was for a short time. We cut saplings 
and yoked up our poor cows and hauled them together. 
These we formed into a rude house, and covered it 
with rawhides and pine brush. The size was about 
twelve by fourteen feet. We made a chimney of 
logs eight or ten feet high, on the outside, and used 
some large stones for the jambs and back. We had 
no windows; neither was the house chinked or daubed, 
as is usual in log-houses, but we notched the logs 
down so close that they nearly or quite touched. A 
hole was cut for a door, which was never closed. We 
left it open in the day-time to give us light, and as we 
had plenty of good beds and bedding that had been 
left with the wagons, and were not afraid of burglars, 
we left it open at night also. This cabin is thus par- 
ticularly described because it became historic, as be- 
ing the residence of a portion of the ill-fated Donner 
party in 1846. 

" On the evening of the day we finished our little 
house it began to snow, and that night it fell to a 
depth of three feet. This prevented a hunt which we 
had in contemplation for the next day. It did not 
worry us much, however, for the weather was not at 
all cold, and we thought the snow would soon melt. 
But we were doomed to disappointment. A week 
passed, and instead of any snow going off more 
came. At last we were compelled to kill our cows, 
for the snow was so deep that they could not get 
around to eat. They were nothing but skin and 
bones, but we killed the poor things to keep them 
from starving to death. We hung them up on the 
north side of the house and covered them with pine 
brush. That night the meat froze, and as the weather 
was just cold enough to keep it frozen, it remained 
fresh without salt. It kept on snowing continually, 
and our little cabin was almost covered. It was now 
about the last of November or first of December, 
and we began to fear that we should all perish in the 
snow. 

"The snow was so light and frosty that it would 
not bear us up, therefore we were not able to go out at 
all except to cut wood for the fire; and if that had 
not been near at hand I do not know what we should 
have done. None of us had ever seen snow-shoes, 
and of course had no idea how to make them, but 
finally Foster and Montgomery managed to make 
something they called a snow-shoe. I was only a 
boy and had no more idea of what a snow-shoe looked 
like than a Louisiana darkey. Their method of con- 
struction was this: Taking some of our wagon bows, 
I which were of hickory and about half an inch thick, 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



49 



they bent them into an oblong shape forming a sort 
of hoop. This they filled with a network of rawhide. 
We were now able to walk on the snow to bring in 
our wood, and that was about all there was to do. 
There was no game. We went out several times but 
never saw anything. What could we expect to find 
in ten feet of snow ? It would sometimes thaw a 
little during the day and freeze at night, which made 
a crust on the snow sufficiently thick to bear the 
weight of a coyote, or a fox, and we used sometimes 
to see the tracks of these animals, but we were never 
fortunate enough to get a sight of the animals them- 
selves. 

"We now began to feel very blue, for there seemed 
no possible hope for us. We had already eaten about 
half our meat, and with the snow on the ground get- 
ting deeper and deeper each day, there was no chance 
for game. Death, the fearful, agonizing death by 
starvation, literally stared us in the face. At last, 
after due consideration, we determined to start for 
California on foot. Accordingly we dried some of 
our beef, and each of us carrying ten pounds of meat, 
a pair of blankets, a rifle and ammunition, we set out 
on our perilous journey. Not knowing how to fasten 
snow-shoes to our feet made it very fatiguing to walk 
with them. We fastened them heel and toe, and 
thus had to lift the whole weight of the shoe at every 
step, and as the shoe would necessarily sink down 
somewhat, the snow would crumble in on top of it, 
and in a short time each shoe weighed about ten 
pounds. 

" Foster and Montgomery were matured men, 
and could consequently stand a greater amount 
of hardship than I, who was still a growing boy with 
weak muscles and a huge appetite, both of which 
were being used in exactly the reverse order designed 
b)' nature. Consequently, when we reached the sum- 
mit of the mountain about sunset that night, having 
traveled a distance of about fifteen miles, I was 
scarcely able to drag one foot after the other. The 
day had been a hard one for us all, but particularly 
painful to me. The awkward manner in which our 
snow-shoes were fastened to our feet made the mere 
act of walking the hardest kind of work. In addi- 
tion to this, about the middle of the afternoon I was 
seized with cramps. I fell down with them several 
times, and my companions had to wait for me, for 
it was impossible for me to move until the paroxysm 
had passed off. After each attack I would summon 
all my will power and press on, trying to keep up 
with the others. Toward evening, however, the at- 
7 



tacks became more frequent and painful, and I could 
not walk more than fifty yards without stopping to 
rest. 

" When night came on we cut down a tree and 
with it built a fire on top of the snow. We then 
spread some pine brush for our beds, and after eating 
a little of our jerky and standing round our fire in a 
vain attempt to get warm, we laid down and tried to 
sleep. Although we were thoroughly exhausted) 
sleep would not come. Anxiety as to what might 
have been the fate of those who had preceded us, as 
well as uncertainty as to our fate, kept us awake all 
night. Every now and then one of us would rise to 
replenish the fire, which, though it kept us from freez- 
ing, could not make us comfortable. When daylight 
came we found that our fire had melted the snow in a 
circle of about fifteen feet in diameter, and had sunk to 
the ground a distance also of about fifteen feet. The 
fire was so far down that we could not get to it, but as 
we had nothing to cook, it made but little difference. 
We ate our jerky while we deliberated as to what we 
should do next. I was so stiff that I could hardly 
move, and my companions had grave doubts as to 
whether I could stand the journey. If I should give 
out they could afford me no assistance, and I would 
necessarily be left to perish in the snow. I fully 
realized the situation, and told them that I would re- 
turn to the cabin and live as long as possible on the 
quarter of beef that was still there, and when it was 
all gone I would start out again alone for California. 
They reluctantly assented to my plan, and promised 
that if they ever got to California and it was possible 
to get back, they would return to my assistance. 

" We did not say much at parting. Our hearts 
were too full for that. There was simply a warm 
clasp of the hand accompanied by the familiar word, 
' Good-by,' which we all felt might be the last words we 
should ever speak to each other. The feeling of lone- 
liness that came over me as the two men turned away 
I cannot express, though it will never be forgotten, 
while the, ' Good-by, Mose,' so sadly and reluctantly 
spoken, rings in my ears to-day. I desire to say here 
that both Foster and Montgomery were brave, warm- 
hearted men, and it was by no fault of theirs that I 
was thus left alone. It would only have made mat- 
ters worse for either of tliem to remain with me, for 
the quarter of beef at the cabin would last me longer 
alone, and thus increase my chances of escape. While 
our decision was a sad one, it was the only one that 
could be made. 

" My companions had not been long out of sight 



50 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



before my spirits began to revive, and I began to 
think, like Micawber, that something might 'turn 
up.' So I strapped on my blankets and dried beef, 
shouldered my gun, and began to retrace my steps 
to the cabin. It had frozen during the night and 
this enabled me to walk on our trail without the 
snow-shoes. This was a great relief, but the exertion 
and sickness of the day before had so weakened me 
that I think I was never so tired in my life as when, 
just a little before dark, I came in sight of the cabin. 
The door-sill was only nine inches high, but I could 
not step over it without taking my hands to raise my 
Igg * * * As soon as I was able to crawl around 
the next morning I put on my snow-shoes, and, tak- 
ing my rifle, scoured the country thoroughly for 
foxes. The result was as I had expected — ^just as it 
had always been — plenty of tracks, but no fox. 

"Discouraged and sick at heart, I came in from my 
fruitless search and prepared to pass another night of 
agony. As I put my gun in the corner, my eyes fell 
upon some steel traps that Captain Stevens had 
brought with him and left behind in his wagon. In 
an instant the thought flashed across my mind, 'If I 
can't shoot a coyote or fox, why not trap one.' There 
was inspiration in the thought, and my spirits began 
to rise immediately. The heads of the two cows I 
cut to pieces for bait, and, having raked the snow 
from some fallen trees, and found other sheltered 
places, I set my traps. That night I went to bed with 
a lighter heart, and was able to get some sleep. 

"As soon as daylight came I was out to inspect the 
traps. I was anxious to see them and still I dreaded to 
look. After some hesitation I commenced theexamina- 
tion, and to my great delight I found in one of them a 
starved coyote. I soon had his hide off and his flesh 
roasted in a Dutch oven. I ate this meat, but it was 
horrible. I next tried boiling him, but it did not im- 
prove the flavor. I cooked him in every possible 
manner my imagination, spurred by hunger, could 
suggest, but could not get him into a condition where 
he could be eaten without revolting my stomach. But 
for three days this was all I had to eat. On the third 
night I caught two foxes. I roasted one of them, and 
the meat, though entirely devoid of fat, was delicious. 
I was so hungry that I could easily have eaten a fox 
at two meals, but I made one last me two days. 

"I often took my gun and tried to find something to 
shoot, but in vain. Once I shot a crow that seemed 
to have got out of his latitude and stopped on a tree 
near the cabin. I stewed the crow, but it was difficult 
for me to decide which I liked best, crow or coyote. 



I now gave my whole attention to trapping, having 
found how useless it was to hunt for game. I caught, 
on an average, a fox in two days, and every now and 
then a coyote. These last-named animals I carefully 
hung up under the brush shed on the north side of the 
cabin, but I never got hungry enough to eat one of 
them again. There were eleven hanging there when 
I came away. I never really suffered for something 
to eat, but was in almost continual anxiety for fear 
the supply would give out. For instance, as soon as 
one meal was finished I began to be distressed for fear 
I could not get another one. My only hope was that 
the supply of foxes would not become exhausted. 

"One morning two of my traps contained foxes. 
Having killed one, I started for the other, but, before I 
could reach it, the fox had left his foot in the trap and 
started to run. I went as fast as I could to the cabin 
for my gun, and then followed him. He made for a 
creek about a hundred yards from the house, into 
which he plunged and swam across. He was scram- 
bling up the opposite bank when I reached the creek. 
In my anxiety at the prospect of losing my breakfast, 
I had forgotten to remove a greasy wad that I usually 
kept in the muzzle of my gun to prevent it from rust- 
ing, and when I fired, the ball struck the snow about a 
foot above reynard's back. I reloaded as rapidly as 
possible, and as the gun was one of the old-fashioned 
flint-locks that primed itself, it did not require much 
time. But, short as the time was, the fox had gone 
about forty yards when I shot him. Now the problem 
was to get him to camp. The water in the stream 
was about two and a half feet deep and icy cold. But 
I plunged in, and, on reaching the other side, waded 
for fort)' yards through the snow, into which I sank to 
my arms, secured my game, and returned the way I 
came. I relate this incident to illustrate how much 
affection I had for the fox. It is strange that I never 
craved anything to eat but good fat meat. For bread 
or vegetables I had no desire. Salt I had in plenty, 
but never used. I had just coffee enough for one cup, 
and that I saved for Christmas. 

"My life was more miserable than I can describe. 
The daily struggle for life and the uncertainty under 
which I labored were very wearing. I was always 
worried and anxious, not about myself alone, but in 
regard to the fate of those who had gone forward. I 
would lie awake nights and think of these things, and 
revolve in my mind what I would do when the supply 
of foxes became exhausted. The quarter of beef I 
had not touched, and I resolved to dry it, and, when 
the foxes were all gone, to take my gun, blankets, and 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



51 



dried beef and follow in the footsteps of my former 
companions. 

"Fortunately, I had a plenty of books, Dr. Town- 
send having brought out quite a library. I used often 
to read aloud, for I longed for some sound to break 
the oppressive stillness. For the same reason, I would 
talk aloud to myself At night I built large fires and 
read by the light of the pine knots as late as possible, 
in order that I might sleep late the next morning, 
and thus cause the days to seem shorter. What I 
wanted most was enough to eat, and the next thing I 
tried hardest to do was to kill time. I thought the 
snow would never leave the ground, and the few 
months I had been living here seemed years. 

"One evening, a little before sunset, about the last of 
February, as I was standing a short distance from my 
cabin, I thought I could distinguish the form of a man 
moving towards me. I first thought it was an Indian, 
but very soon I recognized the familiar face of Dennis 
Martin. My feelings can be better imagined than de- 
scribed. He relieved my anxiety about those of our 
party who had gone forward with the wagons. They 
had all arrived safely in California and were then in 
camp on the Yuba. They were all safe, although 
some of them had suffered much from hunger. Mrs. 
Patterson and her children had eaten nothing for four- 
teen days but rawhides. Mr. Martin had brought a 
small amount of provisions on his back, which were 
shared among them. All the male portion of the 
party, except Foster and Montgomery, had joined 
Captain Sutter and gone to the Micheltorena war. 
Dr. Townsend was surgeon of the corps. My sister, 
Mrs. Townsend, hearing that Mr. Martin was about to 
return to pilot the emigrants out of the wilderness, 
begged him to extend his journey a little farther and 
lend a helping hand to ler brother Moses. He con- 
sented to do so, and here he was. Being a Canadian, 
he was accustomed to snow-shoes, and soon showed 
me how to fix mine so I could travel with less than 
half the labor. He made the shoe a little narrower, 
and fastened it to the foot only at the to", thus mak- 
ing the heel a little heavier, so that the shoe would 
drag on the snow instead of having to be lifted at every 
step." 

The next morning after Martin's arrival at the cabin 
he and Schallenberger started to return. Schallen- 
berger's scanty diet and limited e.xercise rendered 
this a rather trying journey for him. But they arrived 
safely at the emigrants' camp, which, during Martin's 
absence, had been moved two days' journey down the 
hills. At this camp was born to Mr. and Mrs. Martin 



Murphy a daughter, the first white child born in 
California. She was named Elizabeth, and afterwards 
married Mr. William Taaffe. 

To make this history complete, we must return to 
the party which, separating from the wagons at the 
forks of the Truckee, followed the main stream. 
They continued up the river to Lake Tahoe, and were 
the first white people to look upon that beautiful body 
of water. Here they crossed the river, keeping on 
the west side of the lake for some distance, and then 
struck across the hills to the headwaters of the Ameri- 
can River, which they followed down to the valley. 
This route was exceedingly rough, much more so than 
the one up the Truckee on the other side. The 
American River was wider and deeper th^an the 
Truckee, and fully as crooked. They were compelled 
to cross it many times, and frequently their horses 
were compelled to swim, and the current was so swift 
as to make this a very hazardous undertaking. Mrs. 
Townsend rode an Indian pony, which was an ex- 
cellent swimmer. She would ride him across the 
river and then send him back by one of the boys for 
Ellen Murphy. Once this pony lost his feet. He 
had crossed the river several times and was nearly 
worn out. John Murphy had ridden him back to get 
a pack saddle, and on returning, the pony fell. John, 
though an excellent swimmer, had a narrow escape 
from drowning. The water was running with the 
force of a mill race, while the bed of the stream was 
full of huge rocks, against which he was dashed and 
disabled from swimming. The party on the banks 
were paralyzed with terror as he was swept down the 
raging torrent. Recovering themselves, they hurried 
down the stream, expecting at every step to see his 
mangled body thrown upon the shore. But John had 
not lost his head in his deadly peril. Watching his 
opportunity, as he was swept under a willow tree 
which grew on the bank, he seized the overhanging 
branches and held on with a death grip until he was 
rescued. The ice-cold water and the mauling he had 
received from the rocks rendered him unconscious. 
A warm fire restored him to his senses, but it was 
many days before he fully recovered from the shock 
caused by his involuntary bath. 

The party were twenty-one days in getting to the 
valley. They did not suffer for food, for they were 
soon out of the snow and in a game country. John 
and- Dan Murphy were excellent hunters, and there 
was no scarcity of meat. If game was scarce there 
was plenty of cattle roaming about, which made star- 
vation impossible. They followed the American River 



52 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLDS 



until they came to St. Clair's ranch, where they 
stopped for some time. Mr. and Mrs. St. Clair re- 
ceived them with a warm hospitality, which excited 
the liveliest feelings of gratitude in the hearts of the 
emigrants. These feelings were mingled with remorse 
when they thought of the number of St. Clair's calves 
that had been killed on the way down the river. They 
had, of course, intended to pay for them, but just at 
that time they had no money. The idea of accept- 
ing the hospitality of a man whose cattle they had 
killed, worked on their feelings until it nearly broke 
their hearts. The teachings of their father, the old 
patriarch, had kept their consciences tender, and they 
held many secret consultations as to what should be 
done in the premises. 

They finally determined to confess. The lots cast 
for spokesman elected Dan Murphy, but it was agreed 
that all should be present to give him their moral 
support. Dan opened the interview by carelessly in- 
quiring who owned all those calves that they had en- 
countered coming down the river. St. Clair said he 
guessed they all belonged to him. "Well," said Dan, 
"there's a good bunch of them. What are calves 
about three months old worth in this country?" St. 
Clair told him. "Well," resumed Dan, "we killed 
some of them to eat, and we haven't got any money 
to pay you now, but if you will let us work out the 
price we will be very much obliged." The earnest- 
ness of the boys amused Mr. St. Clair very much, and 
when he told them that they were welcome to the 
calves they had killed, and as many more as they 
wanted to eat, they retired from the interview with a 
gseat load lifted from their consciences. 

From St. Clair's they went down to Sutter's, arriv- 
ing there about the same time that the men from the 
wagons got in. Here they found great excitement. 
Micheltorena had been appointed by the Mexican 
Government as Governor of California, with both 
civil and military authority. The former officials, 
Alvarado and Vallejo, had resolved to resist his 
authority, and had joined with them General Castro. 
The native Californians were very jealous of the for- 
eigners, especially the immigrants from the United 
States. Taking advantage of this feeling, the revolu- 
tionists had roused the country and collected quite a 
formidable army. Whatever may have been the in- 
tention of the leaders, it was openly talked by the 
rank and file, that, after they had settled their difficulty 
with Micheltorena, they would drive the foreigners 
from the country. The Murphy party had not come 
two thousand miles across desert.s and mountains to 



be driven back into the hills without an effort in their 
own defense, and without hesitation they joined a 
company that Captain Suiter was raising for the as- 
sistance of Micheltorena, who held the legal com- 
mission as Governor of California. With this com- 
pany they went South, doing good service in the cam- 
paign as far as Santa Barbara. Here, there being no 
further need of their services, they started to return 
to their women and children, whom they had left with 
the wagons on the Yuba. 

Here was another instance of the indomitable cour- 
age of these men. The whole country had been roused 
against Micheltorena and the foreigners, and here was 
a handful of these same foreigners who had been ar- 
rayed against them in every movement from the Sacra- 
mento to Santa Barbara, now returning alone through 
this hostile country with no protection but their trusty 
rifles. The boldness of the act was only equaled by 
the skill which enabled them to make the return 
journey without firing a hostile gun. It seems as if 
the hand of Providence had upheld them through all 
their tribulations and dangers, and preserved them for 
some great destiny. 

They arrived at the wagons about the same time 
that Schallenberger was rescued by Dennis Martin 
from his perilous situation in the cabin by Donner 
Lake. About the time Schallenberger joined the 
wagons, with Martin, a man named Neil, who had 
been sent by Captain Sutter, with a supply of provis- 
ions and horses, arrived at the camp. The emigrants 
now were in a very cheerful frame of mind, being 
only one day's march from the plains, and the end of 
their year's journey in sight. The next day they 
pushed on, all mounted, some with saddles, some 
with pack-saddles, and some bare-back, and that night 
camped at the edge of the valley, on the banks of 
Bear River. This was the first of March, just one 
year from tlie time they left Missouri. They found 
Bear River full and still rising, from the melting snow 
in the mountains and the heavy rainfall of the season. 
There was no bridge or ferry, and an attempt was 
made to find a tree of sufficient length to reach across, 
but in vain. In this search for a tree Mr. Neil, who 
had gone down the stream, was cut off from the main- 
land by the rapidly rising waters, leaving him on a 
little island, which was soon submerged, and as he 
could not swim, he was compelled to climb a tree. 
His cries for help finally reached the ears of those in 
camp, and Schallenberger and John Murphy, each 
mounting a horse and leading a third one, swam into 
the foamingtorrent ^nd brought him safely to the shore, 



PEN PIOTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



53 



Again the affairs of the emigrants began to assume 
a gloomy aspect. Bear River had overrun its banks 
until it was ten miles wide. The small supply of 
provisions sent in by Captain Sutter had been ex- 
hausted. Two deer had been killed, but this afforded 
scarcely a mouthful each to so large a party. There 
was no direction in which the}- could move except to 
return to the hills, and this would only be making 
their condition worse. Three days passed with no 
food. They could hear the lowing of the cattle across 
the river, and now and then could discern the grace- 
ful forms of herds of antelope on the other side of 
the water. Mr. Schallenberger relates an incident 
that occurred at this time. The Hon. B. D. Murphy 
was then a little chap only four years old. As Schal- 
lenberger was sitting on a wagon-tongue, whittling a 
stick and meditating on the hollowness of all earthly 
things, and especially of the human stomach, little 
Barney approached him and asked if he would lend 
him his knife. "Certainly," replied Schallenberger, 
"but what do you want to do with it?" " I want to 
make a toothpick," said Barney. The idea of needing 
a toothpick when none of the party had tasted food for 
three days was so ridiculous that Schallenberger for- 
got the emptiness of his stomach and laughed heartily. 

There was a large band of wild horses belonging 
to Captain Sutter, which were ranging in the foot-hills 
on that side of the river where the emigrants' camp 
was located. The question of killing one of these 
had been seriously discussed. The proposition had 
been earnestly opposed by Martin Murphy, who had 
declared that it was not food fit for human beings, 
and that although in the last stages of starvation his 
stomach would revolt at such diet. The respect that 
the young men had for Mr. Murphy restrained them 
from committing equicide for some time. But at last 
it became a question of horse meat or starvation. 

One morning Mr. Murphy rode back over the trail 
to see if he could find any trace of an ox that they 
had lost on the march, while Schallenberger and 
Dennis Martin went hunting for something to eat. 
Returning empty handed, it was decided to kill a 
horse. Accordingly, Neil drove the band as near 
camp as possible, and Schallenberger shot a fine, fat 
two-year old filly. Mr. Murphy did not arrive until 
the meat had been dressed and was roasting before 
the fire. He had been unsuccessful in his search and 
was delighted to find that the boys had succeeded. 
With his face glowing with pleasure in anticipation of 
the feast, he inquired, "Who killed the heifer?" The 
party pointed to Schallenberger, and Mr, Murphy, 



patting him on the shoulder, exclaimed: "Good boy, 
good boy, but for you we might all have starved!" 
When the meat was cooked he ate of it, eloquently 
praising its juicy tenderness and fine flavor, which, he 
said, surpassed any meat he had ever tasted. About 
the time he had satisfied his appetite, his brother- 
in-law, James Miller, drew out the filly's mane from 
behind a log, exhibited it to Mr. Murphy, and asked 
him to see what queer horns they had taken from the 
heifer of which he had just been eating so heartily. 
Mr. Murphy's stomach immediately rebelled, and he 
returned to the ground the dinner which he had eaten 
with so much relish, saying, when he had recovered 
from his paroxysm, that he thought he had detected a 
peculiarly bad taste about that meat. He never, by 
any artifice, could be induced to taste horse flesh 
again. 

Soon after this, the waters receded sufficiently to 
allow the party to reach Feather River, where, near 
Hick's Farm, Captain Sutter had prepared a boat to 
ferry them across. Here the vaqueros brought them 
a fine fat cow, and, for the first time in many months, 
they had what Schallenberger called a "good square 
meal." 

Our pilgrims had reached the promised land. 
Their enduring faith had been lost in sight, and their 
hopes had ended in fruition. The old patriarch had 
gathered his flock around him in the shadow of the 
Cross, in a country through the length and breadth 
of which the name of his family was destined to be- 
come a household word, and in the development and 
history of which they were to become prominent. Of 
all the property with which they started, little was left 
on their arrival in California. As Mrs. James Murphy 
said to the writer, " We brought very little property 
with us, but we did bring a good many days' work." 

After a short rest at Sutter's Fort, the party sepa- 
rated, each to seek a location and to plant his roof tree 
in his adopted land. 



Mr. Martin Murphy, Sr., with the unmarried 
portion of his family, which consisted of his three sons, 
Bernard, John, and Daniel, and his daughters, Ellen, 
Margaret, and Joanna, came to Santa Clara County 
and purchased the Rancho Ojo de Agua de la Coche, 
situated on the Monterey road, south of San Jose, near 
what has since been known as the Twenty-one Mile 
House. Here he lived for many years, loved and re- 
spected by all who knew him. Coming daily in con- 
tact with the native Californians, he commanded their 
good-will and respect, in spite of their natural jeal- 



54 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



ousy and hatred of the foreigners. In grateful re- 
membrance of the power which had safely led him by 
land and sea, through so many perils, to this haven of 
rest, he built a beautiful chapel on his ranch, which, 
in honor of his patron saint, he named San Martin. 
His house was located on the then most traveled 
road in California, and he always held its door wide 
open to the wayfarer. His liberal hospitality, his 
charity, his piety, his inflexible integrity, and his warm 
heart and sympathizing disposition, compelled the 
friendship of all who knew him, and when he died there 
was grief throughout the State. Courts adjourned, 
and business was suspended, while from every direc- 
tion people gathered to assist in the last sad rites of the 
patriarch and pioneer. For the last few years of his 
life he had retired from active business, making his 
home at San Francisco, and paying periodical visits 
to the different members of his family. When death 
overtook him, which was on March i6, 1865, he was 
at the house of his daughter, Margaret Kell, near San 
Jose. 



Martin Murphv, Jr., the eldest son of Martin 
Murphy, located, after the emigrant party broke up at 
Sutter's, on the Cosumne River, in what is now Sacra- 
mento County. His family consisted of seven chil- 
dren, as follows: James, Martin, Patrick Washington, 
Bernard Daniel, Elizabeth, Mary Ann, and Ellen. 
Here he purchased four leagues of land and erected 
a house. About the first thing he did after taking 
possession of his new home, was to look around for a 
school-teacher. This he found in the person of one 
Patrick O'Brien, an educated man, who, having be- 
come reduced in circumstances, had joined the army. 
He came across the mountains with Fremont and 
probably deserted. While engaged in teaching at 
Murphy's, General Sherman, then a lieutenant, ar- 
rested him and took him away. We understand, 
however, that he was finally released. This was the 
first school ever held in Sacramento County. At 
this place their daughter Mary, afterward Mrs. Richard 
T. Carrol, of San Francisco, was born. The land 
which Mr. Murphy had purchased in Sacramento 
County was very fertile, but, desiring to live near his 
people, he removed to this county, and purchased the 
Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas, near Mountain 
View, containing four thousand eight hundred acres. 
While awaiting the building of a house on the new 
homestead, the family took up its residence in San 
Jose, occupying a house opposite where the convent 
now stands, which was owned by Mariano Hernandez. 



They were living here when Hernandez made his 
remarkable escape, as is elsewhere reported in this 
history. The first intimation the family had of this 
event was the visit of the officers to search the house. 
The John Foster whom Hernandez was accused of 
murdering was a brother of the Joseph Foster who 
crossed the plains with the Murphy party. 

The Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas became the 
permanent home of Martin Murphy, and here he, 
with his estimable wife, reared their large family. 
Here was born James T. Murphy, their youngest 
child. The mantle of Martin Murphy, Sr., had de- 
scended on his oldest son, and all the traits which 
characterized the founder of the family seemed de- 
veloped in a greater degree, if that were possible, in 
the son. His strict integrity, devout piety, kind and 
gentle disposition, liberal hospitality, united with a 
firmness of character, all combined to give him a 
place in the affection and respect of the people that 
no one has ever since been able to command. His 
wife was a worthy companion for such a man. Shar- 
ing all his trials, she lessened them, and partaking of 
his joys, she doubled them; and together they have 
impressed their character upon their children to such 
a degree that they have made them worthy to suc- 
ceed them. Language can accord no higher praise 
than this. These people also imprinted their individ- 
uality on their material surroundings to such an 
extent that the homestead soon forgot its old Span- 
ish name and became known throughout the country 
as the "Murphy Ranch." Their efforts were pros- 
pered to an eminent degree, and although they ac- 
quired vast domains in several other counties, they 
never abandoned the first home which they had 
erected in Santa Clara County. The facilities afforded 
by the schools and colleges of the Catholic Fathers 
and Sisters, enabled them to see their children 
educated in all the higher branches, and to become 
cultured men and women, with ability and disposition 
to carry the honored family name untarnished to 
future generations. 

As the desire for religious and educational facilities 
was the controlling sentiment that induced the Mur- 
phys to cross the wilderness, it was also the main- 
spring of their actions after arriving at their destina- 
tion. To Martin Murphy was due the establishment 
of the College of Notre Dame in this county. A 
number of the Sisters had established a school in the 
Willamette Valley, in Oregon. In 1851, four Sisters 
from Cincinnati started to join this religious colonj', 
and Sister Loyola and Sister Mary came down from 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



55 



Oregon to San Francisco to meet them. While 
waiting for the arrival of the vessel from Panama^ 
they accepted the invitation of Mr. Murphy to visit 
his family at Mountain View. During this visit they 
called at Santa Clara and San Jose, and determined 
to establish an institution here. The College of 
Notre Dame is the result of this determination. 

On the 1 8th of July, 1881, Mr. and Mrs. Murphy 
celebrated their " golden wedding " at the homestead 
at Mountain View. This event will be a landmark 
in the history of the county. About fifteen thousand 
people were present, including the most distinguished 
men of the State. People came hundreds of miles to 
offer their congratulations. They were all entertained 
in princely style beneath the shade of the noble live- 
oaks on the lawn. Hundreds of the best animals 
from the immense herds were slaughtered for the 
feast, while the choicest vintages of France and Cali- 
fornia were represented in limitless abundance. The 
virtues of Mr. and Mrs. Murphy were celebrated in 
song and in story, the most eminent men of the com- 
monwealth leaving their business to lay their tiibute 
of respect at the feet of these pioneers. 

Soon after this event, Mr. Murphy's health began 
to fail, and three years later, October 20, 1884, he 
died, full of years and of honor. 



James MuRriiv, the second son of Martin Murphy, 
Sr., was born in County Wexford, Ireland, September 
19, 1809, and was eleven years of age when his 
father removed to Canada. At that time he was a 
bright, intelligent boy, with stout muscles and an 
active brain. He was of great assistance to his father 
in establishing their new home, where he remained 
until he attained man's estate. He early developed 
a taste for the lumber business, and when twenty-four 
years of age, made a journey to Maine in this interest. 
He remained there but a short time, however, soon 
returning to Canada, where he went into business for 
himself, which he conducted successfully for nine 
years. During this time he met Miss Ann Martin, a 
beautiful and intelligent young lady, who had come 
over from Ireland in 1829, with her parents, and 
settled in the neighborhood of the Murphys, who had 
preceded them about eight years. Miss Martin was 
born at Thomastown, in King's County. She was 
only seven years of age when her parents came to 
America, and therefore her husband was acquainted 
with her from childhood, and knew her many sterling 
qualities. Two children were born to them in Canada^ 
the eldest being a son, whom they named Martin, 



from his grandfather, and who died while still in 
Canada. The other child was a daughter, whom 
they named Mary, and who afterwards married B. S. 
Machado, and is now living near Gilroy, in Santa 
Clara County. In 1842 Mr. Murphy, with his brother 
Martin, joined the other members of the Murphy 
family in Holt County, Missouri, on the Platte Pur- 
chase, as it was then called. The history of this 
journey will be found in the general history of the 
Murphy family. During their residence in Missouri, 
the subject of this sketch visited the lumber regions 
in the vicinity of St. Joseph, where he was engaged 
in business for a short time. He accompanied the 
family in their memorable journey through the wilder- 
ness to California, and took his full share of the trials 
and dangers of that historic expedition. After arriv- 
ing in California, he was one of the first to offer his 
services in defense of the Government in the Michel- 
torena war. After the battle of Chauvenga he re- 
turned to Sutter's and then chose a location for his 
family in Marin County. Here he engaged in the 
lumber business and furnished the timbers for Leides- 
dorff wharf, the first wharf built in San Francisco, 
then Verba Buena. 

On the discovery of gold every person who could 
get there, went to the mines, leaving the fields unfilled 
and the mills idle. Not being able to procure labor, 
Mr. Murphy's lumber operations came to a halt. Not 
desiring to remain idle, he determined to go to the 
gold fields. He visited Sutter's Mill, where gold was 
first discovered, and from there to Placerville, then 
called "Hangtown," and visited all the diggings in 
that vicinity. He came to the conclusion that, for a 
man who had a family, mining was too precarious a 
business. Therefore, in the fall of 1848, he came to 
Santa Clara, and, with his brother Daniel, purchased 
the Rancho de las Llagas, near Gilroy. He remained 
here, prospering by agricultural pursuits, until after 
the survey of the famous five-hundred-acre lots. He 
purchased a number of these lots, lying north of San 
Jose, and, having built a house for his family, took 
possession of his new home in 1849. Here he lived 
until his death, which occurred January 13, 1878. 

The "Ringwood Farm," the homestead of James 
Murphy, is one of the landmarks of Santa Clara 
County. From the time he took possession of it in 
1849, it was carefully and intelligently tilled, and not- 
withstanding the open-handed liberality of its owner, 
was very profitable. In 1872 he erected a magnifi- 
cent mansion at a cost of forty thousand dollars, and 
surrounded it witli beautiful ground--. He planted 



56 



PEN PICTURES FRO 31 THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



one of the first olive orchards in the county, and dem- 
onstrated that this valuable fruit could be profitably 
grown in the Santa Clara Valley. At the time of his 
death, he had accumulated property valued at about 
$300,000. His death was much regretted by the en- 
tire community, which followed him as mourners to 
his last resting-place. His widow, a bright and intel- 
ligent lady of seventy-six years, still occupies the 
homestead, which is managed by the youngest son, 
Daniel J, a worthy son of a good father. They have 
had nine children, as follows: Martin, born and died 
in Canada; Mary F., born in Canada, February 4, 
1842; Martin D., born at Sutter's Fort, February 6, 
1845 ; Helen E., born at Corte Madera, December 18, 
1847, deceased. The other children were born af 
Ringwood Farm, and are: Wm B., August 21, 1850; 
Lizzie A, July 8, 1853; Julia A, January 6, 1853; 
Helen, April 18, i860, died in infancy; Daniel J., April 
25, 1861. 



Bernard Murphy, son of Martin Murphy, Sr., 
came to Santa Clara County with his father, and lived 
with him on the ranch near the Twenty-one Mile 
House, until he married. His wife was Miss Catherine 
O'Toole, who afterwards married James Dunne. They 
had one child, Martin J. C. Murphy, a bright young 
man whose early years gave promise of an illustrious 
career. He, however, was attacked by disease in the 
midst of his studies, and died .at Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, in 1872. His father, Bernard, was 
killed in the fatal explosion of the steamer/^«;y Li/id, 
in 1853. 



John M. Murphy, son of Martin Murphy, Sr., 
soon after settling in this county, with his father, 
entered the store of Chas. M. Weber, in San Jose. At 
the discovery of gold, he went to the mines, taking 
with him a stock of goods. He employed the Indians 
to prospect and dig for him, and probably has had 
more gold in his possession than any other miner on 
the Pacific Coast. He was the first treasurer of 
Santa Clara County, and was afterwards elected re- 
corder and then sheriff. In later years he was en- 
gaged in mercantile business, which he followed until 
failing health compelled him to retire. His wife is 
Virginia F. Reed, daughter of James F. Reed, and one 
of thfe ill-fated Donner party. 



Daniel Murphy settled with his father on the 
ranch at the Twenty-one Mile House. He, with his 
brother Bernard, bought other property, and at the 



time of his death he owned large landed estates in 
California, Nevada, and Mexico. His rancho in Du- 
rango comprised some million and a half acres, and 
included the mountain of magnetic iron made famous 
by the report of Alex. Von Humboldt. He devoted 
nearly his entire life to the cattle business, his herds 
numbering thousands of head. He died October 22, 
1S82. 



Ellen Murphy married Chas M. Weber, of San 
Jose, afterwards of Stockton. 



James Miller and his wife (Mary Murphy) set- 
tled in Marin County, where they became prominent 
citizens. 

Sketches of the younger generations of the Murphy 
family will be found in other pages. 



MoSES SCHALLENBERGER was born in Stark 
County, Ohio, November 9, 1826. He was a son of 
Jacob and Barbara Schallenberger, who were emi- 
grants from Germany, his father being of Swiss and 
his mother of German birth. They both died in 
Stark County, when Moses was but six years of age, 
and he was taken into the family of Dr. Townsend, 
who had married his sister. It was with them that 
he made the famous journey across the plains, as above 
related. Dr. Townsend was induced to undertake 
the journey to California by the ill health of his wife. 
At that time they were living in Buchanan County, 
Missouri, as was Mr. Montgomery, another of the 
party. Montgomery was a gunsmith, and, during the 
winter of 1842-43 made a quantity of guns and pistols, 
ox shoes, and also fixed up the wagons, and did every- 
thing in the way of iron-work necessary to furnish a 
complete outfit for the trip. They had intended to 
start early in the spring of 1843, but a Mr. Potter, 
who had an interest in the expedition, dying unex- 
pectedly, the start was delayed until the next year. 
They spent this time in perfecting their arrangements, 
among which was the marriage of Mr. Montgomery to 
a young lady, Miss Armstrong, who was living at Dr. 
Townsend's. About the first of March they arrived 
at the rendezvous at Nisnabotna, where they were 
joined by the Murphy party. To Mr. Schallen- 
berger we are indebted for the facts concerning this 
historic journey which we have given above. Of these 
first wagons that made tracks in California, Mr. 
Schallenberger has in his possession a wheel, which he 
guards as a precious relic. Mr. Schallenberger's first 
employment in California was in the mercantile es- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD" 



57 



tablishment of Larkin and Greene at Monterey, where 
he remained until the termination of the Mexican 
War. The firm was largely engaged in furnishing 
supplies to the United States navy, and Mr. Schallen- 
berger's duties consisted in procuring these supplies 
from the country, and superintending their delivery. 
In July, 184S, furnished with an invoice of goods by 
the firm, he made a successful venture on his own ac- 
count in the mines on Yuba River. Later he enga;4ed 
with James H. Gleason as a partner in trade in Mexi- 
can goods at Monterey, which he closed in Decem- 
ber, 1850, when the death of his brother-in-law, Dr. 
Townsend, necessitated his coming to San Jose to 
manage his estate. The same fatherly care that he 
had received from the doctor was, in return, bestowed 
by him on the doctor's only child, John H. M. Town- 
send. He was married September 20, 1854, to Miss 
Fannie Everitt, at the residence of Thomas Selby, in 
San Francisco. Mrs. Schallenberger is a native of 
Alabama, born in 1834. Her father, John Everitt, was 
for six years judge of the Court of Common Pleas at 
Mobile, and his ability as a lawyer and fairness as a 
judge, is shown by the fact that no decision of his 
was ever reversed. Mrs. Schallenberger came to San 
Francisco in 1852, with her brother-in-law, Mr. S. L. 
Jones. The young couple set up housekeeping on 
Dr. Townsend's estate, but a year later they moved 
to the homestead, on the Coyote River, two miles 
north of San Jose, where they have lived ever since. 
The house they first erected was burned in 1870, but 
was immediately replaced by one more adapted to 
their prosperous circumstances, and in keeping with 
the progress of the country. Their present home is 
large, convenient, and substantial, and is surrounded 
with beautiful grounds, ornamented with choice shrub- 
bery and flowers. The house was erected at a cost of 
$13,000. The farm consists of one hundred and fifteen 
acres of fertile sediment land, devoted to the pro- 
duction of fruit and vegetables. Mr. Schallenberger 
was one of the early horticulturists, having planted 
ten acres to orchard in 1858. They have had five 
children, viz.: Louise, wife of Thomas Montgomery, 
San Jose; Margaret E., a teacher in the State Normal 
School; Lloyd E., in business with his uncle, S. L. 
Jones, at San Francisco; Fanny, a student at the 
State Normal School, and Milton P. Mr. Schallen- 
berger is a member of the Santa Clara County Pioneer 
Society, by which association he is held in the highest 
regard, both on account of his trials in the early days, 
and his character as a citizen. 
8 



Dr. John Townsend. — No historyof the American 
pioneers of California could well be written without 
mention of the subject of this sketch. A thoroughly 
educated physician, a man prominent in every com- 
munity in which he ever had lived, who, had he so 
chosen, could have settled anywhere in the old States, 
and won renown and fortune, — he was, notwithstand- 
ing, possessed of that spirit of adventure which con- 
tinuously led him westward in search of new fields to 
conquer. He was born in Fayette County, Pennsyl- 
vania, a county unequaled in that State, and perhaps 
in any other, in the number of men which it pro- 
duced and sent out to subdue the wildness of the 
Northwest and of the Pacific Coast. His father, 
John F. Townsend, was from England, and was one 
of the pioneers of Fayette County. Dr. Townsend 
received his first degree in medicine at Lexington 
Medical College. He successfully and successively 
practiced in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Missouri, 
marrying in Stark County, Ohio, in 1832, Miss Eliza- 
beth Louise Schallenberger, a sister of Moses Schallen- 
berger, whose history appears in this connection. In 
the pioneer party of 1844 from Missouri, which did so 
much in opening to the world this grand valley. Dr. 
Townsend was one of the master spirits. He was 
one of the first Alcaldes of San Francisco, and for 
two years before coming to this county (which he did 
in 1849) he held the scales of justice so evenly as to 
cause him to be ever remembered for his judicial in- 
tegrity. Upon removing to Santa Clara Valley, he 
established his home in an adobe house, on what is 
now the Milpitas road, two miles from San Jose. 
There he commenced the improvement of one hun- 
dred and ninety-five acres of land, intending to live 
the life of a quiet agriculturist, avoiding the turmoil 
of the city, and the cares of a professional life, but the 
All-ruling Power decreed otherwise, both himself and 
his wife dying of cholera in 1850. Their pioneer 
homestead property is now owned by their son and 
only child, John H. M. Townsend, who was born in 
San Francisco, November 26, 1848, and in his or- 
phaned infancy and youth was cared for by his guard- 
ian and uncle — Moses Schallenberger. He spent the 
greater part of his school life in attendance upon 
Santa Clara College, going to England when sixteen 
years of age. He there studied two years under 
private tutorship. Later, he was two years a student 
at Cambridge University. He married Miss Kate 
M. A. Chisholm at Cambridge, in 1872. They have 
four children — Eva, Ethel, Arthur, and Maude. Pub- 
lic-spirited and enterprising, Mr. Townsend is one of 



58 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



Santa Clara County's representative men. He served 
in the Assembly of the State of 1883 and 1884, being 
elected on the Democratic ticket. He has also held 
local trusts, and has served on the County Board of 
Supervisors, being elected in 1877. He is actively in- 
terested in the Santa Clara Valley Agricultural So- 
ciety, and has served several years as director of that 
organization. The family residence, shaded and sur- 
rounded by beautiful grounds, is located near the 
crossing of the Coyote Creek by the Milpitas road. 

Those who came to this county in 1845, as far as 
can be learned, were Frank Lightston, J. Washburn, 
William O'Connor, William C. Wilson, John Dau- 
benbiss, and James Stokes. In the following year, 
1846, the survivors of the Donner party arrived, sev- 
eral of whom became residents of this county. The 
fearful sufferings of these people make a story of hor- 
rors almost unparalleled in history. So terrible was 
their experience that it has been almost impossible to 
induce the survivors to recount it, the remembrance 
seeming to haunt their entire lives like a hideous 
specter. Mr. James F. Reed, the original leader of 
the party, and afterwards, until his death, a prominent 
and esteemed citizen of San Jose, in his last years 
gave his story to the public, and from it we quote: — 

" I left Springfield with my family about the middle 
of April, 1846. We arrived at Independence, Mis- 
souri, where I loaded two of my wagons with jaro- 
visions, a third one being reserved for my family. 
Col. W. H. Russell's family had started from here 
before our arrival. We followed and overtook them 
in the Indian Territory. I made application for the 
admission of myself and others into the company, 
which was granted. We traveled on with the company 
as far as the Little Sandy, and here a separation took 
place, the majority of the members going to Oregon, 
and a few wagons, mine with them, going the Fort 
Bridger, or Salt Lake route for California. The day 
after our separation from the Russell Company, we 
elected George Donner as captain, and from this time 
the company was known as the ' Donner party.' Ar- 
riving at Fort Bridger I added one yoke of cattle to 
my teams, staying here four days. Several friends of 
mine who had passed here with pack-animals for 
California, had left letters with Mr. Vasquez, Mr. 
Bridger's partner, directing me to take the route by 
way of Fort Hall, and by no means to take the Hast- 
ing's cut-off. Vasquez, being interested in having the 
new route traveled, kept these letters. This was told 
me after my arrival in California. Mr. McCutchcn, 
wife and child, joined us here. 



" Leaving Fort Bridger we unfortunately took the 
new route, traveling on without incident of note, until 
we arrived at the head of Weber Caiion. A short dis- 
tance before reaching this place we found a letter stick- 
ing in the top of a sage-brush. It was from Hastings. 
He stated that if we would send a messenger after 
him, he would return and pilot us through a route 
much shorter and better than the caiion. A meeting 
of the company was held, when it was resolved to send 
Messrs. McCutchen, Stanton, and myself to Mr. 
Hastings; also, at the same time, we were to examine 
the caiion and report at short notice. We overtook 
Mr. Hastings at a place called Black Rock, south 
end of Salt Lake. Leaving McCutchen and Stanton 
here, their horses having failed, I obtained a fresh 
horse from the company Hastings was piloting and 
started on my return to our company with Mr. Hast- 
ings. When we arrived at about the place where 
Salt Lake City is built, Mr. Hastings, finding the 
distance greater than anticipated by him, stated that 
he would be compelled to return the next morning to 
his company. We camped this evening in a caiion, 
and next morning ascended to the summit of a 
mountain where we could overlook a portion of the 
country that lay between us and the head of the 
caiion where the Donner company were encamped. 
After he gave me the direction, Mr. Hastings and I 
separated. He returned to the companies he had 
left the morning previous, I proceeding on eastward. 
After descending to what may be called the table- 
land, I took an Indian trail and blazed the route 
where it was necessary the road should be made, if 
the company so directed when they heard the report. 

"When McCutchen, Stanton, and myself got through 
Weber Caiion, on our way to overtake Mr. Hastings, 
our conclusions were that many of the wagons would 
be destroyed in attempting to get through the canon. 
Mr. Stanton and Mr. McCutchen were to return to our 
company as fast as their horses could stand it, they 
having nearly given out. I reached the company in 
the evening and reported to them the conclusions in 
regard to Weber Caiion, at the same time stating that 
the route I had blazed that day was fair, but would 
take considerable labor in clearing and digging. 
They agreed with unanimous voice to take that route 
if I would direct them in the road-making, they work- 
ing faithfully until it was completed. Next morning 
we started, under these conditions, and made camp 
that evening without difficulty, on Bossman Creek. 
The afternoon of the second day we left the creek, 
turning to the right in a caiion, leading to a divide. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



59 



Here Mr. Graves and family overtook us. This 
evening the first accident that had occurred was caused 
by the upsetting of one of my wagons. The next 
morning the heavy work of cutting the timber com- 
menced. We remained at this camp several days. 
During this time the road was cleared for several 
miles. After leaving this camp the work on the road 
slackened, and the farther we advanced, the slower the 
work progressed. I here state that the number of 
days we were detained in road-making was not the 
cause, by any means, of the company remaining in 
the mountains during the following winter. 

" We progressed on our way and crossed the outlet 
of the Utah, now called Jordan, a little below the 
location of Salt Lake City. From this camp in a 
day's travel we made connection with the trail of the 
companies that Hastings was piloting through his 
cut-off. We then followed his road around the lake 
without any incident worthy of notice until reaching 
a swampy section of country west of Black Rock, the 
name we gave it. Here we lost a few days on the score 
of humanity, one of our company, a Mr. Holloron, 
being in a dying condition from consumption. We 
could not make regular drives, owing to his situation. 
He was under the care of George Donner, and made 
himself known to me as a Master Mason. In a few 
days he died. After the burial of his remains we 
proceeded on our journey, making our regular drives, 
nothing occurring of note until we arrived at the 
springs, where we were to provide water and as much 
grass as we could for the purpose of crossing the 
Hastings' Desert, which was represented as being 
forty or fifty miles in length; but we found it at least 
seventy miles. 

" We started to cross the desert, traveling day and 
night, only stopping to water and feed our teams as 
long as water and grass lasted. We must have made 
at least two-thirds of the way across when a greater 
portion of the cattle showed signs of giving out. 
Here the company requested me to ride on and find 
the water and report. Before leaving, I requested 
my principal teamster, that when my cattle became 
so exhausted that they could not proceed further 
with the wagons, to turn them out and drive them on 
the road after me until they reached the water; but 
the teamster, misunderstanding, unyoked them when 
they first showed signs of giving out, starting with 
them for the water. I found the water about twenty 
miles from where I left the company, and started on 
my return. About eleven o'clock at night, I met my 
teamsters with all my cattle and horses. I cautioned 



them particularly to keep the cattle on the road, for 
as soon as they would scent the water, they would 
break for it. I proceeded on and reached my family 
and wagons. Some time after leaving the men, one 
of the horses gave out, and while they were striving 
to get it along, the cattle scented water and started 
for it; and when they started with the hors /s, the 
cattle were out of sight; they could not find them or 
their trail, as they told me afterwards. They, suppos- 
ing the cattle would find water, went on to camp. The 
next morning the animals could not be found, and 
never were, the Indians getting them, except one ox 
and cow. Losing nine yoke of cattle here was the 
first of my sad misfortunes. I stayed with my family 
and wagons the next day, expecting every hour the 
return of some of my young men with water, and the 
information of the arrival of the cattle at the water. 
Owing to the mistake of the teamsters in turning the 
cattle out so soon, the other wagons had driven miles 
past mine and dropped their wagons along the road 
as their cattle gave out, and some few of them reached 
water with their wagons. 

" Receiving no information, and the water being 
nearly exhausted, in the evening I started on foot 
with my family to reach the water. In the course of 
the night the children became exhausted. I stopped, 
spread a blanket, and laid them down, covering them 
with shawls. In a short time a cold hurricane com- 
menced blowing; the children soon complained of 
the cold. Having four dogs with us, I had them lie 
down with the children outside the covering. They 
were then kept warm. Mrs. Reed and myself sitting 
to the windward, helped to shelter them from the 
storm. Very soon one of the dogs started up and 
commenced barking, the others following and making 
an attack on something approaching us. Very soon 
I got sight of an animal making directly for us. 
The dogs seizing it, changed its course, and when 
passing, I discovered it to be one of my young steers. 
Incautiously stating that it was mad, in a moment my 
wife and children started to their feet, scattering like 
quail, and it was some minutes before I could quiet 
camp; there was no more complaint of being tired or 
sleepy during the remainder of the night. We ar- 
rived about daylight at the wagons of Jacob Donner, 
the next in advance of me, whose cattle having given 
out, had been driven to water. Here I first learned 
of the loss of my cattle, it being the second day after 
they had started for water. Leaving my family with 
Mr. Donner, I reached the encampment. Many of 
the people were out hunting cattle; some of them had 



60 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



their teams together and were going back into the 
desert for their wagons. Among them was Jacob 
Donner, who tcindly brought my family along with 
his own to the encampment. 

" We remained here for days hunting cattle, some 
of the party finding all, others a portion, but all hav- 
ing enough to haul their wagons except myself On 
the next day, or the day following, while I was out 
hunting my cattle, two Indians came to the camp, 
and by signs gave the company to understand that 
there were so many head of cattle out, corroborating 
the number still missing. Many of the people be- 
came tender-footed at the Indians coming into camp, 
and thinking they were spies, wanted to get clear of 
them as soon as possible. My wife requested that 
the Indians should be detained until my return, but 
unfortunately, before I returned, they had left. Next 
morning, in company with young Mr. Graves — he 
kindly volunteering — I started in the direction the 
Indians had taken. After hunting this day and the 
following, remaining out during the night, we returned 
unsuccessful, not finding a trace of the cattle. I now 
gave up all hope of finding them, and turned my 
attention to making arrangements for proceeding on 
my journey. 

"In the desert were my eight wagons; all the team 
remaining was an ox and a cow. There was no alter- 
native but to leave everything but provisions, bedding, 
and clothing. These were placed in the wagon that 
had been used by my family. I made a cac/ie of 
everything else, the members of the company kindly 
furnishing a team to haul the wagon to camp. I di- 
vided my provisions with those who were nearly out, 
and, indeed, some of them were in need. I had now 
to make arrangement for a sufficient team to haul 
that one wagon. One of the company kindly loaned 
me a yoke of cattle, which, with the ox and cow I 
had, made two yoke. We remained at this camp, 
from first to last, if my memory serves me right, 
seven days. Leaving this camp we traveled for sev- 
eral days. It became necessary, from some cause, for 
the party who loaned me the yoke of cattle, to take 
them back. I was again left with my ox and cow, 
but through the aid of another kind neighbor, I was 
supplied with another yoke of cattle. 

"Nothing transpired for some days worthy of note. 
Some time after this it became known that some 
families had not enough provisions remaining to sup- 
ply them through. As a member of the company, I 
advised them to make an estimate of provisions on 
hand and what amount each family would need to 



take them through. After receiving the estimate of 
each family, on paper, I then suggested that if two 
gentlemen of the company would volunteer to go in 
advance to Captain Sutter's (near Sacramento), in 
California, I would write a letter to him for the whole 
amount of provisions that were wanted, and also stat- 
ing that I would become personally responsible for 
the amount. I suggested that, from the generous 
nature of Captain Sutter, he would send them. Mr. 
McCutchen came forward and said that if they would 
take care of his family he would go. This the com- 
pany agreed to. Mr. Stanton, a single man, volun- 
teered if they would furnish him with a horse. Mr. 
McCutchen, having a horse and a mule, generously 
gave the mule. Taking their blankets and provisions, 
they started for California. 

"After their leaving us we traveled on for weeks, 
none of us knowing the distance we were from Cali- 
fornia. All became anxious for the return of Mc- 
Cutchen and Stanton. It was here suggested that I 
go in advance to California, see what had become of 
McCutchen and Stanton, and hurry up supplies. 
They agreed to take care of my family. That being 
agreed upon, I started, taking with me about three 
days' provisions, expecting to kill game on the way. 
The Messrs. Donner were two days' drive in advance 
of the main party when I overtook them. With 
George Donner there was a young man named Walter 
Herren, who joined me." 

Leaving Mr. Reed and his companion to make their 
journey across the mountains in search of relief, we 
return to the main body of hungry and tired immi- 
grants, toiling along the trackless wilderness, and for 
their experience we give the story as told by Mr. Tut- 
hill in his valuable history. 

"Mr. Reed's and Mr. Donner's companies opened a 
new route through the desert, lost a month's time by 
their operations, and reached the foot of the Truckee 
Pass, in the Sierra Nevadas, on the thirty-first of Octo- 
ber, instead of on the first, as intended. The snow began 
to fall on the mountains two or three weeks earlier 
than usual that year, an'd was already so piled up in 
the pass that they could not proceed. They attempted 
it repeatedly, but were as often forced to return. One 
party built their cabins near the Truckee Lake, killed 
their cattle, and went into winter quarters. The other, 
Donner's party, still believed that they could thread 
the pass, and so failed to build their cabins before 
more snow came and buried their cattle alive. Of 
course they were soon destitute of food, for they could 
not tell where their cattle were buried, and there was 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



Gl 



no hope of game on a desert so piled with snow that 
nothing without wings could move. The number of 
those who were thus storm-stayed at the very thresh- 
old of the land whose winters are one long spring, 
was eighty, of whom thirty were women, and several 
children. The Mr. Donner who had charge of one 
company was an Illinoisan, sixty years of age, a man 
of high respectability and abundant means. His wife 
was a woman of education and refinement, and much 
younger than he. During November it snowed thir- 
teen days; during December and January, eight days 
in each. Much of the time the tops of the cabins 
were below the snow level. 

" It was six weeks after the halt was made, that a 
party of fifteen, including five women, and two In- 
dians, who acted as guides, set out on snow-shoes to 
cross the mountains, and give notice to the people of 
the California settlements of the condition of their 
friends. At first the snow was so light and feathery 
that even in snow-shoes they sank nearly a foot at 
every step. On the second day they crossed the 
"divide," finding the snow at the summit twelve feet 
deep. Pushing forward with the courage of despair, 
they made from four to eight miles a day. Within a 
week they got entirely out of provisions ; and three 
of them, succumbing to cold, weariness, and star- 
vation, had died. Then a heavy snow-storm came 
on, which compelled them to lie still, buried between 
their blankets under the snow, for thirty-six hours. 
By the evening of the tenth day three more had died, 
and the living had been four days without food. The 
horrid alternative was accepted — they took the flesh 
from the bones of their dead, remained in camp two 
days to dry it, then pushed on. On New Year's, the 
sixteenth day since leaving Truckee Lake, they were 
toiling up a steep mountain. Their feet were frozen. 
Every step was marked with blood. On the second 
of January, their food again gave out. On the third 
they had nothing to eat but the strings of their snow- 
shoes. On the fourth, the Indians eloped, justly sus- 
picious that they might be sacrificed for food. On 
the fifth they shot a deer, and that day one of their 
number died. Soon after three others died, and every 
death now eked out the existence of the survivors. On 
the seventh all gave out and concluded their wander- 
ings useless, save one. He, guided by two stray, 
friendly Indians, dragged himself on till he reached a 
settlement on Bear River. By midnight the settlers 
had found, and were treating with all Christian kind- 
ness, what remained of the little company that, after a 



month of the most terrible sufferings, had that morn- 
ing halted to die. 

" The story that there were emigrants perishing on 
the other side of the snowy barrier ran swiftly down 
the Sacramento Valley to New Helvetia, and Captain 
Sutter, at his own expense, fitted out an expedition of 
men and of mules laden with provisions, to cross the 
mountains and relieve them. It ran on to San Fran- 
cisco, and the people, rallying in public meeting, 
raised $1,500, and with it fitted out another expedi- 
tion. The naval commandant of the port fitted out 
still others. The first of the relief parties reached 
Truckee Lake on the nineteenth of February. Ten 
of the people in the nearest camp were dead. For 
four weeks those who were still alive had fed only on 
bullock's hides. At Donner's camp they had but one 
hide remaining. The visitors left a small supply of 
provisions with the twenty-nine whom they could not 
take with them, and started back with the remainder. 
Four of the children they carried on their backs. 
Another of the relief parties reached Truckee Lake 
on the first of March. They immediately started 
back with seventeen of the suff'erers; but a heavy 
snow-storm overtaking them, they left all, except three 
of the children, on the road. Another party went 
after those who were left on the way, found three of 
them dead, and the rest sustaining life by feeding on 
the flesh of the dead. 

" The last relief party reached Donner's camp late in 
April, when the snows had melted so much that the 
earth appeared in spots. The main cabin was empty, 
but some miles distant they found the last survivor of 
all lying on the cabin floor smoking his pipe. He 
was ferocious in aspect, savage and repulsive in man- 
ner. His camp kettle was over the fire, and in it his 
meal of human flesh preparing. The stripped bones 
of his fellow-sufferers lay round him. He refused to 
return with the party, and only consented when he 
saw there was no escape. Mrs. Donner was the last 
to die. Her husband's body, carefully laid out and 
wrapped in a sheet, was found at his tent. Circum- 
stances led to the suspicion that the survivor had 
killed Mrs. Donner for her flesh and her money, and 
when he was threatened with hanging, and the rope 
tightened round his neck, he produced over $500 
in gold, which, probably, he had appropriated from 
her store." 

Messrs. Reed and Herren, who, as has been stated 
in Mr. Reed's narrative, went ahead after the de- 
parture of McCutchen and Stanton, after enduring 



62 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



fearful hardships, reached Sutter's Fort at Sacramento, 
or New Helvetia, as it was then called. On their 
way down in Bear River Valley, they met Stanton 
with two Indians and provisions going to the relief of 
the emigrants. Mr. McCutchen had been prostrated 
by sickness and was unable to accompany him. 

Mr. Reed's request to Captain Sutter for mules and 
supplies was unhesitatingly complied with, and a re- 
lief party fitted out. In the meantime, however, the 
snow had fallen so heavily that in spite of the most 
desperate efforts it was impossible for them to enter 
the pass. The party returned for more help, but, 
unfortunately, the Mexican War was on and every 
able-bodied man was away. At Captain Sutter's 
suggestion, Mr. Reed started for San Francisco to 
see if he could not procure help there. He was com- 
pelled to make the journey by land, and arrived at 
San Jose at the time that city was in a state of siege. 
Here he was compelled to remain until after the 
battle of Santa Clara. Arriving at San Francisco, 
the public meeting that Mr. Tuthill speaks of above, 
was held, and the relief parties fitted out. Mr. Reed 
and Mr. McCutchen accompanied the first of these, 
which went by the river. Before leaving San Fran- 
cisco, however, he learned of the arrival at Bear 
Valley of the seven survivors of the party that left the 
Donner camp after his departure. At Johnson's 
ranch he got news of a relief party ahead of him, 
sent out by Sutter and Sinclair. He pushed on with 
his party, and on the route met this company return- 
ing with some of the immigrants, among whom were 
his own wife and two of his children. They only 
stopped a few minutes for greetings, and pushed on to 
the relief of the other sufferers, whom they reached 
about the middle of the next day. 

The first camp was that of Mr. Breen. Mr. Reed 
says: " If we left any provisions here, it was a small 
amount, he and his family not being in want. We 
then proceeded to the camp of Mrs. Murphy, where 
Keesburg and some children were. Here we left 
provisions and one of our company to cook for and at- 
tend them. From here we visited the camp of Mrs. 
Graves, some distance further east. A number of the 
relief party remained here, while Messrs. Miller, Mc- 
Cutchen, and one of the men, and myself, proceeded 
to the camp of the Messrs. Donner. This was a 
number of miles further east. We found Mrs. Jacob 
Donner in a very feeble condition. Her husband had 
died early in the winter. We removed the tent and 
placed it in a more comfortable situation. I then 



visited the tent of George Donner, close by, and found 
him and his wife. He was helpless. Their children 
and two of Jacob's had come out with the party we 
met at the head of Bear Valley. I requested Mrs. 
George Donner to come with us, as I would leave a man 
to take care of both George Donner and Mrs. Jacob 
Donner. Mrs. George Donner positively refused, 
saying that as her children were all out-she would not 
leave her husband in the condition he was in. * * 
* * When I found that Mrs. George Donner would 
not leave her husband, we took the three remaining 
children of Jacob Donner, leaving a man to take care 
of the two camps. Leaving all the provisions we could 
spare, and expecting the party from Sutter's Fort 
would be in in a few days, we returned to the camp 
of Mrs. Graves, where all remained during the night 
except McCutchen, Miller, and myself, we going to 
the cabin of Mr. Breen, where two of my children 
were. Notice was given in all the camps that we 
would start on our return to Sutter's early next day. 
About the middle of the day we started, taking with 
us all who were able to travel." 

The relief party that came after Mr. Reed did not 
reach the sufferers as soon as was expected, and the 
disasters that occurred in the meantime have already 
been related. The full details of all the sufferings of 
this unfortunate party would fill a larger book than 
this, with horrors unimaginable. Each of the relief 
parties, and especially that conducted by Mr. Reed, 
endured sufferings equal to those experienced by the 
unfortunates in the winter camp, and we think we are 
within bounds of truth in the statement that history 
has no parallel to the heroism displayed by these 
people in their efforts to rescue their suffering friends. 

In this year, 1846, came also Isaac Branham, Jacob 
D. Hoppe, Charles White, Joseph Aram, Zachariah 
Jones, Arthur Caldwell, William Daniels, Samuel 
Young, A. A. Hecox, William Haun, William Fisher, 
Edward Pyle with their families, Wesley Hoover and 
wife, John W. Whisman and wife, William and 
Thomas Campbell, Peter Ouivey, Thomas Kell and 
their families, Thomas West and four sons, Thomas, 
Francis T., George R. and William T., John Snyder, 
Septimus R. Moultrie, William J. Parr, Joseph A. 
Lard, Mrs. W. H. Lowe, Mrs. E. Markham, L. C. 
Young, R.J. Young, M. D.Young, Samuel C. Young, 
S. 0. Broughton, R. F. Peckham, Z. Rochon, Joseph 
Stillwell, George Cross, Ramon S. Cesena, M. Hollo- 
way, Edward Johnson, and James Enright. Many 
of these people and their descendants have made their 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



mark on the history of the county, as will be more 
fully seen by reference to their respective biographical 
sketches. 

MICHELTORENA WAR. 

After Mexico had achieved her independence, as 
previously related, the people generally fell into the 
new order of things, and for several years public affairs 
were conducted without much friction. In 1836, 
however, the disposition of the Mexican people to re- 
volt, asserted itself, but the ferment did not reach 
San Jose until 1842. Juan B. Alvarado had been in- 
augurated as civil governor of California, while Gen- 
eral Vallejo held chief command of the military forces. 
Between these two a jealousy had sprung up, each 
accusing the other of usurping powers not belonging 
to his office. Each complained to the central govern- 
ment at the city of Mexico. The quarreling and fre- 
quent appeals of these two functionaries at last be- 
came unendurable, and, in 1842, General Micheltorena 
was dispatched to California to supersede both Alva- 
rado and Vallejo. 

The first intimation these officers had of this unex- 
pected result of their appeals to the general govern- 
ment, was the appearance of General Micheltorena at 
San Diego, with full powers to assume both the mili- 
tary and civil government of the department of Cali- 
fornia. This was a turn of affairs as undesired as un- 
expected, and, laying aside their personal differences, 
Alvarado and Vallejo formed an alliance to resist 
what they termed the usurpation of Micheltorena. 
Uniting their influence, it was not a difficult matter 
to bring the Spanish-speaking inhabitants, always 
ready for an uprising, to their standard. Among 
other arguments used to induce them to join the re- 
volt against the general government, was the rapid 
influx of foreigners, particularly of Americans. The 
pastoral, indolent, pleasure-loving Mexicans were no 
match in business affairs with the energetic, wide- 
awake, and, in many cases, unscrupulous foreigner. 
Wherever he had located he had possessed the coun- 
try. Even at that early day .=ome of the far-seeing 
ones among the native population predicted that, un- 
less the tide of immigration was immediately stopped, 
California would be lost to their people. This senti- 
ment was made use of by Alvarado and Vallejo, and 
the boast of their troops was, that, after disposing of 
Micheltorena, they would settle with the foreigners. 
The Americans, or "Gringos" as they called them, 
were particularly the subjects of their hatred. 

The Micheltorena War made no impression on this 



community. The new governor, after landing at San 
Diego, advanced up the country as far as what is now 
known as the Twelve Mile House on the Monterey 
road. Here, learning that the country around the bay 
was in arms again.st him, he retired. With this ex- 
ception, the campaign was conducted elsewhere. 
Some of the foreigners residing in the Santa Clara 
Valley joined Micheltorena, while others who had 
joined him in other places afterwards became resi- 
dents of this community. Except this, the war had 
no effect on this county. After a series of reverses 
Micheltorena, in 1845, was compelled to quit the 
country. When this was accomplished, Pio Pico was 
chosen governor, and Jose Castro, who had given 
material aid to Alvarado and Vallejo, was appointed 
general. 

THE MEXICAN WAR. 

The feeling against the Americans was growing 
more intense. The enlistment of many of them under 
the banner of Micheltorena, together with acts of ag- 
gression on the part of others, had served to aggra- 
vate the feeling of enmity, but no organized move- 
ment against them was made until the following year, 
1846. Gen. J. C. Fremont, who had been conducting 
a topographical survey for the United States, had lost 
a portion of his party, and visited this district to look 
for them. Having heard that they were camped on 
the San Joaquin River, he sent Kit Carson with two 
companies to pilot them into the Santa Clara Valley. 
Pending their arrival, he went to Monterey, and, being 
short of provisions, he, in company with Thomas O. 
Larkin, called on General Castro, and, stating the 
cause of his being there, asked permission to pass 
through the country. A verbal assurance that he 
would be unmolested was given, but a written pass- 
port was not granted, General Castro stating that his 
word was as good as any written document could be. 
A like assurance was also received from Don Manuel 
Castro, then prefect of the district. Returning to San 
Jose he met Kit C;irson, who had safely arrived with 
the missing party from the San Joaquin, but not find- 
ing here a sufficient store of provisions, he determined 
to g ) back to Monterey. 

On the way back he encamped at the Rancho La- 
guna Seca, about eigliteen miles south of San Jose, 
the property of William Fisher. Here a Mexican 
came into camp and claimed certain horses belonging 
to the command, alleging that they had been stolen. 
General (then Captain) Fremont, knowing that the 
horses had been brought by his command from the 



64 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



United States, refused to give them up. The Mexi- 
can, who was evidently in the employ of the Mexican 
authorities, left the camp, and, riding to San Jose, 
lodged a complaint with the Alcalde, against Fremont, 
charging him with the crime of horse stealing. On 
the twentieth of February, 1846, the Alcalde issued a 
summons citing Fremont to appear before him and 
answer the charge. This summons Captain Fremont 
refused to obey, but sent a written communication to 
Dolores Pacheco, who was then Alcalde, setting forth 
his title to the animals claimed. Having done this he 
proceeded to cross the Santa Cruz Mountains, taking 
nearly the same route now followed by the South 
Pacific Coast Railroad. Failing to reach him by civil 
process, the prefect, Don Manuel Castro, sent him, 
by an armed escort, a message commanding him to 
immediately leave the country, or force would be used 
to compel him to do so. 

Fremont, convinced that the Mexican authorities 
were determined to molest him, immediately marched 
to Hawkes' Peak, a rough mountain about thirty 
miles from Monterey, and intrenched himself See- 
ing that his intended victim had taken the alarm. 
General Castro threw off all disguise, and, placing him- 
self at the held of a company of about two hundred 
men, with a couple of small cannon, made a demon- 
stration toward the American position. Don Jose's 
courage, however, does not seem to have been equal 
to his vanity, for, while announcing to his followers, 
and to the headquarters at Mexico, the dire retri- 
bution that he was about to visit on the cursed 
"Gringos," he contented himself with showing his 
force at a safe distance from the rifles of the Ameri- 
cans. Finding that this display did not strike terror 
to the hearts of the strangers, and compel them to 
flight, he essayed by treachery to accomplish that 
which he had not courage to attempt by force. He 
wrote a letter to Fremont proposing that they should 
join forces, and together march against Governor 
Pio Pico and conquer the country for themselves. 
John Gilroy, the Scotchman whom we have spoken 
of as being the first foreigner to settle in this county, 
was selected as the messenger to bear this proposition 
to Fremont. Whether Castro intended by this means 
to get Fremont into his power, or whether he really 
meditated treachery against his own country, will 
never be known, for, when Gilroy reached Hawkes' 
Peak, which he did on the tenth, the enemy had van- 
ished. Fremont had waited throe days for Castro's 
attack, and, not having any more time to spare, had 



abandoned his camp, and by a forced march reached 
the San Joaquin Valley. 

As soon as Castro learned that the enemy had re- 
tired, his courage revived, and, making a charge on 
the abandoned works, secured material for a grandil- 
oquent dispatch, which he lost no time in writing and 
forwarding to Monterey. The report, after reciting 
the deeds of valor performed by himself, concluded 
with the statement that he should not return to peace- 
ful pursuits until every accursed foreigner had been 
swept from the country. 

At this time there was great dissatisfaction on the 
part of the Mexican inhabitants of California, by rea- 
son of the treatment they were receiving at the hands 
of the central government. They received no assist- 
ance or protection from Mexico, and, while taking care 
of themselves, were paying revenue to the general 
treasury. This dissatisfaction finally culminated in a 
convention held at the Mission San Juan, at which 
the question was discussed as to which power, En- 
gland or France, should be selected to establish a pro- 
tectorate over the country. Don Mariano Guadalupe 
Vallejo was a member of this convention, and de- 
livered an eloquent speech against submitting to a 
protectorate from any power, and urging his people to 
declare their independence and set up a government 
for themselves. While his speech did not induce the 
protectionists to abandon their position, it had the 
effect of postponing their decision, and this delay 
made it possible for the United States to acquire 
California. The English Government it seems was in 
communication with Pico and Castro, and confidently 
expected through them to add California to its list of 
colonies. Admiral Seymour, with the frigate Colling- 
wood, was lying in the harbor at Acapulco, about to 
sail for Monterey, to take possession of the country. 
At the same time Commodore Sloat, with a United 
States vessel, was at the same port. 

John Parrot, afterwards a prominent citizen of San 
Francisco, was then in Mexico, and in a position where 
he was enabled to learn something of the intentions 
of the British Government in regard to California. 
Ascertaining that a movement was about to be made 
to hoist the English flag over the capitol at Monterey, 
he sent a courier to Commodore Sloat warning him 
of this intention. The Commodore immediately went 
to sea. He reached Monterey Bay, and, on the 
seventh day of July, 1846, hoisted the star-spangled 
banner over the capitol of the department. Admiral 
Seymour arrived soon afterward, but, having no 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



65 



authority to inaugurate hostilities with the United 
States, he was powerless. If the convention at San 
Juan had declared the independence of Alta Cali- 
fornia, or had taken other steps to sever their alle- 
giance to Mexico, the result would have been quite 
different. But, being a colony of a country which 
was at war with the United States, the capture of 
California by Commodore Sloat was entirely legiti- 
mate, and no outside power had a right to interfere. 

Two days after raising the American flag at Mont- 
erey, Commodore Sloat issued the following procla- 
mation, a copy of which was sent by a courier, Henry 
Pitts, to General Castro, then with his forces at San 
Jose: — 

"To tJic inhabitants of California — 

"The central troops of Mexico having commenced 
hostilities against the United States of America by 
invading its territory, and attacking the troops of the 
United States stationed on the north side of the Rio 
Grande, and with a force of seven thousand men, 
under the command of General Arista, which army 
was totally destroyed, and all their artillery, bag- 
gage, etc., captured on the eighth and ninth of May 
last, by a force of twenty-three hundred men, un- 
der the command of General Taylor, and the city of 
Matamoras taken and occupied by the forces of the 
United States, and the two nations being actually at 
war by this transaction, I shall hoist the standard of 
the United States at Monterey immediately, and shall 
carry it through California. I declare to the inhabit- 
ants of California, that, although I come in arm.s, with 
a powerful force, I do not come among them as an 
enemy of California; on the contrary, I come as their 
best friend, as henceforth California will be a portion 
of the United States, and its peaceable inhabitants 
will enjoy the same rights and privileges they now 
enjoy, together with the privilege of choosing their 
own magistrates and other officers for the adminis- 
tration of justice among themselves; and the same 
protection will be extended to them as to any other 
State in the Union. They will also enjoy a perma- 
nent government, under which life and property and 
the constitutional right and lawful security to worship 
the Creator in the way most congenial to each one's 
sense of duty will be secured, which, unfortunately, the 
central government of Mexico cannot afford them, de- 
stroyed, as her resources are, by internal factions and 
corrupt officers, who create constant revolutions to 
promote their own interests and oppress the people. 
Under the flag of the United States, California will 
9 



be free from all such troubles and expenses; conse- 
quently the country will rapidly advance and improve, 
both in agriculture and commerce; as, of course, the 
revenue laws will be the same in California as in all 
other parts of the United States, affording them all 
manufactures and produce of the United States free 
of any duty, and of all foreign goods at one-quarter 
the duty they now pay. A great increase in the 
value of real estate and the products of California may 
be anticipated. With the great interest and kind 
feelings I know the government and people of the 
United States possess toward the citizens of California, 
the country cannot but improve more rapidly than 
any other on the continent of America. Such of the 
inhabitants, whether natives or foreigners, as may not 
be disposed to accept the high privileges of citizen- 
ship, and to live peacefully under the Government of 
the United States, will be allowed time to dispose of 
their property, and remove out of the country, if they 
choose, without any restriction, or remain in it, main- 
taining strict neutrality. With full confidence in the 
honor and integrity of the inhabitants of the country, 
I invite the judges, Alcaldes, and other civil officers, to 
execute their functions as heretofore, that the public 
tranquillity may not be disturbed, at least until the 
government of the territory can be definitely ar- 
ranged. All persons holding titles to real estate, or 
in quiet possession of lands under color of right, shall 
have these titles guaranteed to them. All churches, 
and the property they contain, in possession of the 
clergy of California, shall continue in the same right 
and possession they now enjoy. All provisions and 
supplies of every kind furnished by the inhabitants for 
the use of United States ships or soldiers, will be paid 
for at fair rates; and no private property will be 
taken for public use without just compensation at the 
moment. JoHN D. Sloat, 

"CommanJer-in-Chief of the U. S. Naval Force in the Pacific Ocean." 

This proclamation of Commodore Sloat was the first 
announcement to the white inhabitants of California 
that war was pending between the United States and 
Mexico. 

We left the Mexican commander, Castro, at Hawkes' 
Peak, where he had captured the abandoned camp of 
Captain Fremont. From there he marched to differ- 
ent points, and finally established his headquarters at 
Santa Clara. In the meantime the American in- 
habitants of California had become thoroughly con- 
vinced that some action was necessary on their 
part to preserve their lives and property from the 
attacks of the Mexicans, who seemed resolved to 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



carry out their threat formerly made, that "after 
disposing of Micheltorena, they would settle with 
los Americanos!' They were too weak in numbers 
to make headway against such forces as Castro and 
the numerous guerrilla leaders could bring into the 
field; but, relying on securing accessions to their 
numbers from the large trains of immigrants arriving, 
and to arrive, from across the mountains, they resolved 
to organize. Besides the Americans, there were 
representatives from many other nations amongst the 
population on this coast, all in equal jeopardy. 

A meeting was held in Sonoma, on June 14, 1846, 
which resulted in a declaration of independence, and 
the raising of the famous " Bear Flag," on the plaza 
of that town, as the standard of what they termed 
the California Republic. At the time of the capture 
of Sonoma, there were taken prisoners, General 
Vallejo, who had so eloquently acted the part of a 
Patrick Henry at the convention of San Juan, to- 
gether with his brother-in-law, Mr. Jacob P. Leese, 
an American; Lieutenant-Colonel Victor Prudon, and 
Captain Don Salvador Vallejo. The Bear Flag party 
communicated with Fremont, who joined them at 
Sonoma, on the morning of June 25, with ninety 
mounted men, called the Fremont Rifles. On the 
receipt of the news of the capture of Sonoma, Gen- 
eral Castro issued two proclamations, which are inter- 
esting, as showing how much more energetic he was 
in speech than in action. 

" The citizen Jose Castro, Lieutenant-Colonel of Cavalry 
in the Mexican Army, and acting General Com- 
mander of the Department of California: — 
"Fellow-citizens : The contemptible policy of the 
agents of the United States of North America, in this 
department, has induced a portion of adventurers, who, 
regardless of the rights of men, have daringly com- 
menced an invasion, possessing themselves of the town 
of Sonoma, taking by surprise all that place, the mili- 
tary commander of that border. Colonel Don Mariano 
Guadalupe Vallejo, Lieutenant-Colonel Don Victor 
Prudon, Captain Salvador Vallejo, and Mr. Jacob 
P. Leese. Fellow-countrymen, the defense of our 
liberty, the true religion which our fathers possessed, 
and our independence, call upon us to sacrifice our- 
selves rather than losethese inestimable blessings; ban- 
ish from your hearts all petty resentments, turn you 
and behold yourselves, these families, these innocent 
little ones which have unfortunately fallen into the 
hands of our enemies, dragged from the bosom of 
their fathers, who are prisoners among foreigners, and 



are calling upon us to succor them. There is still 
time for us to rise en masse, as irresistible as retribu- 
tive. You need not doubt that divine Providence will 
direct us in the way to glory. You should not vacil- 
late because of the smallness of the garrison of the 
general headquarters, for he who will sacrifice himself 
will be your friend and fellow-citizen. 

"Jo.sE Castro. 
''Headquarters, Santa Clara, June ly, iS.^6." 



"Citizen Jose Castro, Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery 
in the Mexican Army, and acting General Com- 
mander of the Department of California: — 
" All foreigners residing among us, occupied with 
their business, may rest assured of the protection of 
all the authorities of the department, whilst they 
refrain entirely from all revolutionary movements. 
The general commandancia under my charge will 
never proceed with vigor against any persons, neither 
will its authority result in mere words, wanting proof 
to support it; declaration shall be taken, proofs exe- 
cuted, and the liberty and rights of the laborious, 
which are ever commendable, shall be protected. Let 
the fortune of war take its chance with those ungrate- 
ful men, who, with arms in their hands, have attacked 
the country, without recollecting they were treated by 
the undersigned with all the indulgence of which he 
is so characteristic. The inhabitants of the depart- 
ment are witnesses to the truth of this. I have 
nothing to fear, my duty leads me to death or victory. 
I am a Mexican soldier, and I will be free and inde- 
pendent, or I will gladly die for these inestimable 
blessings. JOSE C ASTRO. 

"Headquarters, Santa Clara, June ly, 184.6." 



Notwithstanding these valorous declarations, Castro 
neglected to take the field, but remained inactive, the 
only movement on his part being to change his camp 
from Santa Clara to San Jose. On the ninth of July, 
just twenty-three days after the issuance of these 
proclamations, in which the doughty general had 
declared his unalterable determination to die in 
defense of his country, the messenger bearing 
Commodore Sloat's proclamation came riding into 
San Jose. His approach had been announced some 
little time before, and Castro had his men in ranks 
when the courier arrived. Having received the dis- 
patch and glanced over it to ascertain its purport, he 
formed his men in line in front of the juzgado on 
Market Street, and announcing, "Monterey is taken 
by the Americans," proceeded to read to them the 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



67 



proclamation, which, having been concluded, he ex- 
claimed: "What can I do with a handful of men 
against the United States? " I am going to Mexico! 
All you who wish to follow me, right-about-face ! 
All that wish to remain, can go to their homes." A 
very few of his men elected to go with Castro, and with 
these he rode off southward, on the same day. He 
did, however, give the Americans a parting kick. 
Having arrested Charles M. Weber in his store in San 
Jose, he carried him off a prisoner, detaining him until 
the party reached Los Angeles, where he was released. 

While these events were transpiring, Thomas 
Fallon raised a company of twenty-two men at Santa 
Cruz, for the purpose of joining the Bear Flag party. 
Crossing the Santa Cruz Mountains he had arrived 
within about three miles of San Jose, when he learned 
that Castro was holding both San Jose and Santa 
Clara with a force of about three hundred men. 
Thinking it not advisable to risk his small company 
in an engagement with such a superior force, he fell 
back into the mountains. Here he received some 
accessions to his numbers and returned to the valley, 
concealing himself in the willows and mustard along 
the creek. Here he heard of the arrival of Commo- 
dore Sloat's courier and of Castro's intention to retire- 
Getting his men into their saddles, they dashed into 
San Jose and rode to the juzgado. But it was 
too late; Castro had fled and Fallon's force was too 
small for pursuit. He, however, took possession of 
the juzgado, together with the archives of the pueblo, 
and made a prisoner of the Alcalde, Dolores Pacheco. 
This Pacheco, it will be remembered, was the Alcalde 
who summoned Fremont to appear before him to 
answer the charge of horse stealing. Captain Fallon 
announced his victory to Commodore Sloat, who sent 
him an American flag, which was raised over the juz- 
gado on the thirteenth, and was the first standard of 
the United States to float in the grateful breezes of 
this beautiful valley. Fallon appointed James Stokes 
as Alcalde, and then, with his company, joined Fre- 
mont, who had moved down to San Juan. 

The necessity of holding San Jose and the fertile 
valley of which it was the center, induced the com- 
mander of the United States sloop of war Portsmontli 
to dispatch its purser, Watmough, to the pueblo, with 
thirty-five marines, as soon as it became known that 
Fallon had gone south. He made his headquarters 
at the juzgado, and strengthened his command by the 
enlistment of a few volunteers. The tide of war, 
however, had flowed southward, and with the excep- 
tion of a short expedition against the Indians of San 



Joaquin Valley, the military operations did not 
amount to much. He returned to his vessel in Oc- 
tober. 

At this time Commander Hull, of the United States 
sloop of war Warren, was in command of the 
northern district of California, and from him issued 
commissions to Charles M. Weber as captain, and 
John M. Murphy as lieutenant, of a company to be 
enlisted in the land service, to serve during the war. 
They raised a company of thirty-three men, and 
established headquarters in an adobe building on the 
east side of what is now known as Lightston Street. 
This company did good service in scouting the coun- 
try and preventing depredations by the straggling 
remnants of Castro's command, and securing supplies 
for the use of the troops. 

About the time Weber and Murphy received their 
commissions, a body of immigrants arrived at Sutter's 
Fort, where they were met by Captain Swift, of Fre- 
mont's battalion, who had been detailed as recruiting 
officer. Among the immigrants was Joseph Aram, 
who afterwards became an honored citizen of Santa 
Clara County. Aram immediately enlisted and was 
appointed a captain. With his volunteers he pro- 
ceeded to escort the families of the immigrants to 
Santa Clara, where he made his headquarters, in 
November. The accommodations were very inade- 
quate, and the season being a very rough one, four- 
teen died by February, and many more became 
seriously sick. Captain Aram had a force of thirty- 
one men, and hearing that a Colonel Sanchez with a 
large force of mounted Mexicans was threatening the 
mission, he proceeded to put it in as good condition 
for defense as his means would permit. Wagons, 
and even branches cut from the trees on the Ala- 
meda, were used to construct barricades across the 
various approaches. 

At the time Captain Aram took possession of the 
mission. Captain Mervin, of the United States Navy, 
sent Lieutenant Pinckney with Midshipmen Wat- 
mough and Griffin, of the Savannah, and sixty men, 
to re-inforcc Weber and Murphy, at San Jose. On 
the afternoon of November 2, this force took posses- 
sion of the juzgado and transformed it into a barrack, 
entrenching the position by breastworks and a ditch. 
Videttes were stationed on all the roads, and a senti- 
nel posted on the Guadaloupe bridge. In addition to 
these precautions, Weber and Murphy's company 
were almost continually in the saddle, scouting the 
country in all directions. This was absolutely nec- 
essary, as the Mexican Sanchez, with a large force, 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



was hovering around the valley, picking up stragglers 
and looking for a favorable opportunity to make a 
sudden attack. At the same time, the Americans 
were anxious to meet Sanchez on a fair field, but his 
movements were so erratic and rapid that he could 
not be brought to bay. 

In the first days of September, Sanchez, by means 
of an ambush, surprised and captured Lieut. W. A. 
Bartlett, of the United States sloop Warren, and 
who was then acting as Alcalde of San Francisco. 
He, with five men, were out looking for supplies of 
cattle and reached a point near the Seventeen Mile 
House, when Sanchez dashed out from the brush and 
made them prisoners. Martin Corcoran, afterward a 
prominent citizen of Santa Clara County, was with 
the captured party. The prisoners were carried to 
Sanchez' camp, which was among the redwoods in the 
foot-hills of the Santa Cruz Range. Word was 
brought to San Jose that Sanchez was somewhere in 
the northern part of the valley, and Weber and 
Murphy started out in pursuit with their company. 
After advancing a few miles, they ascertained that 
Sanchez had received large accessions to his force, 
including a piece of artillery, and was occupying a 
strong position in the hills back of San Mateo. 
Captain Weber's little company being too small to 
render an attack advisable, pushed on to San Fran- 
cisco to report to the commander. 

As soon as Weber had passed on, Sanchez came 
down out of the hills and encamped north of San 
Jose, on the Higuerra ranch. Two days later he 
started for the pueblo, thinking he could capture it 
without a figlit, as Weber's company was absent. 
He took up a position on the Almaden road, south 
of town, and sent in a flag of truce, demanding a sur- 
render, stating that he had with him two hundred 
men, whose eagerness for battle could with difficulty 
be restrained; but if the American forces would leave 
San Jose, they would be permitted to depart un- 
molested. Lieutenant Pinckney refused the offer, 
doubled his guards, and prepared for battle. That 
night was one of great anxiety to the little band 
behind the intrenchments on Market Street. Every 
one was on the qui vive, and although each nerve was 
strung to its utmost tension, there was no flinching, 
even in the face of the overwhelming odds opposed 
to them. During the night, Sanchez circled round 
the town and carefully inspected the position of 
the Americans from every point. But when he 
saw the preparations made for his reception, his heart 
failed him, and he rode off with his command and 



went into camp about five miles north of Santa Clara. 
He kept with him Lieutenant Bartlett and his men, 
whom he had taken prisoners a few days before. At 
that time, J. Alex. Forbes, the acting British Consul, 
was at Santa Clara. Mr. Forbes, taking a small 
English flag in his hand, visited the camp of Sanchez 
for the purpose of negotiating for the release of the 
prisoners. Sanchez was willing that Bartlett might 
go with Forbes, but would not consent that he should 
be turned over to the Americans unless \.\\&y would 
deliver up Capt. Charles Weber in his place. Forbes 
communicated this proposition to the commander at 
San Francisco, and, pending a reply, took Bartlett to 
his own home in Santa Clara. Word came quickly 
from San Francisco that Sanchez' proposition could 
not be entertained, and Bartlett was returned to the 
Mexican camp. 

During this time Weber's company had reached 
San Francisco, where it was joined by other forces, 
and all were placed under the command of Capt. 
Ward Marston, United States Marine Corps, of the 
Savannah. The composition of this army was as 
follows: Thirty-four marines under command of 
Lieut. Robert Tansill; a six-pound ship's gun, with 
ten men, commanded by Master William F. D. Gough, 
assisted by Midshipman John Kell; the San Jose 
Volunteers, a body of thirty-three mounted men, 
under command of Capt. Charles M. Weber and 
Lieut. John M. Murphy, with James F. Reed, who 
was seeking relief for the Donner party, as second 
lieutenant; Yerba Buena Volunteers, under command 
of Capt. William M. Smith, and a detachment of twelve 
men, under command of Capt. J. Martin. The whole 
force numbered one hundred and one men. They 
advanced from San Francisco, and on the second day 
of January, 1847, came in sight of Sanchez' forces, 
about four miles north of Santa Clara. The Mexican 
force was about two hundred and fifty men, or more 
than two to one against the Americans, but notwith- 
standing this great discrepancy, the little band of 
American troops advanced to the attack with enthu- 
siasm. Sane fz, whose scouts had brought him 
intelligence of the approach of the troops from San 
Francisco, first sent his prisoners towards the Santa 
Cruz Mountains, and then with a great show of valor 
made ready for battle. As soon as the Americans 
came in sight of 'the enemy, they pressed on to the 
attack, before which Sanchez fell back. The Ameri- 
cans continued to advance, and brought their one 
piece of artillery into position, but at the third round 
it was dismounted by the recoil, and half buried in the 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



69 



mud. The infantry, however, kept up a hot fire 
whenever they could get in range, which, owing to 
the extreme caution of the enemy, was not often- 
A good deal of ground was thus traversed, until 
finally Sanchez made a strong demonstration around 
the right flank of the Americans, evidently with the 
intention of cutting off and stampeding a large band 
of horses that were in charge of the United States 
troops. 

The reports of the artillery and the volleys of 
musketry had aroused the people of the mission, who 
ascended the house-tops to witness the battle. Cap- 
tain Aram, with the men under his command, was 
anxious to join the conflict, but as all the women and 
children of the country were under his protection, he 
did not feel at liberty to abandon them, especially as 
Sanchez, in his retrograde movements, was approach- 
ing his position. However, when the Mexicans made 
the demonstration on the American right, as above 
stated. Captain Aram, at the head of his men, marched 
from the mission with speed to attack Sanchez' right 
wing. At the same time Weber and Murphy's com- 
pany charged home, and drove the entire Mexican 
force from the field and towards the Santa Cruz 
Mountains, while the Americans marched in triumph 
to the mission. The Mexican loss was four men 
killed and four wounded. The Americans had two 
men slightly wounded. 

Soon after Sanchez had been driven from the field, 
he sent in to the mission a flag of truce, offering a 
conditional surrender. The reply was that the sur- 
render must be unconditional. Sanchez answered 
that he would die before he would surrender except 
on the conditions proposed by him. Finally, a cessa- 
tion of hostilities was agreed upon until such a time 
as his proposition could be submitted to the com- 
mander of the district, at San Francisco. 

During this armistice, and the day after the battle, 
January 3, Captain Aram went to the Mexican cor- 
ral to look for some horses that had been stolen from 
the Americans. While in the Mexican camp word 
was brought in that another American force was 
advancing from the direction of the Santa Cruz 
Mountains, and Sanchez, who seemed to be in great 
fear of an attack, requested Captain Aram to go out 
and meet them and inform them of the armistice. As 
no re-inforcements were expected from that direction, 
Aram could not imagine what this force could be; 
but he rode out to meet them, accompanied by a few 
men,and the acting British Consul, J. Alex. Forbes. It 
seems that the hope that England would take a hand 



in the affairs of California was not entirely abandoned, 
for, as Lieutenant Murphy states, Forbes carried with 
him a small English flag, concealed under the skirts 
of his saddle, presumably for the purpose of invoking 
the aid of the strangers should they prove to be En- 
glish. Several of the men in the escort saw the flag, 
and said afterwards that had an attempt been made 
to induce British interference its bearer would not 
have survived to enjoy the fruits of his negotiations. 
As it happened, however, the new party proved to be 
a force of fifty-nine men under command of Cap- 
tain Maddox, of the United States navy. They 
were disappointed to hear of the armistice, but re- 
spected its conditions. Three days after this event 
a courier arrived from San Francisco with orders 
informing Captain Marston that Sanchez' surrender 
must be unconditional. 

On the next day, the seventh, Lieutenant Grayson 
arrived at the mission with another re-inforcement of 
fifteen men, and on the eighth Sanchez unconditionally 
surrendered his entire force. His men were allowed 
to return to their homes, which most of them did, and 
afterward became good citizens of the United States. 
Sanchez was taken to San Francisco, and for a time 
was held as a prisoner of war on board the Savannah, 

The battle of Santa Clara was the last of hostilities 
in this county. The theater of war was transferred 
to the South, and no hostile gun was afterwards fired 
in the beautiful valley of Santa Clara. But few 
months elapsed after this engagement before the 
soldiers on both sides were mingled together in the 
friendliest kind of business and social relations. This 
will not seem remarkable when it is remembered that 
the inhabitants of California had, for a number of 
years, been dissatisfied with their relations to the 
Mexican Government. They had contemplated a 
revolution, and had, in a manner, accomplished it 
when they drove Micheltorena from the country. 
They did not intend to set up a government for them- 
selves, but were seeking the protection of some foreign 
power. It is true they had no love for the United 
States, but that government having taken possession 
of the country, they accepted the situation as being 
much better than their former condition, although 
not what they had hoped to achieve. The equal 
justice which was administered by the new adminis- 
tration of affairs soon reconciled them to their lot, 
and in a very few years they congratulated them- 
selves that things were as they were, and not as they 
had sought to make them. 

Hostilities between the United States and Mexico 



70 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



ceased early in 1848, and February 2 of that year 
the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, by 
which California was ceded to the conquerors. This 
treaty was ratified by the President of the United 
States March 16, was exchanged at Queretaro May 
30, and was proclaimed by the President July 4. 

California was now the property of the United 
States, but had neither Territorial nor State organiza- 
tion. In fact, it had no Territorial existence until 
1849. During this time its affairs were administered 
by the senior military officers stationed in California. 
These military governors were as follows : Commo- 
dore John D. Sloat, from July 7, 1846; Commodore 
Robert F. Stockton, August 17, 1846; Colonel John 
C. Fremont, January, 1847; General Stephen W. 
Kearney, March i, 1847; Colonel Richard B. Ma- 
son, May 31, 1847; General Bennett Riley, April 
13. 1849- 

DISCOVERY OF GOLD. 

In January, 1848, came the discovery of gold at 
Sutter's Mill. The excitement caused by this event has 
been described both in prose and verse. It spread 
like a conflagration throughout the coast, and, over- 
leaping the Sierras, swept over the continent, and 
thence across the Atlantic to the Old World. It 
came to the Santa Clara Valley after the annual grain 
crops had been planted. All business was suspended 
and everybody rushed to the mines. Many succeeded 
in securing a good supply of the precious metal, but 
many more did not. The grain in the fields grew 
and ripened, but waited in vain for the reaper, and 
was finally wasted or devoured by the grazing herds. 
Each report of a rich find intensified the excitement, 
while the numerous stories of disappointment seemed 
not to allay the fever. The town and country were 
deserted. There being no crops, for lack of harvest- 
ers, all food supplies went up to fabulous prices. The 
flour used was brought chiefly from Chili and sold 
for $20 per barrel. Everything else in the way of 
food, excepting meat, was proportionately high. La- 
bor, when it could be procured, was from $10 to $18 
per day. Lumber cost $100 per thousand feet for the 
hauling alone. For two years the onions raised on 
about six acres of ground near where the Southern 
Pacific Railroad depot now stands yielded a net profit 
of $20,000 per year. 

It has gone into history that the first discovery of 
gold was made in January, 1848, by Marshall, in the 
race at Sutter's Mill. Mrs. Virginia Murphy, daugh- 
ter of James F. Reed, and one of the Donner party, 



says that gold was discovered at Donner Lake in 
the winter of 1846-47. She says: "We were seated 
around the fire when John Denton, a gunsmith by 
trade, while knocking off chips from the rocks on 
which the wood was placed, saw something shining. 
He examined it and pronounced it to be gold. He 
then knocked off more chips from the rock, and 
hunted in the ashes for more of the shining particles 
until he had gathered a tablespoonful. He wrapped 
the gold in a piece of buckskin and put it in his 
pocket. When the first relief party came in he went 
out with it, but died on the way, and the gold was 
buried with him. When I saw my father, Mr. Reed, 
I told him of the circumstance, and he said: 'If 
John Denton says that that is gold it is gold, for he 
knows.' My father intended to go back to Donner 
Lake to search for the precious metal, but before he 
started, gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill; hence, 
he did not return to the lake. I have been told that 
the rocks used for the fire-place had been washed 
down from a mountain where gold was, but this 
mountain was probably many miles away." 

In the latter part of 1848 some of the citizens of 
San Jose who had gone to the mines returned. Some 
had made fortunes, others a few hundred or a few 
thousands of dollars, and others had made nothing, 
and, having become disgusted with their luck, came 
home to engage in other pursuits. Up to this time 
the immigration to California had been made up of 
those who were seeking homes for agricultural and 
other business purposes, but its character was entirely 
changed by the discovery of gold, and for severa 
years all classes of people poured into the State. 
They came by land and by water in search of the 
glittering metal. They were from all countries and 
were of all classes of society, from the highest to the 
lowest, and met here on a common level. Some of 
the most talented, educated, and refined men of the 
nation worked with pick and pan with nothing in 
their outward appearance to indicate the sphere in 
which they had been reared. There was the usual 
proportion of thieves, gamblers, and "knights of indus- 
try," and crime became rampant. Judge Lynch pre- 
sided at many of the extemporized courts, and 
"miners' law" was the law of the land. A very large 
number came with the intention of quickly acquiring 
a fortune and returning home. But few of these 
anticipations were realized. Many of the successful 
ones, charmed with the climate and fertile soil of 
California, became permanent residents. Many of 
those who were unsuccessful in the mines became 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



71 



successful in other pursuits, and made their homes 
here. Of both of these classes San Jose received a 
large portion, and agriculture and other industries 
began to be developed. Better buildings were con- 
structed, business enterprises inaugurated, the Mexi- 
can inhabitants with their grazing herds were gradu- 
ally pushed aside by the rustling American from 
across the mountains, and the vast pastures trans- 
formed into fields of grain. The fertile soil of the 
valley, when excited by the industry and improved 
implements of the immigrant, developed a mine of 
wealth no less valuable than the rich placers of the 
mountains. 

THE FIRST CAPITAL. 

The large increase in population, and the number 
of different business enterprises that were inaugu- 
rated, created a demand for a government different 
from that administered by the military department, 
and for a code of laws other than the traditions of 
Mexican jurisprudence. The matter was represented 
to General Riley, then military governor, who called 
the people to meet in convention and frame a consti- 
tution preliminary to asking Congress for admission 
as a State of the Union. This, the first Constitu- 
tional Convention, met at Monterey on the first day of 
September, 1849. The delegates sent from San Jose 
were Joseph Aram, Kimble H. Dimick, J. D. Hoppe, 
Antonio M. Pico, Elam Brown, Julian Hanks, and 
Pedro Sansevain. 

The people of San Jose, even at this early day, 
did not lack the spirit of enterprise which has since 
distinguished them. At a public meeting held for 
that purpose, a committee consisting of Charles White 
and James F. Reed was appointed for the purpose of 
attending the convention and urging upon that body 
the advisability of selecting San Jose as the future 
capital of the new State, This committee was met 
by representatives from other localities, each on the 
same errand. San Jose, however, carried off the prize, 
but in order to accomplish this, they were compelled 
to enter into an agreement that suitable buildings for 
the accommodation of the State government should 
be furnished in time for the meeting of the Legisla- 
ture, which was the fifteenth of the ensuing Decem- 
ber. As there were no such buildings in the town, 
this was a rather bold undertaking on the part of the 
committee. During the year, a large adobe house 
had been built by Messrs. Rochon and Sansevain, on 
the east side of Market Plaza, about opposite where 
the new City Hall now stands. This was the only 



building in the town that anyways approached the 
requirements of the State. The Ayuntamiento, or 
Town Council, resolved to rent this house for the ac- 
commodation of the Legislature. But the rent asked 
was $4,000 per month, and after further consideration, 
it was concluded to purchase the property for $34,000, 
that sum being less than would have to be paid for a 
year's rent. 

It was easy enough to resolve to purchase; but to 
provide the means was a matter of considerable 
difficulty. There was no money, and the owners of 
the building would not take the pueblo for security. 
At this juncture, a number of public-spirited citizens 
came forward and executed a promissory note for 
$34,000, with interest at eight per cent per month, 
and thus solved the difficulty. The names appended 
to the note were: R. M. May, James F. Reed, Peter 
Davidson, William McCutcheon, Joseph Aram, David 
Dickey, Charles White, F. Lightston, R. C. Keyes, 
Peter Quivey, J. D. Hoppe, J. C. Cobb, K. H. Dim- 
ick, Benjamin Cory, W. H. Eddy, Grove Cook, 
Isaac Branham, J. Belden, and P. Sansevain. The 
deed was taken in the names of Aram, Belden, and 
Reed, as trustees for the purchasers, with a condition 
that the property should be conveyed to the pueblo 
when it should pay for the same. The State issued 
bonds to the amount of $50,000, to pay for the 
property. These bonds were sold for forty cents on 
the dollar, leaving the original purchasers considera- 
bly out of pocket on the investment. To recover the 
balance, suits were instituted against the city, and the 
litigation continued for a number of years in differ- 
ent forms. A history of this dispute will be found 
in the chapter on " Land Titles," further on in this 
work. From Mr. Hall's history of San Jose, we take 
the following description of this building: " It was 
sixty feet long, forty feet wide, and adorned with a 
piazza in front. The upper story contained but one 
room, with a stairway leading thereto. This room 
was occupied by the Assembly. The lower story 
was divided into four rooms. The largest one was 
forty by twenty feet, and was the Senate chamber. 
The other rooms were used by the secretary and 
various committees. In front of it stood a liberty 
pole, the top splice of which was the same that stood 
before the juzgado, bearing the ample folds of the 
first United States colors which wafted in this valley. 
This same top splice forms the upper part of the 
pole now in front of the engine house on Lightston 
Alley. The gilt ball at the top contains a written 
history of the facts pertaining thereto." This splice. 



72 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



with its gilt ball, was afterwards removed and placed 
on the top of the old City Hall, on Market Street. 

The election to ratify the Constitution was held 
November 13, 1849, the San Jose District casting five 
hundred and sixty-seven votes, all for its adoption. 
Peter H. Burnett was at the same time elected Gov- 
ernor, his opponent being W. S. Sherwood. 

The condition of affairs in San Jose at that time was 
very crude, both socially and commercially. It is 
well illustrated by " Grandma Bascom's Story," from 
the graceful pen of Mrs. M. H. Field, of San Jose, 
and which was published in the Overland Montlily, 
for May, 1887, and from which we quote: — 

"We reached Sacramento on the last day of Octo- 
ber. Then we took a boat for San Francisco. Our 
fare was $132, and we were eight days in getting to 
San Francisco. It rained and rained. I remember 
at Benicia we paid $1.50 for a candle. At San Fran- 
cisco we had hoped to find a house all ready to be 
put together, which Doctor had bought in New York 
and ordered sent round the Horn. He had also sent 
in the same cargo a great lot of furniture and a year's 
supply of provisions, but they never came till the next 
April, and then everything was spoiled but the house. 
We had also bought in San Francisco two lots at 
$1,700 each. The best we could do was to camp on 
them. The first night in San Francisco Mr. Bryant 
came to take supper with us, and the Doctor, to cele- 
brate, bought $5.00 worth of potatoes. We ate them 
all for supper, and didn't eat so very many either! 

" We had intended from the first to come to the 
Santa Clara Valley, for Doctor said that wherever the 
Catholic Fathers had picked out a site must be a good 
location. The children and I stayed in the city while 
Doctor came on horseback to San Jose and bought a 
house for us. Then he came back, and we started for 
San Jose with Professor Jack, while Doctor stayed in 
the city to buy and ship furniture and provisions to 
us. We came to Alviso in the boat and paid another 
$150 in fare, just for me and the children. From 
Alviso we came to San Jose by the Pioneer stage, 
through fearful mud and pouring rain, paying an 
'ounce' each for fare. On the boat I got acquainted 
with two nice gentlemen, both ministers, whose names 
were Blakeslee and Brierly. They two were coming 
to San Jose; also a Mr. Knox. 

'"We haven't any place to lay our heads when we 
get there,' one of them said. 

" 'Well, I've got a house,' said I, 'just as if I was in 
Kentucky, and if you can put up with what I'll have 
to, you can come with me and welcome.' So we were 



all driven straight to my house, on the corner of 
Second and San Fernando Streets. It was just dark, 
and the tenth of December. 

" The house had been bought of a Mrs. Matthews, 
and she was still in the house. Doctor had paid 
$7,000 for the house and two fifty-vara lots. I ex- 
pected to see at least a decent shelter; but, oh, my ! it 
was just as one of the children said, 'Most as good 
as our old Kentucky corn-crib.' It had two rooms 
and a loft, which was climbed into by a kind of ladder. 
The roof was of shakes and let the rain right through, 
and the floor was of planks, laid down with the 
smooth side up, and great cracks between that let the 
water run out. I was thankful for that! There was 
a chimney in the house, and fire-place, but hardly a 
bit of fire, nor any wood. It was rather a forlorn 
place to come to and bring visitors to, now, wasn't it ? 
Yet we had been through so much that the poorest 
shelter looked good to me, and besides it was our 
new home. We must make the best of it. Mrs. 
Matthews had a good supper for us on a table spread 
with a white cloth, and the children were overjoyed 
to see a real table-cloth once more. 

" 'Will you tell me where I can get some wood?' I 
said to Mrs. Matthews, thinking that a fire would be 
the best possible thing for us all. 

"'You can buy a burro load in the morning,' she 
answered. ' I've used the last bit to get supper with.' 
Well, the end of it was we took our supper and went 
to bed — nut on our nice Kentucky feather-beds, but 
on buffalo skins spread on the floor, and without any 
pillows. Mr. Knox and Mr. Blakeslee and Mr. Brierly 
climbed up into the loft, and turned in as best they 
could. Mr. Knox was sick, too, but I could not even 
give him a cup of hot tea. I said to Mrs. Matthews 
that I wished I could heat a stone to put to his feet. 

"'Stone!' said she; 'there are no stones in this 
country.' 

"We slept as if we were on downy beds, we were all 
so tired. The next morning I bought a 'burro' load 
of wood for an 'ounce.' Everything cost an 'ounce.' 
I soon got used to it. Wheat was 75 cents a pound, 
butter $1.00 a pound, eggs $3.00 a dozen. A chicken 
cost $3.00, milk $1.00 a quart. But their prices 
matched all around. Doctors charged $5.00 for draw- 
ing a tooth, and other things in proportion. I don't 
know as it made any difference. I divided my man- 
sion into four rooms, with curtains. Doctor came and 
brought us furniture and all the comforts money 
would buy. He paid $500 to get shingles on our 
roof. Mr. Blakeslee and Mr. Brierly stayed with us. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



73 



We all seemed to get on well together. It was not 
till spring that doctor found a black man who could 
cook. He paid $800 for him. Folks said he wouldn't 
stay — for, of course, he was free in California — but he 
did. He lived with us for four years. 

" People began to ask if they couldn't stay with us 
just for a few days till they found some other home; 
and then, somehow, they stayed on. Everybody had 
to be hospitable. The Legislature was in session and 
the town was more than full. The first thing I knew 
I had thirteen boarders — senators and representatives, 
and ministers, and teachers. Nobody who came 
would go away. I could always manage to make 
people feel at home, and they would all say that they 
would put up with anything, and help in all sorts of 
ways, if I would only let them stay. It was as good 
as a play to see them help me. Mr. Leek (he was the 
enrolling clerk in the Legislature) was a wonderful 
hand to make batter-cakes. We got up a reputation 
on batter-cakes, and our house was dubbed ' Slapjack 
Hall,' by my boy Al. It stuck to us. Mr. Bradford, 
from Indiana, could brown coffee to perfection. 

" Mr. Orr and Mr. McMullen always brought all the 
water. They were senators. I used to think they 
liked the job because there was a pretty girl in the 
house where they got the water. And that reminds 
me, several families got water from the same well. It 
was just a hole in the ground, about eight or ten feet 
deep, and no curb around it. Once a baby was creep- 
ing round on the ground and fell into it. The mother 
saw it and ran and jumped in after it. Then she 
screamed, and I ran out. There she was in the well, 
holding the baby upside down to get the water out 
of its lungs! 'Throw me a rope !' she screamed, and 
I ran for a rope. Then she tied it around the baby, 
and I drew it up. Meanwhile, our cries brought men 
to the rescue, and they drew up the poor woman. 
We tried to keep the well covered after that. 

" It .seemed impossible to get a cook. We even had 
a woman come down from San Francisco, but she 
didn't stay when she found we really expected her to 
cook. She .said she was a niece of Amos Kendall's, 
and wasn't going to cook for anybody. Professor 
Jack helped me steadily, and, as I said, everybody 
lent a hand. We had a very gay time over our meals, 
and everybody was willing to wash dishes and tend 
baby. I used to go up to the Legislature and enjoy 
the fun there as much as they enjoyed my house- 
keeping. The March of that winter was something 
to remember. People used to gel swamped on the 



corner of First and Santa Clara Streets. A little boy 
was drowned there. It was a regular trap for children. 

"Oh, did I tell you I built the first church and the 
first school-house in San Jose ? I did. I built it all 
alone, with my own hands, and the only tool I had 
was a good stout needle. It was the famous ' Blue 
Tent ' you have heard of. Mr. Blakeslee asked me if 
I could make it, and I told him of course I could. 
He bought the cloth and cut it out. It was of blue 
jean, and cost seventy-five cents a yard. The Presby- 
terian Church was organized in it, and Mr. Blakeslee 
had a school in it all winter. 

" We had a good deal of party going, and gave en- 
tertainments, just as if we had elegant houses and all 
the conveniences. The Spanish people were, some of 
them, extremely stylish. The ladies had dresses as 
rich as silk and embroidery could make them, and in 
their long, low adobe houses there were rich carpets 
and silk curtains trimmed with gold lace. I went to 
the first wedding in one of these houses. Miss Pico 
married a Mr. Campbell. It was very grand, but the 
odd dresses and the odd dishes upset my dignity 
more than once. Governor and Mrs. McDougall lived 
in an adobe house on Market Street, and they had a 
grand party there. I had a party, too, one day, and 
asked all the ladies of my acquaintance. Mrs. Bran- 
ham had given me six eggs, and I made an elegant 
cake, which I was going to pass around in fine style. 
I began by passing it to one of the Spanish ladies, 
and she took the whole cake at one swoop, wrapped 
it up in the skirt of her gorgeous silk dress, and said, 
' Mucha gracias.' I was never so surprised in my 
life, but there was nothing I could do. The rest of 
us had to go without cake that time. 

" Cattle and horses ran about the streets, and there 
were no sidewalks. We had to just pick our way 
round as best we could. 

" In the spring my piano came. It was sent by way 
of the Isthmus. It was the first piano in San Jose. 
It made a great sensation. Everybody came to see 
it and hear my little girl play. Indians and Spanish 
used to crowd round the doors and windows to hear 
the wonderful music, and many a white man, too, lin- 
gered and listened because it reminded him of home. 

" We moved into a better house in the spring, very 
near where the Methodist Church South now stands. 
We paid $125 a month for it. But when I look back 
it seems to me that I never had such an intellectual 
feast as in old 'Slapjack Hall.' The gentlemen who 
figured as cooks in my kitchen were the most intelli- 
gent and agreeable men you can imagine. They were 



74 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



all educated and smart, and they appeared just as 
much like gentlemen when they were cooking as 
when they were making speeches in the Legislature. 
I don't believe we ever again had such a choice set 
of folks under our roof here in San Jose. Doctor and 
I felt honored to entertain them, and yet they paid 
us $20 a week for the privilege. 

" Of course you know General Fremont and his wife 
were here that winter, and I knew them both. Mrs. 
Fremont's sister, Mrs. Jones, and I were great friends. 
Yes, indeed, there never were finer people than my 
boarders and neighbors in '49. Let me see; there 
were the Cooks and Hoppes, and Cobbs and Joneses, 
the Branhams and Beldens, and Hensleys and Will- 
iams, the Bralys, the Hesters and Crosbys, Murphys, 
Dickinsons, Hendersons, Kincaids, Campbells, Reeds, 
Houghtons, Tafts and Moodys. Then amongst the 
Spanish were the Picos and Sunols. Very likely I 
have forgotten a great many, just telling them off in 
this fashion, but I never forget them really. Many of 
the best citizens of San Jose now, with wives and 
children, yes, and grandchildren, were slim young fel- 
lows then, who had come to California to seek their 
fortunes. Fine, enterprising boys they were too. 
Some of them boarded with me. C. T. Ryland and 
P. O. Minor were inmates of 'Slapjack Hall,' and Dr. 
Cory and the Reeds will remember it well. 

" In 1852 we moved out on the Stockton ranch, and 
bought our own farm in Santa Clara, on which we 
built our permanent home, Somerville Lodge. I re- 
member we paid our head carpenter $16 a day. The 
house cost us $10,000. It would not cost $1,000 
now. We bought seeds to plant a garden, and an 
ounce of onion seed cost an ounce of gold ! We paid 
$6.00 each for our fruit trees. A mule cost $300; a 
horse, $400. But doctors' services were just as high- 
priced, and so we kept even." 

THE FIRST LEGISLATURE. 

The first Legislature met December 15, 1849, and 
on the 20th the first civil Governor was inaugurated. 
Representatives from other districts who had been 
disappointed in not securing the capital at the Con- 
stitutional Convention, renewed their efforts in the 
Legislature. About the first bill introduced into 
the Assembly was by George B. Tingley, providing 
for the removal of the capital to Monterey. The 
State House was not well adapted to the use of the 
Legislature, nor were all the conveniences of life to be 
had in San Jose at that early day. The people of the 
city, however, exerted themselves to make the condi- 



tion of affairs as pleasant as possible. They kept 
open house and entertained the law-makers to the best 
of their ability. 

This Legislature passed the act which gave San 
Jose its first legal incorporation under the United 
States rule. The act was passed in March, 1850, and 
on the eleventh of April the Ayuntamiento held its 
last meeting, and the new Common Council held its 
first meeting under the charter on the 13th. 

The anniversary of national independence was 
gratefully remembered in this first year of American 
civil administration in California. Mr. Hall says 
" there was a grand celebration, and much more inter- 
est felt than on such occasions in the Eastern States. 
The isolation from the other States made the feeling 
of national pride increase. We felt as though we 
were in a foreign land, and the tendency was to 
brighten and vivify the love of the whole country in 
every American. On that occasion the Hon. Will- 
iam Voorhies delivered the oration; James M. Jones 
also delivered one in Spanish for the benefit of the 
Mexicans present. Mr. Sanford, a lawyer from Geor- 
gia, read the Declaration of Independence. Thir- 
teen young ladies dressed in blue spencers and white 
skirts rode on horseback, followed by the 'Eagle 
Guards,' commanded by Capt. Thomas White; also 
five hundred citizens, some on horseback, some in 
carriages, and some afoot, made up the national pa- 
geant that wound its way to the south of the town, a 
mile or more, in the grove near the Almaden road ; 
and there the ceremony was performed, to the great 
pleasure and pride of the American settlers in this 
new country." 

UNDER STATE GOVERNMENT. 

On the ninthday of September, 1850, California was 
admitted to the Union as a State, and on the sixth 
day of January following the State Legislature as- 
sembled at San Jose. On the eighth Governor Bur- 
nett tendered his resignation, and John McDougall 
was sworn in as his successor. The overwhelming 
question was the removal of the capital from San 
Jose. The citizens did all in their power to retain 
it, offering large grants of valuable real property and 
funds for the construction of public buildings. The 
State scrip which the members were compelled to re- 
ceive as pay for their services was worth only forty 
cents on the dollar, but was taken at par by the citi- 
zens of San Jose. In short, every honorable effort 
was made to retain the capital, but in vain. General 
Vallejo exerted a greater influence, and an act was 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



75 



passed February 14 removing the State government 
to Vallejo. 

With this Legislature the boundaries of Santa 
Clara County, as a political subdivision of the great 
State of California, were defined. It originally in- 
cluded Washington Township, of Alameda County, 
but this was afterwards cut off, and the county re- 
duced to its present limits, which are as follows : Be- 
ginning at a point opposite the mouth of the San 
Francisquito Creek, being the common corner of 
Alameda, San Mateo, and Santa Clara Counties; 
thence easterly to a point at the head of a slough, 
which is an arm of the San Francisco Bay at its 
head, making into the mainland in front of theGegara 
rancho ; thence easterly to a lone sycamore vtree that 
stands in a ravine between the dwellings of Flujencia 
and Valentine Gegara ; thence easterly up said ravine 
to the top of the mountains, as surveyed by Horace 
A. Higley ; thence on a direct line easterly to the 
common corner of San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Alameda, 
and Santa Clara Counties, on the summit of the 
Coast Range ; thence southeasterly, following the 
summit of the Coast Range to the northeast corner of 
Monterey County;thence westerly, following the north- 
ern boundary of Monterey County to the southeast 
corner of Santa Cruz County ;thence northwesterly, fol- 
lowing the summit of the Santa Cruz Mountains to the 
head of San Francisquito Creek ; thence down said 
creek to its mouth ; thence in a direct line to the 
place of beginning. Containing about one thousand 
three hundred square miles. 

COUNTY GOVERNMENT. 

The county government was at first administered 
by the Court of Sessions, which held jurisdiction until 
1852, when the Board of Supervisors was created. 
In 1854 the government again went into the hands 
of the Court of Sessions, where it remained until the 
next year, when the Board of Supervisors was revived, 
and has administered the affairs of the county ever 
since. Thus far we have as nearly as possible fol- 
lowed the history of Santa Clara County in chrono- 
logical order; but in order to facilitate reference we 
shall henceforward treat each subject separately. 
Following is a list of those who have administered 
the government of the county from the date of its 
organization to the present time: — 

On the first day of June, 1850, the Court of Ses- 
sions was organized, with J. W. Redmon, President, 
and Caswell Davis and H. C. Smith, Associate 
Justices. 



July 5 — J. W. Redmon, President; John Gilroy, 
Caswell Davis, Associates. 

August 18 — J. W. Redmon, President; Charles 
Clayton and Caswell Davis, Associates. 

October 6, 1851— J. W. Redmon, President; R. B. 
Buckner and Marcus Williams, Associates. 

December, 185 1 — J. W. Redmon, President; Cyrus 
G. Sanders and Marcus Williams, Associates. 

May 14, 1852— J. W. Redmon, President; Peleg 
Rush and Cyrus G. Sanders, Associates. 

An election for Supervisors was held June 3, 1852, 
and in July, 1852, the new Board was organized as 
follows: — 

Isaac N. Senter, Chairman; Fred E. Whitney, 
William E. Taylor, Jacob Gruwell, Associates. 

December 6, 1852 — L. W. Bascom, Chairman; 
John B. Allen, A. M. Church, Levi Goodrich, Joseph 
C. Boyd, Associates. 

September 7, 1853 — George Peck, Chairman; 
Daniel Murphy, R. G. Moody, William Daniels, W. 
Gallimore, Associates. 

In April, 1854, the Court of Sessions again took 
charge, being composed as follows: — 

R. B. Buckner, President; Caswell Davis, Thomas 
L. Vermuele, Associates. 

October i, 1854 — R. B. Buckner, President; Cas- 
well Davis, C. G. Thomas, Associates. 

On April 9, 1855, another Board of Supervisors 
was elected. The organization of the Board from 
that time has been as follows: — 

April, 1855, to November, 1855— Samuel Hender- 
son, William R. Bassham, Daniel Murphy. 

From November, 1855, to November, 1856— Will- 
iam R. Bassham, William R. Bane, Samuel Morrison. 

From November, 1856, to October, 1857 — Cary 
Peebels, China Smith and D. R. Douglas. 

From October, 1857, to October, 1858 — Joseph H. 
Kincaid, Samuel A. Ballard, Albert Warthen. 

From October, 1857, to November, 1859 — John M. 
Swinford, H. D. Coon, Eli Jones; Isaac Branham 
served vice Jones. 

From November, 1859, to December, i860 — -H. D- 
Coon, H. J. Bradley, Isaac Branham. 

From December, i860, to October, 1861— H. J. 
Bradley, William M. Williamson, H. D. Coon. 

From October, 1861, to November, 1862 — H. J. 
Bradley, William M. Williamson, J. H. Adams. 

From November, 1862, to March, 1864— William 
M. Williamson, J. H. Adams, S. S. Johnson. 

From March, 1864, to March, 1866 — John A. 



76 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



Quinby, Chapman Yates, L. Robinson, J. A. Perkins, 
Frank Sleeper. 

From March, 1866, to March, 1868— John A. 
Quinby, Frank Sleeper, John A. Perkins, J. O. A. 
Ballou, John Cook. 

From March, 1868, to March, 1870— David Camp- 
bell, John Cook, William H. Hall, W. H. Patton, 
Oliver Cottle. (Cottle served vice Ballou, who re- 
signed.) 

From March, 1870, to March, 1872 — David Camp- 
bell, William H. Hall, W. H. Patton, J. M. Battee, 
Samuel I. Jamison. 

From March, 1872, to March, 1874— J. M. Battee, 
William Paul, W. N. Furlong, S. I. Jamison, J. W. 
Boulware. 

From March, 1874, to March, 1876— J. M. Battee, 
William N. Furlong, J. W. Boulware, Alfred Chew, 
William Paul, A. King, H. M. Leonard. 

From March, 1876, to March, 1878— S. F. Ayer, 
J. M. Battee, Alfred Chew, W. N. Furlong, A. King, 
H. M. Leonard, W. H. Rogers. 

From March, 1878, to March, 1880— S. F. Ayer, 
W. H. Rogers, W. N. Furlong, John Weathers, J. H. 
M. Townsend, M. D. Kell, H. M. Leonard. (Town- 
send resigned December, 1S79, and was succeeded by 
James Snow.) 

From March, 1880, to February, 1883 — S. F. Ayer, 
John Weathers, James Snow, M. D. Kell, H. M. 
Leonard, H. H. Main, Samuel Rea. 

From February, 1883-1885— W. E. Ward, H. 
Tillotson, W. O. Watson, H. McCleary, Peter Don- 
nelly, H. H. Main, S. A. Blythe. 

From March, 1885, to March, 1887— S. F. Ayer, W. 
A. Z. Edwards, A. Greninger, P. Donnelly, W. O. 
Watson. 

From March, 1887, to 1888— S. F. Ayer, W. A. Z. 
Edwards, A. Greninger, W. O. Watson, James Pheg- 
ley. 

Following are the dates at which the several town- 
ships in the county were first organized: — 

Almaden, 1850; Alviso, 1850; Burnett, 1850; Fre- 
mont, 1850; Gilroy, 1850; Milpitas, 1861; Redwood, 
1850; San Jose, 1850; Santa Clara, 1850. 

LAND TITLES. 

As to the titles by which real property is held in 
this county, while a detailed statement of all the 
technicalities through which they have passed would be 
out of place in a work of this kind, a general review 
may not be uninteresting or unprofitable. 

By the treaty with Mexico by which California was 



ceded to the United States, it was provided that pri- 
vate ownership in lands should be respected, in 
other words, that the agreements which the Govern- 
ment of Mexico had made with its subjects in refer- 
ence to acquiring title to lands should be carried out by 
the United States. The Mexican Government had 
been liberal in granting its territory to private per- 
sons, but it prescribed certain formalities to be per- 
formed before a complete title vested in the grantee. 
These conditions were, briefly, as follows: — 

The party asking a grant of lands must present a 
petition to the Governor, stating that the applicant is 
a citizen, the head of a family, and that he is in need 
of grazing lands, having flocks and herds to main- 
tain. It must contain a general description of the 
tract he desires, and be accompanied by a map or 
sketch called a deseno. The petition when received 
by the Governor was by him referred to the Alcalde, 
or some other like inferior officer having jurisdiction 
nearest the land of which the grant was asked. This 
reference was generally made by a foot-note, or mar- 
ginal order, directing the referee to inform himself in 
regard to the facts set forth in the petition, whether it 
would interfere with the rights of other parties to 
whom grants had previously been made, whether the 
interests of the government would be injured or jeop- 
ardized by complying with the petition, and such 
other information as he might deem important, and to 
report upon it. Upon receiving the report of the Al- 
calde, if it contained no objection, the Governor made 
what is called a "provisional grant." The descrip- 
tions in these provisional grants were, usually, very 
meager, and frequently referred to the petition and 
deseno to help them out. Frequently the grant was 
made of a certain number of leagues within gener- 
ally described exterior boundaries, and out of this 
originated many of the frauds which resulted in the 
getting of many more leagues than was intended to be 
granted by the government. The grant was either of 
a grazing right or in absolute property. It properly 
should, and generally did, contain a provision to the 
effect that it should be presented to the Territorial 
Departmental Assembly, which was the legislative body 
of the territory of Alta California, sitting at Monte- 
rey, for approval. 

It also provided that what is called "juridical pos- 
session" should be given. To this effect an order was 
generally made to some inferior officer, an Alcalde or 
prefect, or, in earlier days, to some inferior military 
officer, directing him to go, with assisting witnesses, 
upon the land and put the grantee in actual posses- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



77 



sion. The grant, however, was considered provisional 
or incomplete until it was presented to the Depart- 
mental Assembly and approved by that body. If all 
these formalities were strictly complied with, the 
boundaries defined and marked out, and it was not 
within the exterior boundaries of prior concessions or 
reservations, it was called a perfect or complete title 
as contradistinguished from a provisional or inchoate 
title. 

At the time of the cession of California there was 
probably not a perfect or complete title in the whole 
territory of Alta California. Under the terms of the 
treaty, however, the holders of these incomplete titles 
were to be permitted to go on and complete them 
under the laws of the United States. 

After the acquisition of California, and after ascer- 
taining the inchoate condition of the land grants and 
the importance of having them segregated from the 
public domain, and for the purpose of carrying out 
the provisions of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 
an act was passed by the Congress of the United 
States on the third of March, 1851, providing for com- 
missioners to be appointed by the President for the 
purpose of ascertaining and settling private land 
grants in California, with a right of appeal, by either 
the government or claimant, to the United States 
District Court for the State of California, or to the 
United States Supreme Court. To this commission 
all claimants were required to present their petitions 
for confirmation of their claims. Failure to so pre- 
sent them within a specified time after the passage of 
the act worked a forfeiture of the claim, which was 
thereafter treated as part of the public domain. Upon 
these claims being confirmed by these various tribu- 
nals, surveys were made by the Surveyor-General and 
patents issued thereon. 

Those lands which had not been granted by the 
Mexican Government were subject to the laws of the 
United States governing the disposition of the public 
domain. Besides these two classes of lands there was 
a third, that is, the lands granted to pueblos. 

Under the plan of Tepic, on the formation of each 
new pueblo in the New World, it was entitled, for its 
own use, for building purposes and for cultivation and 
pasturage, to a square of land extending one league 
in each direction from the center of the plaza, mak- 
ing in all four square leagues. Where the topogra- 
phy of the country, either by reason of the juxtapo- 
sition of the sea or of mountain barriers, prevented 
the land being taken in the form of a square, the four 



leagues were taken in some other form so as to include 
the pueblo. 

On the settlement of the pueblo of San Jose, the 
Mission of Santa Clara having been established to the 
west, the Mission of San Jose to the north and east, 
and the Mission of San Juan to the south, it became 
necessary to designate the boundaries so that the 
jurisdiction of the pueblo and the adjoining missions 
would not conflict. From year to year the old inhab- 
itants of the pueblo, in company with the younger 
persons in the community, were accustomed to go out 
and visit the monuments erected to designate these 
lines, and to cast additional stones upon them to keep 
them intact. The delimiting line between the pueblo 
and the Mission of San Jose ran from the mountains 
to the bay, about midway between Warm Springs 
and the present town of Milpitas. On the west (re- 
sulting from the settlement of a controversy between 
the Mission Fathers and the authorities of the pueblo) 
the Guadalupe River was fixed as the boundary, 
while the line between the pueblo and the Mission of 
San Juan was fixed across the valley to the south in 
the vicinity of Las Llagas Creek. 

San Jose, before the admission of California to the 
Union, was one of the few populous settlements in 
California, and was known at that time, and before, 
as the " Upper Pueblo." It was selected by the 
framers of our first constitution as the future capital 
of the State. Such an important destiny spurred the 
inhabitants to an extra effort to provide suitable ac- 
commodations for the officers of the State and its 
august Legislature. By various efforts, in the new and 
rather chaotic condition of things, the faith of the 
embryo city was pledged to pay the expenses of build- 
ing a State-house fronting on the plaza. It was 
rather a pretentious building for those times, but 
would be considered very insignificant in comparison 
with the structures surrounding that locality at the 
present day. At all events, with wages at an ounce a 
day for carpenters and masons, and lumber at several 
hundred dollars a thousand feet, its appearance and 
size were, by no means, commensurate with its cost, 
which was $34,000. 

The city becoming involved and unable to pay, 
under the direction of James M. Jones, an attorney 
then lately arrived from Louisiana, a judgment was 
obtained against her and in favor of the creditors. 
An execution was issued on this judgment, and all 
the pueblo lands sold at sheriffs sale, and bought in 
by a syndicate styling itself the " San Jose Land Com- 



78 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLDS 



pany." This syndicate soon became known in the 
local vernacular as the " Forty Thieves," although the 
number of its members was less than forty, and they 
were by no means thieves. But the title they claimed 
under became popularly known, and has passed into 
history, as the "Forty Thieves' Title." 

The San Jose Land Company, after acquiring its 
sheriff's deed to lands belonging to the city, as before 
related, claiming to be the successor in interest to the 
pueblo, presented its claim to the United States Land 
Commission sitting in San Francisco, praying for con- 
firmation to it, of the lands contained within these 
boundaries, asserting that there had been a concession 
by the Spanish crown to the pueblo of that large 
tract. A mass of documentary evidence, correspond- 
ence, etc., was introduced, also the testimony of wit- 
nesses, to the fact that these monuments had been 
placed there years before, and had been recognized 
by the citizens. Although no formal concession or 
grant had ever been found or produced, it was asserted 
that those acts indicated that one had actually been 
made. The Board of Commissioners and the United 
States District Court confirmed the grant to these 
exterior boundaries. 

In the meantime settlers had located on lands in- 
cluded in this tract, under the impression that it be- 
longed to the government, or to private parties of 
whom they had purchased. They had made improve- 
ments and established homes. By this decision ex- 
tending the limits of the pueblo, their property was 
absorbed, and they united, some fourteen of them, in 
securing an appeal to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

At this time there was in existence a body known 
as the Commissioners of the funded debt of the city 
of San Jose. Judge Spencer, who was a member of 
this board, was anxious to have the decision of the 
District Court sustained, knowing that the land com- 
pany had no valid claim, and that if the title to this 
large tract was confirmed to the city, it could be main- 
tained. He succeeded in effecting a compromise, by 
which the Supreme Court affirmed the decision of the 
lower court, except as to the tracts owned by the 
fourteen settlers as before stated. A final decree was 
made to this effect. Afterward this large body of 
land was sold in tracts, to actual settlers, at the price 
fixed by the United States Government for its public 
lands. With the proceeds of these sales the debt of 
the city of San Jose was extinguished, and up to 1887 
the city had no debt of any kind whatever. In due 



time the pueblo was surveyed out, and, in 1884, a 
patent was issued. 

This claim of the San Jose Land Company was the 
subject of more or less litigation and trouble from 
time to time until 1869. It came up in the case of 
Branham et al. versus the City of San Jose, where it was 
held by the Supreme Court that the city's lands were 
not subject to execution and sale under a judgment 
against her. A number of years later, upon the adop- 
tion of a charter for the city, a clause was inserted 
which, it was claimed, confirmed the land company's 
title. Upon that claim an action was brought in the 
United States Circuit Court for the District of Cali- 
fornia to recover possession of the large body of land 
within the corporate limits which had not passed by 
legalized grants. The case was Leroy versus Chaboya 
et al. — some six hundred different defendants being 
named, and involving the title to a very large portion 
of the land within the city limits. Mr. E. Spencer, 
who was counsel for the defendants, obtained a ruling 
from the District Court to the effect that the provisions 
of the charter referred to did not amount to a con- 
firmation in favor of the land company, or its succes- 
sor, thus ending a case of great importance to the 
inhabitants of the city and surrounding territory, and 
which went far to settle land titles in this vicinity. 

MISSION GRANTS. 

Grants, of rather an indefinite character, were 
claimed to have been made to the various missions, of 
which there were a number, both in Northern and 
Southern California. When the missions were secu- 
larized, as elsewhere related, these grants reverted to 
the State. Notwithstanding this act of secularization, 
several of the missions retained more or less landed 
property, such as church edifices, orchards, etc., and 
these, in most instances, were afterwards confirmed to 
the church; but a large body of grazing lands passed 
into the general domain, and was re-granted to pri- 
vate individuals. There was quite an extended legal 
warfare before these lands were confirmed to the 
church. It was claimed that when the missions 
were secularized all property reverted to the Mexican 
Government, and as it had never been re-granted it 
became the public domain of the United States on 
the session of California, and therefore subject to pre- 
emption. The orchard property of Santa Clara was 
particularly valuable, and was settled, on by several 
sets of squatters. The first was T. W. Redmon, 
county judge, who held the orchard for several years, 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



79 



selling the fruit at enormous prices. It went through 
several hands, and was the subject of much litigation, 
but was finally confirmed to Archbishop Allemany, 
representing the church. 



We have related how Lieutenant Moraga, under 
direction of the Spanish Government, partitioned to 
the original settlers the lands of the new pueblo. 
These allotments were made in accordance with a 
rule adopted by the government, by which rule all 
pueblos or towns were to be laid out and established 
under the plan of the city of Tepic. Under this plan 
the tracts of land were divided into three classes: 
so/ares, or building lots; siiertes, or lots for cultivation, 
and egidos, or commons for pasturage and wood. By 
the Tepic method each head of a family was given 
four suertes and one solar. 

There is a sufficient record of this allotment having 
been made by Moraga at the first location north of 
the present city, but no record has ever been found 
of a similar allotment having been made after the site 
of the pueblo had been removed to its present loca- 
tion. It is a legitimate presumption that such parti- 
tion was made, although there is no record evidence. 
Judge Spencer tells us that in 1852, and even later, 
there remained landmarks that showed something of 
the general plan of the location. Among these were, 
in several places, stumps of hedge-rows forming alleys 
leading to the Guadaloupe River— evidently roads used 
by the women who went to the creek to wash. He 
says that at that time, and until the willows and other 
vegetation was destroyed, the Guadaloupe was a peren- 
nial stream, supplied in the summer-time .from the 
springs in the lower ground south of town, while 
from the Guadaloupe were the remains, tolerably de- 
fined, of ditches leading into the Canoas Creek. This 
word " canoas," besides meaning " canoe," also signi- 
fies a " trough;" and it was probably for this latter 
meaning that the Mexicans applied it to this stream, 
as they evidently used it for the purpose of conveying 
water to their suertes, or planting lands. 

There were also remains of branch ditches, or 
acequias. One went out and crossed the plaza near 
the site of the new City Hall, and continued on, 
crossing First Street near San Fernando, as if to irri- 
gate the land sloping to the north and east. Another 
one was a little west of Market Street, crossing Santa 
Clara Street diagonally, going through the grounds 
now occupied by the Sisters of Notre Dame, and con- 
tinuing to the present site of Hotel Vendome ; from 



this was irrigated the lands between it and the Guad- 
aloupe River, which it paralleled. In one of the suits 
regarding the land claimed as suertes, old Pedro 
Chaboya and other old Mexican witnesses testified 
that all the alkali ground in the northeast portion of 
the city was, in very early days, fine land for crops ; 
hut the Coyote River having overflowed its banks 
and rushed down across the country, the soil was 
washed off, and when the water receded or evapo- 
rated it was transformed into an alkali sink. 

It seems that there must have been suertes in the 
vicinity of where these acequias ran; but whether they 
were granted with actual title, or only for temporary 
use, there is no evidence. It was most probably the 
latter; or, if actual title was granted, the suertes were 
abandoned. This conclusion is reached from the fact 
that years ago the oldest inhabitant could not remem- 
ber the location, and also from the custom of the 
Mexicans, in those primitive days, of using as little 
labor as possible in growing their crops. Where the 
soil was refractory they were unable, with their rude 
implements, to get it into proper condition for plant- 
ing. When the land became too hard to work easily 
they would abandon it and go somewhere else. It 
was their custom to scout the foot-hills for places 
where the winter rains had washed down the rich 
surface soil from the mountains, and here they would 
repair with their families in early spring. Having 
built their reviadas, or brush houses, they would plant 
the soft, rich beds with corn, beans. Chilis, melons, 
etc., and watch them during the summer, herding off 
the wild cattle that roamed in droves over the plains. 
As the crops matured they would gather them, hang- 
ing the Chilis on long strings, like beads; the corn 
would be husked, and the husks saved as wrappers 
for cigarettes and tomales. It was feast-time with 
them when the melons were ripe, and fandangoes fol- 
lowed each other in rapid succession. When the 
crops were all gathered the family would return to the 
pueblo, and the following spring renew their prepara- 
tions for their little crops, or milpitas, as they called 
them. The margin of the hills northeast of San Jose 
abounded in these rich, mellow spots, and from this 
was derived the name given to the Milpitas rancho 
and town. We have re-cited this custom only for the 
purpose of strengthening the presumption that the 
title to the suertes to the east of Market Street was 
but temporary, and had lapsed or been abandoned 
long prior to the American occupation. Knowing 
the easy-going, indolent nature of the people, and 
that the character of the soil in the immediate vicinity 



80 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



of the pueblo renders it particularly difficult to work 
after a few years' irrigation, it is not forcing a conclu- 
sion to suppose that they should abandon a field on 
which their rude implements could make no impres- 
sion, for the more fertile and tractable ground at the 
foot of the mountains and elsewhere. 

But with the Americans came the land speculators, 
and, as the pueblo grew in importance and its lands 
in value, suits were inaugurated to obtain possession 
of some of the most valuable portions of the city 
under the suerte title. None of them, however, were 
successful, but they formed a chapter of the most im- 
portant and sharpest litigation of the county. There 
being no record of the original allotment of suertes, 
their existence could only be proved by parol testi- 
mony, and for this purpose the "oldest inhabitant" 
was in constant demand. The few old landmarks 
which we have mentioned were marshaled with all 
the dignity due their antiquity, but neither these nor 
the imperfect family traditions of the oldest poblanos 
were sufficient to warrant a judgment in favor of the 
claimants. 

settlers' war. 

The methods used by the Mexicans to measure and 
mark out the boundaries of their grants were very 
crude, and resulted in much inaccuracy. Many of 
them, when surveyed out by the United States, shrank 
or expanded their dimensions to the extent of many 
hundreds of acres. Persons who had settled on what 
was thought to be government land would, after som.e 
years of labor, find themselves included within the 
boundaries of a neighboring grant, and would be 
compelled to lose their homes or purchase them 
again of another owner. Some persons were com- 
pelled to purchase their farms several times before 
their title became assured. This caused great dissat- 
isfaction among the settlers, and societies were formed 
to meet adverse claimants, with force if necessary, to 
prevent eviction. 

These societies, though very determined in the ex- 
pression of their rights, generally avoided violent 
measures. In fact, with one exception, they confined 
their efforts to the raising of funds for the purpose of 
defending their claims in the courts. The exception 
referred to occurred in 1861, and is thus recorded by 
Mr. Hall : " The greatest excitement and demonstra- 
tion that was ever exhibited in this county upon the 
question of land titles took place this year. The 
grant of Antonio Chabolla for the tract of land 
known as the Yerba Buena Rancho, lying east or 



southeast of the town, had been confirmed to the 
claimants thereof under the Chabolla title by the 
United States courts. There were many settlers of 
the land, some of whom had occupied the same for 
quite a lengthy period under the belief that it was 
public land. They seemed to be of opinion that the 
grant was a fraudulent one, notwithstanding the fact 
that the land had been patented by the United States 
in accordance with the decree of confirmation. The 
advice which had been given the settlers was evi- 
dently not that kind which had a tendency to better 
them, or to cause them to view the matter in the 
proper light. They were induced to expend money 
in the way of lawyers' fees that was as useless as 
throwing money in the sea. The government had 
conveyed, in fee simple, the land to the claimants, and 
no party but the United States could move to set 
aside that patent upon the ground of fraud or any 
other ground. Suits in ejectment had been instituted 
against some of the settlers on said land, and judg- 
ments rendered against them for possession of certain 
tracts in the third judicial district of this State, in and 
for the county of Santa Clara. Wm. Matthews, Esq., 
of counsel for plaintiff in those cases, caused writs of 
execution for possession to be issued to the sheriff 
of the county, that the plaintiff might have possession 
in accordance with his judgments. 

" The sheriff summoned a posse of six hundred men 
to meet him at the court-house, to go with and to 
aid him in executing the writ. When the posse as- 
sembled at the court-house they were asked if they 
were armed, to which they replied in the negative; 
and being asked if they would arm themselves, like- 
wise replied in the negative. As the posse would 
render no assistance, they were dismissed by the 
sheriff. About one o'clock P. M. about a thousand 
settlers paraded through the town, some on horses, 
some in wagons, some on foot, and nearly all armed. 
They had one small cannon. All of the settlers' 
leagues of the county and some from adjoining 
counties were said to have been present. Toward 
the close of the day they went to their respective 
homes without doing any damage, save that of dis- 
obeying the writ." When the excitement cooled off, 
better councils prevailed, and the differences were 
settled peaceably. 

SURVEY OF THE CITY OF SAN JOSE — FIVE-HUNDRED- 
ACRE LOTS. 

Until 1847 there had not been much certainty as 
to the location of, or titles to, lots in the pueblo or 



PEN PICTUBES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



81 



town of San Jose. It seemed to have been taken for 
granted that the laws regulating the establishment of 
Mexican towns had been complied with, and that 
those in possession had valid titles. Whether the 
title was good or not, seemed to be a matter of little 
consequence under the then existing condition of 
affairs. There were no regularly laid-out streets. 
The center of the town was the juzgado, or the plaza, 
and the houses were scattered north and south on 
irregular lines, with roadway between. This roadway 
is now Market Street. After the defeat of Sanchez 
at the battle of Santa Clara, and the certainty that 
the arms of the United States would be victorious in 
Mexico, the foreigners became impressed with the 
conviction that Alta California would be ceded to the 
victors and a permanent government established. 
Viewed in this light, the solares and the suertes of the 
pueblo became of more importance, and an attempt 
was made to settle the question of their ownership. 
There was a well-authenticated record of the distri- 
bution of lots by Lieutenant Moraga, at the first 
location of the pueblo north of town ; but if any 
distribution had been made when the pueblo was 
relocated, there was no record showing it. 

Early in 1847 the ayuntamiento and Alcalde directed 
Mr. William Campbell to survey out a plat of land a 
mile square, to be laid out in building lots. This, 
assisted by his brother Thomas, he did, the tract so 
surveyed lying between the following boundaries : 
On the north by Julian Street, on the cast by Eighth 
Street, south by Reed Street, and west by Market. 
This tract was intended to exclude all questions of 
title arising from suerte claims. Mr. John Burton, 
who was then Alcalde, and had resided here twenty 
years, stated that the result of his investigation was 
that no suerte claims extended farther south than 
Julian, except the Gongora claim, or further east than 
Market Street. This is the original plat of San Jose, 
and from this survey may be dated the existence of 
the city. The streets were located through this tract, 
making nine blocks from Julian to Reed, and eight 
blocks from Market to Eighth. The exact course of 
the streets running north and south was N. 45° west, 
magnetic variation 15° 22" east. The length of these 
streets was five thousand six hundred and seven feet. 
The cross streets were laid out at right angles to 
these. 

The survey having been completed and a map filed, 

the Alcalde gave notice to all persons claiming land 

within the limits of this surve}', to present them to 

him for investigation, and, if found valid, he would 

II 



issue them a new title. Burton, who was no lawyer, 
seemed to possess a remarkably level head. Notwith- 
standing persistent litigation on the part of contesting 
claimants, all the Alcalde grants under the Campbell 
survey have been held by the Supreme Court to be 
valid. In Campbell's survey four blocks were re- 
served for a public square. This was named Wash- 
ington Square, and is the present location of the State 
Normal School. 

The town having thus been located, its limits and 
the boundaries of its blocks and lots defined, the set- 
tlers from the States resolved to secure a partition of 
the outside lands belonging to the pueblo. A meeting 
was called, the proposition to make the survey into 
lots of five hundred acres each was adopted, and J. 
D. Hutton appointed to make the survey. This was 
done in July of the same year. The lots were 
numbered consecutively, and corresponding numbers 
placed in a hat, of which each head of a family was 
permitted to draw one, entitling him to choose a lot, 
his choice being in the order of the numbers drawn, 
z. e., the person drawing number one was entitled to 
first choice, and so on. After the drawing the Alcalde 
gave to each party a certificate of title. These Al- 
calde titles to the five-hundred-acre lots were after- 
ward declared invalid by the Supreme Court. 

In May, 1848, another survey of the town plot was 
made, this time by C. S. Lyman. He was a practical 
surveyor and possessed all the necessary implements 
for practical work. By this survey the limits were 
extended eastwardly to Eleventh Street. He en- 
larged Washington Square to its present dimensions, 
eleven hundred and sixty feet by one thousand and 
five feet. He laid out St. James Square, which 
is six hundred and ten by five hundred and fifty feet. 
Market Square, the site of the new City Hall, he 
fixed at eleven hundred and sixty by two hundred 
and fifty-nine feet. Market, Santa Clara, and Fifth 
Streets were made one hundred feet wide; all the 
streets running north and south, except Fifth, were 
made eighty feet wide. The system adopted in this 
survey is the one now in use. San Fernando Street 
is the base line and the ranges are counted easterly 
from Market Street. Other surveys have been made 
as additional territory was taken into the city limits, 
but as these are of comparatively recent date and are 
fully shown by maps and plots in the city archives, a 
description is unnecessary in these pages. 

The tract of land lying west of Market Street and 
along the Guadaloupe River, was used for cultivation, 
and was not surveyed into town lots for several years 



82 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



after California was admitted into the Union. It was 
held as suertes, and was watered by an acequia, or 
ditch, leading from the Arroyo Tulares, or Canoas 
Creek, south of town. This ditch, which has been 
previously described, furnished water to the people 
for some time after California became a State; but 
gradually the foreigners acquired this land from the 
Mexican grantees and streets were opened from time 
to time, as the population increased. This fact will 
explain the difference in the system of numbering 
and naming as well as of the peculiarities of location 
and construction of the streets in this locality. 

BENCH AND BAR. 

The Mexican laws provided for a judicial system 
composed of what were called Courts of the First, 
Second, and Third Instance. The first was an inferior 
tribunal, and it was provided that there should be one 
at each chief town in the district. The second heard 
appeals from the first, and had also original jurisdiction 
in certain cases. The third was exclusively an ap- 
pellate court. Courts of Second and Third Instance, 
which were to sit only at the capital of the depart- 
ment, were never organized in the territory of Cali- 
fornia, and Courts of First Instance had no existence 
until after the American occupation, the first judges 
being appointed in 1849 by the American authorities. 
Prior to that time justice was administered in San Jose 
by Alcaldes. The first American Alcalde was James 
Stokes, who was appointed by Captain Fallon when 
he deposed Dolores Pacheco, as is elsewhere related in 
these pages. He was succeeded by John Burton, who 
came to the pueblo about 1830. All kinds of disputes 
were brought before him for settlement. The written 
law was meager, but that made no difference. Anyone 
who had a grievance took it to the Alcalde, who, after 
investigation, applied the general principles of justice, 
irrespective of law. 

In December, 1846, Burton concluded that he would 
divide his labors and responsibilities, and, accordingly, 
appointed a committee of twelve to assist him in his 
work. The persons selected were: Antonio Sunol, 
Dolores Pacheco, Jose Fernandez, Jose Noriega, Felix 
Buelna, Salvador Castro, William Fisher, Isaac Bran- 
ham, Grove C. Cook, Mr. White, Captain Hanks, and 
Guillermo Weekes. These gentlemen administered 
justice for some time, and their decisions were as im- 
plicitly obeyed as though they were a legally consti- 
tuted tribunal. The Court of the First Instance was 
organized in 1849, and held its last session March 30, 
1850, when the County and District Courts were or- 



ganized. The practice in the Court of the First In- 
stance, and, in fact, for some time afterward, was what 
might be called conglomerate. 

There was no code of laws and no fixed penalties. 
The lawyers were from different States, as were the 
few law books that were in existence. On the trial of 
a case, one lawyer would insist on its being considered 
in the light of the statutes of Pennsylvania, while his 
opponent would quote the New York code as the rule 
which should govern. There were as many different 
penalties for crime as there were States represented 
in the law library of the pueblo. All this would have 
had a tendency to confuse the court if he had not 
had the good sense to reject all authorities and prec- 
edents and use his own self-made law. Primitive as 
the practice of the law was at that time, the adminis- 
tration of justice seems to have been generally satis- 
factory This cheerful acquiescence in the decisions 
of Alcaldes and judges of First Instance might be due 
to the fact that there was no appeal. 

The first judge of the County Court was John W. 
Redmon, a man whose vagaries will be remembered 
as long as the " oldest inhabitant " survives. He came 
from Missouri, had been a physician, and claimed to 
have been present at the battle of New Orleans, where 
he lost his foot. He was of a crabbed disposition, 
rough in his language, and not inclined to soften his 
remarks when expressing his opinions of members of 
the Bar. He was once asked by the Bar to resign, but 
refused in language more expressive than elegant. 
He held the office until 1853, when he resigned, and 
E. C. Allen was appointed for the unexpired term. 
R. B. Buckner was chosen at the ensuing election, 
and sat on the bench for four years. The administra- 
tions of Judges Allen and Buckner were in great con- 
trast to that of Judge Redmon, and the attorneys ex- 
perienced great relief when they realized that they 
could address the court without being greeted from 
the bench with some sarcastic remark bordering on 
insult. After Judge Buckner the judges of the County 
Court were as follows : John H. Moore, from 1857 to 
1861 ; Isaac N. Senter, from 1861 to 1867 ; Lawrence 
Archer, from 1867 to July, 1871, when he resigned to 
accept the Democratic nomination for Congress; R. I. 
Barnett, appointed for the unexpired term of Judge 
Archer; D. S. Payne, from 1871 to 1879. He was the 
last County Judge, the judiciary system having been re- 
modeled by the new Constitution of the State. The 
Court of Sessions was an adjunct to the County Court, 
having jurisdiction in criminal cases, except murder, 
manslaughter, and arson. It was presided over by the 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



83 



County Judge, who called to his assistance two jus- 
tices of the peace, who were selected by lot from 
among those elected for the different townships. This 
Court also had jurisdiction of county affairs, perform- 
ing the duties now devolving upon the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The Court of Sessions passed out of ex- 
istence in 1855. In the organization of the District 
Court the Third Judicial District was composed of the 
counties of Contra Costa, Alameda, Santa Clara, 
Santa Cruz, and Monterey, including the present 
county of San Benito. John H. Watson, for whom 
the town of Watsonville was afterwards named, was 
the first judge. The first term of the District Court was 
opened on the twenty-second day of April, 1850. The 
first case tried was an action for foreclosure of mortgage 
given to secure the payment of a promissory note for 
$5,000, with interest at eight per cent per month! 
The first indictment found in the county was against 
Juan Higuera a/ias Toreto, and charged the defend- 
ant with grand larceny in taking a horse belonging to 
Joseph W. McClelland. This indictment was after- 
wards quashed on motion of the district attorney. 

The first grand jury was composed of the follow- 
ing-named persons : Chas. White, foreman, James F. 
Reed, William Campbell, David Dickey, William 
Higgins, Geo. W. Bellamy, Jeptha Osborn, J. W. 
McClelland, Arthur Shearer, C. Campbell, Lewis 
Cory, W. G. Banden, James Murphy, R. M. May, 
Jas. Appleton, Carolan Matthews, F. Lightston, W. 
Hoover, C. Clayton, J. D. Curd. 

The following is a list of the names, as far as they 
can be ascertained, of the members of the early Bar 
of Santa Clara County; among them are many who 
have achieved State and national reputation: A. C. 
Campbell, E. D. Baker, Rufus A. Lockwood, Edmund 
Randolph, Geo. B. Tingley, James M. Jones, A. J. 
Yates, C. T. Ryland, Simeon K. Gibson, John H. 
Moore, R. B. Buckner, Wm. T. Wallace, Lawrence 
Archer, F. H. Sandford, R. P. Clement, Wm. M. Staf- 
ford, W. T. Gough, P. O. Minor, Julian Smart, Craven 
P. Hester, J, M. Williams, F. S. McKinney, J. Alex. 
Yoell, E. O. Crosby, H. M. Van Voorhies, O. H. 
Allen, Frederic Hall, Wm. B. Almond, A. Redmon, 
A. L. Rhodes, Wm. H. Ramsey, Wm. Matthews, D. 
P. Belknap, Thomas White, H. P. Hastings, F. B. 
Murdock, James White, Jos. R. Gitchell, Azariah 
Martin, Chas. M. Fox, R A. Jones, Frs. E. Spencer, 
S. O. Houghton, J. A. Moultrie, C. B. Yamgh, Alfred 
Cowles. 

The first court-house was the old juzgado, front- 
ing the plaza, which at that time extended north, to or 



beyond First Street. It was not well adapted to the 
purpose, and in 1850 the court was removed to a two- 
story adobe building on the west side of First Street, 
about opposite Fountain Alley. It occupied this 
building until the latter part of 185 1, when it was for 
a short time held in the Bella Union Building, on 
Santa Clara Street. From there it went to the State 
House Building, near the corner of Market and San 
Antonio Streets, where it remained until that building 
was burned down. It then went into temporary quar- 
ters at the City Hall, then located on Lightston Street, 
between El Dorado and Santa Clara; in the mean- 
time the county purchased a lot at the southeast corner 
of Second and Santa Clara Streets, and the buildings 
were fitted up to accommodate the county offices and 
courts. Here the department of justice rested until 
1868, when it went into temporary quarters in the 
Murphy Block, at the southeast corner of Market and 
Santa Clara Streets. Its stay here was only for a 
few weeks, for in the same year the present court- 
house was completed and ready for occupancy. 

The District Bench was occupied by Judge Watson 
until 1 85 1, when he was succeeded by Craven P. 
Hester, who presided until 1859. He was succeeded 
by Sam Bell McKee. The Legislature of 1871-72 
created a new judicial district, which was called the 
Twentieth, and composed of the counties of Santa 
Clara, Santa Cruz, and Monterey. Hon. David Belden 
was appointed judge of the new district, to fill the 
bench until the ensuing election. He was then 
elected and presided over the court until the reorgani- 
zation of the judicial system and establishment of our 
present Superior Courts in 1880. Under the new sys- 
tem, Santa Clara County was allowed two judges, and 
at the election held in 1879 David Belden and 
Francis E. Spencer were chosen. The great learning 
and sound reasoning of these jurists gave the bench 
of Santa Clara County a reputation second to none 
in the Union. Many times have these learned judges 
been called upon to preside at trials of important 
cases elsewhere, and hardly ever is the calendar called 
that it does not disclose some suit of magnitude sent 
to them for adjudication from other counties. On 
the opening of the Superior Court in 1880 a division 
of the business was made and the rule then adopted 
has been adhered to ever since. The court was di- 
vided into two departments. Judge Belden taking 
Department i, and Judge Spencer Department 2. 
All criminal business was assigned to Department i, 
and all probate and insolvency business to Department 
2. The other cases were distributed alternately in 



84 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



the order of their numbers on the register, Department 

1 taking the odd-numbered cases and Department 

2 the even numbers. Judge Belden died May 14, 
1888, and the vacancy was filled by the appoint- 
ment of John Reynolds, a lawyer of many years' 
practice both at this Bar and in San Francisco. It is 
fitting that a sketch of the life and services of these 
eminent jurists should be presented in this work. 



David Belden was born at Newtown, Fairfield 
County, Connecticut, August 14, 1832. He came of 
old Puritan stock and inherited their fairness of char- 
acter and untiring energy, with none of their intoler- 
ance. Mr. Belden's father was a lawyer of consider- 
able prominence in New England. The subject of 
this sketch attended the public schools of his native 
State, and laid the foundation of his education. He 
learned all there was to learn in these institutions, 
which, though noted for their efficiency, could scarcely 
lead him to the door of the higher education he was to 
achieve by his own unaided efforts, the completeness 
of which excited the admiration of all who had the 
good fortune of his acquaintance. On reaching his 
majority in 1853, he came to California, stopping at 
Marysville for two years, where he read law. He 
went to Nevada City in 1855, and commenced the 
practice of his profession. During his residence at 
Nevada City, he also directed his attention toward 
mining, but this was more for the purpose of practi- 
cally studying the geologic character of the country 
than for acquisition of the precious metals. For the 
same reason he visited Virginia City, Nevada, and 
made critical examination of the different silver- 
bearing lodes of Mt. Davidson. Everything he did 
seemed to be with the object of acquiring useful in- 
formation, which, when once stored in his retentive 
memory, was never lost. The knowledge thus gained 
he bestowed with a lavish hand on those around him. 
Many a miner whose heart had become sick with hope 
deferred, has received hints from Judge Belden which 
have enabled him to realize his golden anticipations; 
and many a mechanic has received through him the 
light by which he has been able to do perfect work. 
No knowledge was so humble that he would not 
stoop to pick it up, and none so lofty that he would 
not climb to reach it. There seemed no limit to the 
capacity of his mind for the acquisition of wisdom. 
His powers of both analysis and synthesis were won- 
derful, and however refractory might be the ore that 
went into the laboratory of his brain, it came out 
pure and shining metal. In 1859 he was elected 



county judge, and occupied the bench four years.- 
In 1865 he was selected by the people to represent 
Nevada County in the State Senate. Here his 
broad statesmanship and matchless eloquence won 
new laurels and gave him a State-wide reputation. 
At the expiration of his term as senator, he, together 
with his wife, visited the Old World and traveled for 
some months through Europe. In this tour he took 
occasion to investigate, on the spot, many things of 
which he had only read, and returned with much in- 
formation added to his already large store of knowl- 
edge. Art, science, horticulture, mechanism, road- 
making, political economy, literature, architecture, 
domestic economy, — he absorbed everything. Re- 
turning from Europe he removed to San Jose, in 
1869, and resumed the practice of the law. In 1871, 
the Twentieth Judicial District was created, and he 
was appointed its judge. In 1873 he was elected to 
the same position by a practically unanimous vote. 
The district then was composed of the counties of 
Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Benito, and Monterey. 
He held this position until the judiciary system of the 
State was reorganized, when he was elected judge of 
the Superior Court. He was re-elected in 1884, and 
continued on the bench until his death, which occurred 
May 14, 1888. While his wonderful learning excited 
admiration, and his strict integrity induced respect, no 
less did his warm and sympathetic nature command the 
affection of all with whom he came in contact. He 
was simple in his habits and unostentatious in his 
appearance. Anyone could approach him and draw 
at will on his great stores of knowledge, while neither 
his heart nor his purse were closed to the tale of dis- 
tress. He was eminently a progressive man and 
ready to lend his valuable assistance to every enter- 
prise for the benefit of the community. Many of our 
proudest monuments owe their existence to the timely 
and intelligent efforts of Judge Belden. The amount 
of work he performed was enormous, and it was this 
interminable labor without rest that finally accom- 
plished his death. He possessed a robust frame, but 
it was worn out by his still more vigorous mind. It 
would be impossible to enumerate the many great 
works which his assistance has rendered possible. 
His handwriting is visible on every page of the his- 
tory of the county since his name was enrolled as one 
of its citizens. At his death the whole State mourned, 
and at his obsequies all were present to pay tribute to 
his memory. Business was suspended, the temple of 
justice in which he had so long presided was draped 
in mourning, and the people from all the walks of life 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



85 



came forth with grieving hearts to place their floral 
offerings on the tomb of their counselor and friend. 
The remains were borne to their last resting-place by 
his brothers in the profession, and the eulogy pro- 
nounced by the Supreme Court of the State through 
its chief justice, Searles. The whole people composed 
the cortege and none were left who did not show 
visible signs of the sorrow which filled their hearts. 
Judge Belden was married, April 21, 1861, to Miss 
Elizabeth C. Farrell, of New Jersey, a lady eminently 
fitted to be the wife of such a man. Highly educated 
and accomplished, but with strong domestic instincts, 
she made for him a most congenial home. Possessed 
of strong intelligence, she was able to render him val- 
uable assistance in most of his work. She was his 
support and consolation during his wedded life and his 
true mourner after his death. She remains on the 
homestead, and preserves it in the same condition in 
which it was left by her husband. 

Following are the resolutions adopted by the Bar 
in respect to the memory of Judge Belden: — 

Whereas, It has pleased the ever wise and merciful Author of 
justice to remove from our midst and from the scene of his earthly 
labors the Honorable David Belden, Judge of the Superior Court of 
the County of Santa Clara and State of California; and, 

Whereas, In his death, the judicial system of .Santa Clara County 
has suffered its most sad and serious loss since its organization; and. 

Whereas, The whole community of which Judge Belden was for 
many years a useful and beloved member, unites with the Bar in sincere 
grief about his bier; and, 

Whereas, It is fitting that to the public record of his eminent serv- 
ices as a judicial officer there should be appended the seal of a merited 
recognition by the court over which he presided with dignity, learning, 
and honor; be it therefore 

Resolved, That, in the untimely death of the Hon. David Belden, 
the Bench and Bar of Santa Clara County have lost a most able, reli- 
able, just and respected member; the State of California a most use- 
ful, illustrious, and conscientious jurist; the community a rare exam- 
ple of true greatness and virtue; that, as a judge of the Twentieth 
Judicial District of the State of California from 1S71 until 1880, and of 
the Superior Court of Santa Clara County from iSSo to the date of his 
death, he ever wore the stainless ermine of judicial integrity, displaying 
in his opinions and rulings a quick perception of the principlesof justice, 
and a deep and discriminating study of the precedents and precepts of 
law applicable to every case, bearing himself always with a lofty impar- 
tiality toward the parlies and the interests involved. In his administra- 
tion of the penal statutes to offenders brought before his court he was ever 
moved with earnest and untiring desire to temper the severity of the 
sentence with that degree of mercy required by each individual case, 
to foster and encourage every impulse toward virtue concealed in the 
criminal's heart. In his bearing toward the Bar, he was distinguisheil 
for the graceful and uniform courtesy accorded every member, and 
especially noted for the kindly encouragement which constantly flowed 
to the young men of the profession, qualities which won for him the 
esteem and veneration of the former and the confidence and love of the 
latter, — an esteem, veneration, confidence, and love which cease not at 
his grave, but which will continue to make fragrant his memory 
through the years to come. That as a citizen, sprung from the ranks of 



the masses, and, rising through a life-time of labor, by native force of 
character, to an eminence of distinguished usefulness, his career compels . 
the admiration of all classes of society, and should especially excite the 
young men of our coast to an imitation of the virtues of his public and 
private life. In the shaping of public affairs his advice was always 
easy of access, and ever found well-considered and wise. No member 
of society was more sensitive to the pulsations of public opinion, or 
more apt in appreciation of public needs. Never forward in the im- 
pression of his personality upon the current of affairs, he was never 
backward in meeting the emergencies of any occasion with a fortitude 
born of his convictions of right. With broad intellectuality, with 
brilliant literary ability, with incessant zeal, he investigated every prob- 
lem of life and scattered his conclusions broadcast with a tongue of 
silver and a pen of fire. That though his loss to the community is 
lamented as a judge of transcendent ability and a citizen of distin- 
guished usefulness, it is as a man among men that the death of 
David Belden is most keenly felt and most sincerely deplored. The 
friend, the brother, the counselor, the very model of all the social 
virtues, he lived out with consistent purity his simple and noble exist- 
ence, and is gone in answer to the morning call of immortality. Be- 
side the unstained robes of his public service may be laid the equally 
immaculate garments of his private life. To the widow of our de- 
parted friend and brother, who, through the well-filled years of a 
noble life has been the partner of his joys and griefs, the Bar of Santa 
Clara County extends the comfort of the heart-felt sympathy of its 
every member; in token whereof be it 

Resolved, That as a body the Bar attend the funeral and sepulture 
of her beloved companion. That, as a mark of respect to their late 
occupant, the judicial chair and bench of Department No. I, of the 
Superior Court of this county, be draped in mourning for the space of 
twenty days. That these resolutions be offered before the Superior 
Court of Santa Clara County, at the next sitting thereof, with the re- 
quest that they be spread upon the minutes of said court; that a certi- 
fied copy of the same, and the further action of the Court, be, by the 
clerk thereof, transmitted to the widow and family of the deceased; and 
that one publication of these resolutions be made upon the pages of the 
public press. 

, In making the order to spread these resolutions on 
the minutes, and to transmit a copy to the widow. 
Judge Spencer said: — 

"Mv Brothers OF the Bar ofSan Jose: In the 
removal by death of my honored associate, we, in com- 
mon with his relatives and community at large, have 
indeed suffered a great and irreparable loss. I can 
but ill bring myself to the stern realization of the fact 
that the relentless destroyer has taken from my side 
one who for these eight years has been my co-laborer 
in the delicate and arduous duties incident to the 
office of judge of the Superior Court; one with whom 
I have oft held instructive and pleasant consultations, 
and with whom I have maintained most intimate and 
cordial personal relations. I knew him well, and thus 
knowing I can truly say that his virtues were many 
and noble; his fauks few and insignificant. Indefati- 
gable and conscientious in the attention to, and the 
performance of, his judicial duties, he was stricken 
while in the midst of his labors. With Spartan cour- 
age and steadfast devotion to duty, inherited from his 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



Puritan ancestors, for nearly three years did he battle 
with death and stand by his post with unswerving 
fortitude, attending to every duty of his office. To 
the oft-repeated solicitation of friends to give himself 
relaxation and rest, he has often responded from the 
fullness of his convictions of duty, 'I would rather 
wear out than rust out.' And most truly did he wear 
out in the performance of his judicial duties, for not 
until the overtaxed body and weakened vital organs 
had broken out in open rebellion did he yield to the 
inevitable, and was carried out of the temple of justice, 
which he had adorned as district and superior judge 
for sixteen years, to linger by the dark river until the 
ferryman should come to transport him to a haven of 
well-earned rest. 

"Judge Belden was at the time of his death fifty-five 
years and nine months of age, and had served with 
distinction and honor in the several judicial positions 
of county judge of Nevada County, district judge 
of the Twentieth Judicial District, and superior judge 
of this county for the collective period of twenty years. 

"Not only was he an able expounder of the law, but 
the citizens of his former mountain home had delighted 
in sending him to the halls of legislation, where, as a 
senator, he distinguished himself as an able law-maker 
and a leader among his fellows. 

" He was a truly remarkable man. Many have gone 
before him whose legal attainments have been equal 
to his. Others may have equally possessed the treas- 
ure of masterly eloquence. But it has never been my 
fortune to find combined in any other person so many 
rare and glowing qualities of heart, brain, and personal 
accomplishments. 

" As an orator it has been truly said of him that 
'he spoke with a tongue of silver;' his command of 
language was wonderful, his selections beautiful and 
most happy. He was wont at times with his bursts of 
eloquence to hold his listeners delighted and entranced. 
Although his delivery was rapid, he never hesitated 
for an apt word or sentence. ' His words came skip- 
ping rank and file almost before he would.' 

"As a jurist he had few superiors. Well grounded 
in the elements of law, and conversant with the mass 
of judicial precedents, he added that ready perception 
of principles applicable to any given set of facts, and 
that peculiarly incisive power of reasoning that make 
the true lawyer. 

"But his attainments by no means stopped with 
those of his chosen profession. His researches in the 
general domain of knowledge included almost every 
branch of science, art, history, and political economy. 



"Although not a specialist in any one department, 
he was at home as well when gazing at the gems of 
night, figuring their parallax and discussing the laws 
of planetary motion, as when calculating the angle of 
aperture of an object glass or studying the phenom- 
ena of the border line of life exhibited in the amcebse. 

"But as a judge did his fitting qualities shine forth 
with undimmed luster. 

"He was a just judge, a wise interpeter of the law 
and evidence, and withal simple and unassuming in 
manner, and sympathetic almost to a fault. 

"He has passed from our midst forever. The chair 
that he was wont to fill with so much dignity, honor, 
and credit is now vacant. His robes of office have 
been replaced by the winding sheet. We have laid 
him away in his final resting-place, and have taken to 
our hearts the solemn and instructive monition that 
the sad lesson affords. 

"A loving wife is mourning the loss of a loyal and 
affectionate husband. The Bar of this county, and 
the profession at large, lament the loss of a cherished 
brother, and the county and State a valued citizen 
and faithful public servant. 

" But the memory of his virtues and noble qualities 
we should ever keep green in our hearts, and it is em- 
inently fitting that the resolutions now presented by 
his brothers of the Bar should be inscribed upon the 
pages of the records of the court which he has caused 
to be kept so many years. 

" Let the motion be granted, and an engrossed copy 
of the resolutions be presented to the bereaved 
family." 



Hon. Francis E. Spencer was born at Ticonder- 
oga, Essex County, New York, September 25, 1834. 
During his infancy his parents removed to Saratoga, 
and thence, in 1846, to Will County, Illinois. Here Mr. 
Spencer attended the common schools, finally gradu- 
ating at the academy at Joliet. In 1852, when the 
subject of this sketch was eighteen years of age, he 
removed with his parents to California, settling at 
San Jose. Here Mr. Spencer went to work on a 
farm, raising sheep and cattle, and general agricult- 
ural work. In a short time, however, he abandoned 
the hills and grain-fields, and commenced the study 
of medicine. His father was an eminent physician, 
and this fact influenced the son in the choice of a 
profession. He soon, however, became dissatisfied 
with his choice. His mind was eminently logical, 
and would be content with nothing but exact results. 
He would accept no proposition that could not be 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



87 



reduced to a mathematical certainty. The exquisite 
logic of the law suited him better, and he became a 
student in the office of iVIessrs. Archer & Voorhies, 
then a leading law firm of San Jose. He was a quiet 
student, and attracted no particular attention until 
he was examined for admission to the Bar of the 
Supreme Court, in 1858, where he displayed such 
thorough knowledge as to excite comment. In 
1863 he was appointed city attorney for the city of 
San Jose, and served as such for seventeen years. 
Soon after his appointment as city attorney he was 
made a member of the Board of Commissioners of 
the Funded Debt. Here he made a record that es- 
tablished his reputation for legal learning, and as a 
man of great resources. He found that the San Jose 
Land Company, popularly known as the " Forty 
Thieves," claiming title to all of the pueblo lands by 
virtue of a clause in the city charter, which they con- 
strued as a confirmation of their claim, had secured a 
decree of confirmation by the United States District 
Court to the pueblo of a vast tract of land, as is more 
particularly described in our chapter on land titles. 
From this decree an appeal, prosecuted by certain 
ranch owners, was pending in the United States 
Supreme Court. If he resisted the claim of the 
Land Company, or contested the appeal of the ranch 
owners, his intelligence told him that, instead of many 
thousand acres of land, the pueblo would get but a 
very small tract. He resolved to aid the appeal and 
fight the Land Company afterwards. He brought 
about a compromise by which the pueblo secured the 
whole tract, except that claimed by the ranch owners, 
and then in a subsequent case defeated the claim of 
the Land Company. Then by selling a portion of 
the remaining land at the government price, the 
commissioners were enabled to pay off the entire 
debt of the city. 

These two suits, so successfully conducted by Mr. 
Spencer, not only relieved the city from indebtedness 
of every character, but removed the last cloud from 
the title of every foot of land within the limits of the 
pueblo. As city attorney he watched with an untir- 
ing vigilance over the interests of the city. He suc- 
cessfully prosecuted the case of the city against the 
bondsmen of the defaulting treasurer, Jasper E. Gunn, 
and in other cases secured the city against loss. His 
sound advice to the city officials secured the effective 
and prompt administration of municipal affairs. 
While studying law he had made hims. If familiar 
with the Spanish language, the Spanish customs, and 
the Spanish and Mexican laws affecting land grants 



and titles, and on this subject he soon became an 
authority. His opinion that there were no valid 
suerte titles east of Market Street, in the new pueblo, 
has been confirmed by the highest courts in many 
cases. In the famous suerte suits of Toro versus 
Beach, Beach versus Maldonado, and Luco versus 
Hare, this opinion was fiercely attacked by some of 
the best lawyers in the State, and fought out to the 
last ditch, but was never seriously disturbed. 

As attorney for defendants in the case of Hart 
versus Chaboya et a/., Mr. Spencer succeeded in 
establishing an important doctrine. As the law then 
stood, upon the death of a wife her heirs inherited one- 
half of the common property. Upon that statute 
the heirs of Jesse B. Hart brought suit against a large 
number of purchasers from the husband involving a 
large tract of land on the Yerba Buena Rancho, in the 
Evergreen District. He was successful in having the 
Supreme Court hold that, although the descent was 
cast upon her heirs for a moiety of the common prop- 
erty, yet, as the husband had the control and dispo- 
sition of the common property during coverture, he 
had a right to wind up the estate after the death of 
the wife, and that conveyances made by him in fur- 
therance of that object were valid. This decision 
saved the homes to a large number of farmers, and 
established a rule that prevented a large amount of 
litigation in favor of speculators. 

In these important cases, coming as he did in con- 
tact with many of the ablest lawyers of the nation, 
Mr. Spencer won a reputation for legal ability that 
commanded profound respect from the Bar every- 
where, and his calendar contained important cases in 
all the courts of the State. His services were in 
especial demand in actions affecting the title to land, 
and much of his time was occupied in responding to 
calls from other counties. In fact, the permanent 
settlement of land titles in California is due to the 
efforts of Judge Spencer as much as to any other one 
man. 

As early as 1861 he was elected district attorney, 
which office he held for two terms, refusing a nomi- 
nation for the third. During his incumbency of this 
office he did much valuable work for the county, 
among which was the recovery of large sums of 
money on forfeited bonds. In 1871 he was elected 
a member of Assembly and was made chairman of 
the judiciary committee of that body. It was during 
this session that the legislation was had in regard to 
the then new codes. Mr. Spencer's legal training 
and clear mind enabled the committee to make its 



88 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



reports promptly and clearly on the large amount of 
business referred to it, the largest and most compli- 
cated, perhaps, that has ever been met by any com- 
mittee of the Legislature since the organization of 
the State. How well this work was performed the 
statute books show for themselves. During this ses- 
sion, also, a desperate attempt was made to remove 
the State Normal School from San Jose. He had 
much to do in frustrating these efforts. When the 
judicial system of the State was reorganized Mr. 
Spencer was elected one of the superior judges for 
Santa Clara, which position he has ever since held. 
One very noticeable peculiarity of Mr. Spencer's work 
as an attorney was the care with which he prepared 
his cases for trial. No point was too insignificant to 
be thoroughly investigated, and the law and authorities 
thoroughly collated. His wide practice led him to the 
study of many specialties, and thus no opposing expert 
testimony found him unpi'epared. His critical knowl- 
edge of anatomy, engineering, geology, metallurgy, 
and mechanical appliances, with all the new theories 
developed by the recent progress in the department 
of microscopy and spectrum analysis, gave him high 
standing in scientific circles. All this knowledge and 
these habits of painstaking labor he carried with him 
to the Bench. As his services as an attorney were 
in demand throughout the State, so it has continued 
since he donned the ermine. At the request of local 
judges he has presided at the trial of important cases 
in many different counties. In San Bernardino County 
he tried the great case of Stockman et a/., versus Riv- 
erside Land and Irrigation Company, involving the 
lands and the canal system of the famous Riverside 
Colony. He presided at the trial of Huse et al., versus 
Den et al., in which vast landed interests in Santa 
Barbara County were at stake. Also in important 
contested election cases in Sacramento. Also in the 
great mining case o/ White versus Merrill et al., in 
Department i of the Superior Court of San Fran- 
cisco. Besides his great learning and sound judg- 
ment, two other qualities stand out prominently in 
Judge Spencer's administration of justice, i. e., the 
firmness and dignity with which the affairs of his tri- 
bunal were conducted, and the uniform courtesy which 
was extended from the Bench to the Bar, and to all 
others who appeared in his court. Outside of his 
profession, also, Judge Spencer has ever been a pro- 
gressive citizen, liberally subscribing to all enterprises 
having in view the moral, educational, or material 
advancement of the community. He was selected as 
one of the Board of Trustees of the great Leland 



Stanford, Jr., University, which, being an institution 
devoted to practical education, cannot but recei\e 
great benefit from Judge Spencer's learning and 
experience. 



Hon. John Reynolds, one of the superior judges 
of Santa Clara County, has been a member of the 
Bar of California for the past thirty-five years, and a 
resident of San Jose since 1871. He was born in 
Bedford, Westchester County, New York, on Feb- 
ruary 20, 1825, and received his education at the 
Union Academy, of that town, conducted by his 
brother, Alexander G. Reynolds. Hon. W. H. Rob- 
ertson, afterwards county judge of that county, and, 
later, member of Congress and collector of the port 
of New York, received his education with him at the 
same school, each going from it at about the same 
time to study his chosen profession. He studied law 
at Sing Sing, New York, in the ofifice of his brother, 
S. F. Reynolds, afterwards judge of the Fourth Dis- 
trict Court of San Francisco. Admitted to the Bar 
by the Supreme Court of the State of New York, he 
commenced the practice of law in his brother's ofifice, 
and there continued for one year. Coming to Cali- 
fornia in the fall of 1853, he was admitted to practice 
by the Supreme Court of California in that year, 
opening an office in San Francisco, where he con- 
tinued until the fall of 1871. He then removed to 
San Jose, engaging in the practice in Santa Clara 
County, where he has since continued. He was a 
member of the first Republican State Convention, in 
1856, chairman of the Republican County Committee 
in San Francisco during the presidential election of 
1864, in which campaign he devoted his time ex- 
clusively, for seven weeks preceding the second elec- 
tion of Mr. Lincoln, to his duties as chairman of the 
County Committee; has always been interested in 
political matters, although never an active politician. 
He was married in 1S55 to Miss Emily Marshall, of 
Sing Sing, New York. 

Judge Reynolds was lately elected one of the fif- 
teen freeholders to frame a new charter for the city 
of San Jose. This position he resigned to -accept the 
judgeship of the Superior Court, to which he has 
lately been appointed, succeeding in that position the 
late Hon. David Belden. At the establishment of 
the Free Public Library, he was appointed one of its 
trustees, and continued to hold that ofifice until as- 
suming the duties of superior judge. He was elected 
a member of Assembly in 1880, and was a member 
of that body during the memorable session of the 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



89 



Legislature of 1881. On account of certain combi- 
nations with which he did not sympathize, and which 
resulted in the defeat of the Apportionment Bill, he 
was not placed at the head of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee; but it is well known that no constitutional 
question arose in the committee, or the House, that 
he was not consulted, and in but one instance was 
his opinion disregarded, and in that case his vote is 
found recorded in accordance with a subsequent de- 
cision of the United States Circuit Court. Judge 
Reynolds' practice as an attorney at the Bar of Santa 
Clara County has been in some of the most important 
suits instituted within this jurisdiction. Actions in- 
volving titles to lands have been his specialty, and in 
these his careful practice and thorough research have 
been often commented on. The most important and 
complicated partition suit ever had in this county, 
and, perhaps, on the coast, was begun and managed 
by him to the end, with no error in the slightest de- 
tail. This was the partition of Las Animas Rancho, 
covering the city of Gilroy and many thousand acres 
of outside lands, and in which there were several very 
hotly contested controversies, involving about one- 
eighth of the whole rancho, and which occupied the 
court weeks in trying. There were about two thou- 
sand parties to the record in this action, which was 
pending for several years. The careful, methodical, 
painstaking character of Judge Reynolds, together 
with his learning and knowledge of the law, acquired 
by nearly forty years' study and practice, eminently 
fitted him to receive the appointment to the Bench, 
which he now holds. Among the lawyers now prom- 
inent at the Bar of Santa Clara County, are the fol- 
lowing, of whom we present brief personal sketches: — 



Hon. Sherman Otis Houghton.— The names 
of few among the pioneers of California are more 
favorably known, or have been more closely iden- 
tified with the best progress of the State, than that 
of Hon. S. O. Houghton. Born April 10, 1828, in 
New York city, he enlisted, when but eighteen years 
of age, and still at school, in Company A, First New 
York Volunteer Infantry, and on March 26, 1847, 
arrived in San Francisco, after a voyage " round the 
Horn," to see service in the Mexican War. A part 
of the regiment, including his company, was detailed 
to Santa Barbara, but in a short time were sent to 
the seat of war, the force numbering one hundred and 
five, all told, under the command of Lieut. Col. Henry 
S. Burton. On arriving in Mexico they took up a 
position commanding the town of La Paz, where they 



occupied a church and other buildings. They forti- 
fied the position, and successfully held their own 
against the most strenuous exertions of the enemy 
for several weeks, until relief came, when they took 
the offensive, meeting with signal success, and capt- 
uring the commander of the Mexican forces. Mr. 
Houghton was regularly promoted for merit from the 
ranks, to sergeant-major, lieutenant, and adjutant 
of the command. In September, 1848, he returned 
to Monterey, and, with six of his brother officers, pur- 
chased an outfit and went to the mines, meeting with 
some success. In the spring the company separated, 
Mr. Houghton coming to San Jose in March, 1849. 
He then purchased oxen and wagons, proceeded to 
Stockton, and established a trading-post at Sullivan's 
Creek, running a pack-train between that point and 
the camps about Sonora. After this Mr. Houghton 
purchased in Stockton a stock of goods, intending to 
spend the winter in the mountains trading. The 
rains came on, however, the goods could not be moved, 
and had to be sacrificed With a Mr. Peasley he 
then engaged in the cattle business at San Jose, the 
speculation paying badly on account of the deprecia- 
tion in value of the scrip issued by the State at that 
time. In 1852 Mr. Houghton assisted in taking the 
census in Santa Clara County; in the same year he 
was appointed deputy county recorder. In 1854 he 
was elected to the common council of the city, and 
chosen its president; in 1855 was elected mayor of 
the city, holding office until 1856. In 1871 he was 
elected a member of the Forty-second Congress, and 
re-elected in the following year to the Forty-third 
Congress, Mr. Houghton being a Republican in poli- 
tics, and a consistent member of the party. From 
1852 till 1856 he read law during his leisure moments, 
and in the latter year entered the law office of W. T. 
Wallace and C. T. Ryland. In i860 Mr. Ryland 
withdrew from the connection, when Mr. Houghton 
formed a partnership with Judge Wallace, which con- 
tinued till the latter's removal to San Francisco, in 
1864. Mr. Houghton has been a prominent member 
of the Bar of San Jose, having a very large practice, 
especially in the settlements of the old Spanish es- 
tates and the unraveling of their intricate titles. In 
1886 he removed to Los Angeles, which city he has 
since made his home, though he still retains his large 
real estate and other interests in this valley. 

On August 23, 1859, Mr. Houghton married Miss 
Mary M. Donner. She died on the 21st of July fol- 
lowing, leaving one child, Mary M., who was born 
June 7, i860. On October 10, iS6i,he married Eliza 



90 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



P. Donner, the third and youngest daughter of George 
and Tamsen Donner, who was born March 8, 1843- 
She left Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois, with 
her parents early in the year 1846, and is one of the 
survivors of the ill-fated Donner party, whose terrible 
fate is one of the most melancholy in the early annals 
of California. Mr. Houghton is one of the leading 
citizens of this State, a gentleman honored and es- 
teemed by all, and a sturdy specimen of the fine pio- 
neers of California. 



Hon. Joseph A. Moultrie was bom in Franklin, 
Missouri, in 1827. He received his early education 
there and in Madison County. After reading law for 
a time in the office of W. V. M. Bay he enlisted in the 
United States Army, to serve during the Mexican 
War. His regiment was the First Missouri Cavalry, 
better known as the famous "Doniphan's Regiment." 
His company was mustered in at Fort Leavenworth, 
with John D. Stephenson as captain. The regiment 
was attached to the "Army of the West," Gen. S. W. 
Kearney commanding. The command left Fort 
Leavenworth June 27, 1846, and marched across the 
plains to Santa Fe. The operations of Doniphan's 
Regiment make one of the most interesting and 
thrilling chapters in the history of the Mexican War. 
After the occupation of what is now known as New 
Mexico, two companies of the regiment, Mr. Moultrie's 
company being one of them, were detailed to go out, 
under the guidance of Col. Joe Walker, the famous 
Indian fighter, to treat with the Navajo Indians. 
Mr. Moultrie participated in all the battles and skirm- 
ishes in which his regiment was engaged, including 
the battle of Sacramento, near Chihuahua. He was 
one of the fourteen men who volunteered for the 
perilous duty of carrying dispatches to Gen. Wool, at 
Buena Vista. The distance was about five hundred 
miles, through a rough country, infested with hostile 
Mexicans. The perils and hardships which this ex- 
pedition encountered and overcame would fill a book. 

The enterprise, though looked upon as a forlorn 
hope, was successful. Mr. Moultrie was mustered 
out of service, with his company, at New Orleans, in 
the latter part of June, 1847. He returned to Mis- 
souri, where he remained two years, and again started 
for the Pacific Coast. He arrived at Santa Fe in 
1849, where he stayed until January, 1850. With two 
companions, he continued his journey to California. 
At San Diego they separated, and Mr. Moultrie, se- 
curmg a mule, rode to San Jose, which he reached in 
June of the same year, the journey from Santa Fe 



occupying six months. He went to the mines, but 
was unsuccessful and returned to San Jose in 1852. 
He secured five hundred acres of land near Menlo 
Park, which he farmed for one year, and then accepted 
an appointment as deputy sheriff of Santa Clara 
County. While occupying this position he resumed 
the study of law under the instruction of Judge 
Archer. Later, he entered the law office of W. T. Wal- 
lace, and when the latter was elected attorney -general 
in 185s, Mr. Moultrie became his deputy, serving in 
that capacity for two years. He was elected district 
attorney for Santa Clara County, which office he held 
two years. In 1861 Mr. Moultrie took an active part 
in the organization of Mono County, and was ap- 
pointed its first county judge. At the election two 
years later he was elected to the same position for a 
term of four years. He resigned before the expira- 
tion of his term, and again went to the mines, and was 
again unsuccessful. He then resumed his law prac- 
tice in San Jose, which he has continued ever 
since. Judge Moultrie has conducted some of the 
most important cases, both civil and criminal, which 
have been tried at this Bar, but has devoted most of 
his attention to cases involving the title to real estate. 
He is a popular and respected citizen, as well as a 
prominent member of the Bar. He is a Democrat in 
politics, and was chosen a delegate to the National 
Convention that nominated Samuel J. Tilden as 
President of the United States. 



Judge Lawrence Archer, attorney-at-law, rooms 
I, 2, and 3 Archer Building, corner of First and Santa 
Clara Streets, San Jose, has been prominently identi- 
fied with the legal profession and the material and 
political interests of San Jose since 1853, and a resi- 
dent of California since 1852, in which year he crossed 
the plains from St. Joseph, Missouri, not so much for 
the golden attractions presented then by California as 
the promise held out of a restored health, the latter 
having been undermined by the malaria of Yazoo 
County, Mississippi, and not much improved by a resi- 
dence on the banks of the Missouri. A native of South 
Carolina, where he was born, in the Anderson district 
(now Anderson County) in 1820, he there received his 
primary education, after which he attended the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, and later studied law in the 
office of Armisted Burt, a prominent attorney of 
Abbeville, South Carolina. These educational ad- 
vantages were largely paid for by his own earnings, 
his father, who had been a merchant and planter of 
South Carolina, having met with financial reverses 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



91 



while the subject of this sketch was yet a lad, throw- 
ing the latter on his own resources at an early age. 
His parents were John and Ann (Mosely) Archer, 
both natives of Virginia. Removing to Yazoo County, 
Mississippi, in 1841 he was admitted by the Su- 
preme Court of the State of Mississippi to the prac- 
tice of law, which he followed in Yazoo County two 
years. The malarial fevers of that region making a 
change of climate necessary, he removed to St. Joseph, 
Missouri, making the trip by steamboat the greater 
part of the way, then by stage, and finally, owing to an 
accident, the latter part of the way on foot. He 
practiced law in that city with success, remaining 
there for eight years, and finally resigned the office of 
district attorney, to which he had been elected three 
years previously, to come to California in search of 
health, which seemed impossible to regain elsewhere. 

He settled in Sacramento, where he remained until 
after the great fire of 1852, then removed to San 
Francisco, where he remained a short time, finally 
settling, in January, 1853, in San Jose, where he has 
remained permanently since that time, and where he 
has since devoted himself to the practice of his pro- 
fession. 

In 1867 he was elected county judge, holding that 
position until August, 1871, when he resigned that 
for the session of 1875-76. He was made chairman 
of the Committee on Corporations, which, on account 
of the part taken by the railroads in the politics of the 
State, was the most important committee in the 
House. As chairman of that committee he prepared 
a bill to regulate fares and freights, which became 
famous as the "Archer Bill." Up to this time the 
people had been industriously educated to the im- 
pression that no one who had not served for years in 
the transportation business could intelligently act in 
this matter. Judge Archer demonstrated that there 
was one man at least who could grasp and solve the 
problem. 

The bill was defeated in the Senate, but the agita- 
tion arising from it resulted later in the passage of 
the "Railroad Commission Bill." In 1864 he re- 
moved with his family to New York, remaining there 
for eighteen months, during which time he did not 
enter into the practice of his profession or any busi- 
ness engagements. He returned to his California 
office to enter the campaign as a nominee for Con- 
gress from this district, which at that time included 
San Francisco and the entire southern portion of the 
State. Judge Archer has twice been elected mayor of 
San Jose, the first time in 1857 and again in 1877, '" 



neither case elected as a representative of either of the 
great political parties, but as a candidate of the better 
elements of both parties, the last time opposing the 
nominee of the so-called Workingmen's party. He 
also served one term in the State Legislature in 1866. 

He was married in Missouri, in 1848, to Miss Louise 
Martin of St. Joseph. This lady died in 1869, leaving 
one child, Louise, now the wife of M. J. Flavin, a 
merchant of San Francisco. He was married in 1870 
to Miss Alice B. Bethell, a native of Indiana, at that 
time on a visit to relatives in California. There have 
been born to them two children: Lawrence, born in 
1 87 1, and Leo, born in 1874. Lawrence is now attend- 
ing the Santa Clara College, and Leo attending the 
public schools of San Jose. 

Judge Archer has 160 acres, in the southeast cor- 
ner of San Jose, where he resides, and on which he 
has an orchard of thirty acres, planted in cherries, 
apricots, and prunes. This place he has owned since 
1 86 1, and has devoted it to farming and fruit raising. 

The Judge took great pride in his cherry orchard, 
which consisted of four acres, from which the income 
averaged about $3,000 per year. He was the first 
fruit-grower in Santa Clara County to utilize the 
labor of women and children in his orchard, thus giv- 
ing desirable employment to a large number of deserv- 
ing people. Judge Archer foresaw the future prosper- 
ity of San Jose when he first settled here, and has done 
much to develop the resources of the county. He 
purchased largely of real estate, and the fact that he 
could always procure what money he wanted with no 
other security than his word, indicates the estimation 
in which he was held by the community. He was al- 
ways foremost in improvements; he built the first 
prominent brick building on First Street, and always 
kept in advance of the first rank of progress. Dur- 
ing all the heated political campaigns in which he has 
taken a prominent part, not one word has ever been 
spoken reflecting on his ability or integrity. 



Hon. Joseph S. Wallis, of Mayfield, has been 
associated with the Bar of Santa Clara County for 
upward of thirty years; and while most of his con- 
temporaries of the '50's have passed away or retired 
from the active practice of the law, he stands to-day 
among the most active and able men in the ranks of the 
profession. Judge Wallis is a native of Massachusetts, 
born at Salem, on the twenty-fourth of October, 1825. 
The Wallis family was established in this country 
generations back, when the brothers, Aaron and 
Joseph Wallis,' came from England, among the early 



92 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



settlers of the old colony of Massachusetts. His 
father, Joseph Hutchinson, was a merchant, and con- 
ducted a large furniture business. His mother's 
maiden name was Sarah D. Hutchinson. She was also 
of English ancestry, and sprang from the Governor 
Hutchinson family, of Massachusetts. 

The subject was reared at Salem, and received his 
scholastic training there at the English High School 
and Latin Grammar School, where young men were 
prepared for college. His eagerness to advance, his 
progress and standing in his classes, caused the break- 
down of his health from overstudy, so that he was com- 
pelled to withdraw from school. At the breaking out 
of the California gold excitement, he decided to go to 
the new El Dorado, thinking thereby to regain his 
health and perhaps to eventually associate himself 
with the profession he had already been making prep- 
arations to enter — the law. 

Going to Boston, he took passage, January 24, 1849, 
on the ship Capital, bound for California. Stops were 
made at Rio de Janeiro and at Valparaiso; storms 
were encountered off Cape Horn and elsewhere, and 
when they came into the harbor of San Francisco, it 
was the nineteenth of July. Mr. Wallis, who was at 
the head of the party which had come out on the Cap- 
ital, took his company as far as Sacramento, where they 
disbanded, and a few of them accompanied him into 
the Middle Yuba River country, where they opened up 
the early mines in that vicinity. In December, 1850, 
he returned to San Francisco, and there engaged in 
clerking. In 1852 he resumed the reading of law, in 
the office of William H. Rhodes. He was admitted 
to the Bar at Sacramento, before the Supreme Court 
of California, on the fifteenth of August, 1855, though 
he had previously assisted Mr. Rhodes in his practice. 
He was associated with that noted lawyer until the 
fall of 1857. 

On the seventh of November of that year, he came 
to Santa Clara County, and, locating at Mayfield, has 
ever since been a citizen of that place. In 1859 and 
i860 he was associate judge with John Moore, in the 
Court of Sessions of Santa Clara County, and in 1862 
was chosen by the electors of this district to a seat in 
the Senate of California, serving in the sessions of that 
year and 1863. His legal standing commanded a po- 
sition for him on the important Committee un Judi- 
ciary, of which he was one of the earnest working 
members. The arduous duties thus entailed allowed 
little time for other committee work, though he also 
assisted in the labors of the Engrossment and other 
committees. On the eighteenth of February, 1870, 



he was admitted to the Bar of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. 

He was married July 25, 1854, to Miss Sarah 
Green, a native of Ohio. She came to California in 
1844, with the Martin Murphy party, which is treated 
of in extended mention elsewhere in this volume. 
She owned the land where Sutter built his mill, and 
it was on property of which she had been the former 
possessor that gold was discovered in 1846. Mr. and 
Mrs. Wallis were the parents of five children, viz.: 
Talbot H., State Librarian at Sacramento; Eva (Hess), 
of San Jose ; Josephine (Ingalls), of San Jose ; William 
A., who is in the employ of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road, and resides at Oakland; and Joseph, who died at 
the age of twenty-three years, at Sacramento, where he 
was a practicing lawyer. 

Judge Wallis has always taken an active interest in 
public affairs — local, State, and national. He has the 
honor of having been a member of the Free-soil 
Convention that nominated Van Buren and Adams. 



R. B. BUCKNER, the subject of this sketch, was born 
in Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky, in 1822. 
He received his education at Centre College, Danville, 
Kentucky, and at the age of nineteen years he joined 
his parents in Missouri, where they had gone several 
years previous, leaving him attending school, and 
bought a farm in Jackson County. His father resided 
on this farm until his death, which occurred in 1854. 
The judge engaged in school-teaching in Missouri, 
close to the Kansas line, until the breaking out of the 
Mexican War, when in 1846 he enlisted in the First 
Regiment of Missouri Volunteers, Colonel A. W. 
Doniphan commanding. The regiment marched to 
Santa Fe, which was then in Mexican territory, where, 
the Navajo Indians being troublesome. Judge Buck- 
ner's and another company of soldiers were sent out 
to quell them, which they did, making a treaty of 
peace with them; and then, continuing their march, 
they passed through the country of the Zunis and 
Laguna tribes, and joined their regiment at Socorro, 
on the Rio Grande, and marched on into Mexico. On 
Christmas-day of that year they met the Mexican 
troops in the battle of Brazito. The enemy having 
twelve hundred cavalry, a regiment of infantry, and a 
small piece of artillery, his own regiment consisting 
of but eight hundred men, a battery of six guns, and 
fifty cavalry, the chances were decidedly against 
them; but, notwithstanding that fact, they were victo- 
rious, as they were also at the battle of Sacramento, 
fought later. They entered the city of Chihuahua, 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



93 



Mexico, March 2, 1847, the principal battles having 
been fought before their regiment reached there. 

On the twenty-seventh of the following April they 
were ordered to General Taylor's headquarters at 
Monterey, which they reached in June; there they 
were ordered to New Orleans for muster. Sailing from 
Point Isabel they reached that city the fifteenth day 
of June, 1847; immediately on their arrival they were 
mustered out of the service, and the judge returned to 
his home in Missouri, where he spent the winter. 
In the spring of 1848 he made a trip into Mexico for 
the purpose of trading. On his return, at Santa Fe, 
he heard of the discovery of gold in California, and, 
hastening home, began preparations for a trip to the 
land of gold. 

In the spring of May, 1849, he started, with the cel- 
ebrated " Hudspeth Train," consisting of sixty-four 
wagons with ox-teams. They had the usual experi- 
ence of parties crossing the plains in that early day, 
and reached the Sacramento River at Lassens, on the 
tenth day of October, 1849. The judge came imme- 
diately to San Jose, but the gold fever being upon him 
he left for the mines soon after, and in two months 
returned to this city completely cured. He then en- 
gaged as clerk for various firms in the mercantile bus- 
iness, which occupation he only followed a short time. 
Having studied law while he taught school in Missouri, 
he concluded to put his knowledge into practice, and 
accordingly opened an office with Judge Bowdon, of 
Santa Clara. In 1853 he was elected judge of Santa 
Clara County, which office he held for three years, 
when he was elected mayor of San Jose, and filled that 
position one year. For the past eleven years Judge 
Buckner has been the policejustice, now including the 
office of city justice of San Jose. When not engaged 
in public office he has continued the practice of law 
to this date. 

In 1854 he was united in marriage to Miss Louisa 
McCabe, a native of Washington County, Missouri, 
who came with her parents, P. T. McCabe and Martha 
(Davidson) McCabe, across the plains to this State in 
1849. Her father, who, at the ripe old age of eighty- 
five years, still lives, was sheriff of Santa Clara Count) 
in the years 1854-56. Judge Buckner and his wife 
have an adopted daughter and a niece. Miss Fannie 
Montgomery, who has lived with them all her life; she 
is at present an employe of the post-office in San Jose. 
The judge is a member of San Jose Lodge, No. 10, 
F. and A. M., and of the Mexican War Veteran As- 
sociation of San Jose, and supports the Democratic 
party. 



S. F. Leib came to this country in 1869, settling in 
San Jose. Mr. Leib was born in Fairfield County, 
Ohio, in 1848, his father, Joseph Leib, having re- 
moved thither from Pennsylvania, with his parents, 
in 1806, when but seven years of age. At this very 
early date in the history of Ohio the Indians had but 
recently held almost unlimited possession, and an old 
Indian trail ran through the Leib farm. 

Joseph Leib's wife was Clarissa Allen, a native of 
Ohio, her father having come there from Vermont 
at a very early date. Here in Fairfield County they 
lived their entire married lives, and here they died — 
Joseph Leib in 1880, his wife in 1863. There were 
born to them three sons: L. H. Leib, who was killed 
at Bolivar, Tennessee, in 1862, while leading his com- 
pany into action; Joseph Leib, now living in Illinois, 
and S. F., the subject of this sketch. 

Mr. Leib, with his brothers, attended the public 
schools of their native section until he commenced 
the study of law at Ann Arbor, Michigan, from which 
institution he graduated in 1869. He relieved the 
monotony of school life, however, by enlisting in 
Company E, 159th Ohio Infantry, in the spring of 
1864, at the age of sixteen, but was mustered out of 
service the same year. 

Since coming to California Mr. Leib has been not 
only a successful practitioner of the law, but fortunate 
in business ventures, and his lovely home on the beau- 
tiful Alameda is remarked by everyone who passes it. 
Here, after the business day is ended, he is received 
by wife and children into that true home peace and 
enjoyment which is worth the heaviest toil to win; 
and here he expects to make his future home. Be- 
side his city home, Mr. Leib owns one hundred and 
ten acres in the Capertino district, eight miles from 
San Jose, on the Stevens Creek road, which he has 
all planted in French prune trees, seventy acres of 
which are in full bearing. Mr. Leib varies the rou- 
tine of law practice by experimental horticulture, in 
the success of which he finds much pleasure. He 
handles all his own prunes — drying them in the sun 
— and has already established for them a wide repu- 
tation on account of the thorough manner in which 
the drying and packing processes are accomplished. 

Mr. Leib is a member of John A. Dix Post, No. 
42, San Jose, G. A. R. 



D. W. Herrington.— This gentleman, one of the 
early pioneers of Santa Clara County, is a native of 
Indiana, born near Paris, Jennings County, December 
23, 1826. Mr. Herrington left the paternal home at 



94 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



the age of thirteen, removing to Madison, Indiana, 
where he worked at his trade, carpenter and joiner, 
until the age of nineteen. He had the misfortune to 
lose the use of his right arm at this age, and was 
compelled to give up his trade. He immediately en- 
tered the Asbury University at Greencastle, Indiana, 
where he remained the greater part of four years. 
On the thirteenth of March, 1850, he left school and 
started, with an ox-team, from Greencastle for Cali- 
fornia, arriving at Placerville on the tenth day of Au- 
gust of the same year. During the first six months 
in California he worked in the gold mines, after which 
he went to Sacramento, living there and at Sutter- 
ville from May, 1S51, until December, 1853. At this 
time impaired health compelled him to make a change, 
and he started for Los Angeles, but, on reaching Santa 
Clara, in January, 1854, decided to remain for a time, 
and has been at this place and in San Jose ever since. 

From 1855 to 1861 Mr. Herrington followed the 
occupation of teaching, when he took up the study of 
law. He was admitted to the Bar in 1862, and has 
been engaged in the practice of law ever since. He 
was a member of the State Legislature in 1863; was 
elected district attorney in 1865, holding this office 
until 1867, and was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1878-79, which formed the present 
Constitution of California. 

In 1858 Mr. Herrington married, in Santa Clara, 
Miss Mary Harriet Hazelton, a native of Ohio, who 
had removed with her parents, Hiram and Martha E. 
Hazelton, at an early age, to Michigan, coming thence 
to California in 1852. From this marriage there are 
six children: Irving, justice of the peace and real estate 
agent in Santa Clara; Rachel, now a teacher in the 
Santa Clara public schools, having graduated from 
the State Normal School in 1883; Leona, wife of The- 
odore Worth, of Bradley, Monterey County; Clarence, 
now studying law in his father's office in the city of 
San Jose; Howard, now engaged in the painting bus- 
iness in Los Angeles County, and Bertram A., now 
teaching in the public schools at San Miguel, having 
graduated from the State Normal School in 1887. 

Mr. Herrington is a member of the Masonic Order, 
and also of Santa Clara Lodge, No. 52, I. O. O. F 
He has been city attorney of San Jose since 1879. 
In politics he is a Republican, having belonged to 
that party since 1861. 

The parents of Mr. Herrington were Joseph and 
Rachel (Davis) Herrington. His father was a native 
of Maryland, removing, when an infant, with his par- 
ents to Pennsylvania, and later to Indiana, where he 



died in 1859. His mother was a native of Tennessee. 
She died in 1861, aged sixty-nine years. Both par- 
ents are buried at Paris, Jennings County, Indiana. 



Charles D. Wright is one of the prominent 
members of the Bar of Santa Clara County, of which 
he has been a practiciihg member for more than fif- 
teen years. Mr. Wright is a son of the Empire State, 
born in Watertown, Jefferson County, New York. 
His early education was obtained in his native State, 
and when fifteen years of age he came to the Pacific 
Coast and to Santa Clara County. In 1865 he entered 
the law office of Hon. S. O. Houghton as a student, 
and was admitted to the Bar in 1868. He has en- 
joyed a very large and lucrative law practice. Mr. 
Wright has always been a pronounced Republican in 
his political affiliations, and, possessing the courage of 
his convictions, he has taken an active part as a local 
political leader, for which he is well fitted because of 
his superior judgment of human nature, and his rare 
tact and executive ability in controlling and directing 
men. His candor and integrity of character inspire 
confidence, and he has proved a successful fighter of 
political battles. He managed the campaigns which 
elected his former preceptor, Mr. Houghton, to the 
United States Congress. His efforts in politics have, 
however, all been in behalf of his friends,as he has never 
been a candidate, nor sought office for himself As 
a lawyer Mr. Wright excels in his clear conceptions 
of a cause, and such a logical presentation of the facts 
as carries conviction with his argument in the minds 
of the jury and the court. He has practiced chiefly 
in the civil courts. 

In 1885 the subject of this memoir married Miss 
MoUie Murphy, born in Santa Clara County, and a 
daughter of John M. and Virginia Reed Murphy. 
Her father was one of the famous Murphy expedition, 
whose perilous experiences are narrated at length in 
this work, and her mother was one of the Donner 
party, whose terrible trials and sufferings are also 
given in detail elsewhere in this volume. 



John C. Black, attorney at law, whose law offices 
are at rooms 18 and 19 Knox Block, and resi- 
dence at No. 322 North Third Street, San Jose, is a 
native of Butler County, Pennsylvania, where he was 
born in 1834. He there received his early education, 
attending later Alleghany College at Meadville, Penn- 
sylvania, of which Bishop Kingsley was then a pro- 
fessor. In 1855 he left college to come to California, 
arriving at San Francisco by the Panama route in 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



95 



March of that year, at once proceeding to Jackson, 
Amador County, where he engaged in mining for two 
years. Deciding on a more permanent direction for 
his energies, he came to the Santa Clara Valley, where 
he devoted himself for several years to teaching 
school and studying law. 

Being admitted to the Bar by the Supreme Court 
in Januaiy, 1863, he removed to Yuba County, where 
he engaged in the practice of law. He filled the office of 
assistant district attorney in Marysville during 1863 
and 1864, and then removed to San Jose, where he has 
continued the practice of law since that time, filling the 
office of notary public in 1867 and 1868. Was 
elected district attorney in 1871, holding the office 
until March, 1874. He was married in 1868 to Miss 
Marian J. Millard, a native of Iowa, who came to Cali- 
fornia with her parents in her early childhood, in 1853. 
They have six children: Clara N., now attending the 
Normal School; John N., attending the University of 
the Pacific; Walter R., Edmund, James G., the three 
latter attending the public schools of San Jose, and 
an infant now one year old. 

Mr. Black's parents were James and Nancy A. 
(Russell) Black, natives of Pennsylvania, where they 
lived until 1874, when they removed to California, and 
have since resided in San Jose. They had five sons 
in the Union army during the late war, all coming 
out alive, although several were badly wounded. The 
subject of this sketch is a member of Garden City 
Lodge, I. O. O. F., and of Mount Hamilton Lodge, No. 
142, A. O. U. W., of San Jose, a Republican in poli- 
tics, and in favor of tariff protection to American 
industries. W. W. Black is interested in the San 
Jose Woolen Mill. 



Hon. James R. Lowe, a successful and prominent 
representative of the San Jose Bar, was born in New- 
buryport, Massachusetts, on April 25, 1840. Up to the 
age of twelve years he attended school in his native 
town, removing with his parents to San Jose, Cal- 
ifornia, where they settled in 1852. He completed 
his school education at Gates' Institute, in the latter 
city. Appointed United States consul to the city of 
Tehuantepec, Mexico, by President Andrew Johnson, 
he represented the United States at that place at the 
time the Emperor Maximilian was shot at Queretaro 
by order of President Juarez. On his return from 
Mexico he studied law with the Hon. F. E. Spencer, 
now superior judge, and was admitted to the Bar. 
In 1876 Mr. Lowe was elected president of the Board 
of Education of San Jose, holding that office for two 



successive terms, during which time the schools were 
managed to the entire satisfaction of the people of 
this city, and in a manner unexcelled before or since. 

He was elected in 1884 State senator on the 
Republican ticket, and regarded among the ablest 
members of that body. His record as senator was 
among the best. During the extra session of 1886 
he took a very active part towards the passage of laws 
in favor of irrigation, holding that "the waters flowing 
in our rivers and streams should not be allowed to roll 
idly to the sea, but should be thrown upon the arid 
plains, and they be made to blossom like the rose." 

Resulting from that legislation in which Mr. Lowe 
took so prominent a part, irrigation districts have 
been inaugurated under the State laws, and thousands 
of acres of comparative desert have been transformed 
into beautiful and profitable homes. Mr. Lowe has a 
place of eighty acres, located in the foot-hills west of 
the town of Milpitas, which he contemplates planting 
in trees and vines in 1889. 

He was married, in 1861, to Miss Inez Pacheco, a 
member of the celebrated Pacheco family, of Califor- 
nia, who was educated at the convent of Notre Dame, 
in San Jose. She died in May, 1872, leaving four chil- 
dren: James, Mary (who, while driving in her father's 
carriage in 1887, was thrown out and instantly killed, 
and at whose death San Jose was a house of mourn- 
ing, so generally beloved was she), Ralph, now in 
his graduating course at the San Jose Commercial 
College, and William W., now engaged in San Jose 
as searcher of records. He was married in 1874 to 
Miss Enna Forsyth, a native of Maumee, Ohio, a 
lady of very rare intellectual attainments and culture, 
who was for several terms president of the Board of 
Education of Santa Clara County, filling that position 
with eminent credit to herself and satisfaction to the 
people of the county. This estimable lady died in 
1887, leaving three children: Alexander, Duncan, and 
Eleanor. 

Senator Lowe's parents were James R. and Mary 
(Tuckwell) Lowe. His father was born in Chester- 
field, England, in 1808. Educated as a landscape gar- 
dener and horticulturist, he displayed such rare taste 
and skill in laying out and embellishing large parks 
and gardens, that he was employed to come to the 
United States and superintend the laying out and 
adorning the exquisite grounds and horticultural plots 
of James Arnold, of New Bedford. He later did sim- 
ilar work for the late Ben: Perley Poore, at Indian Hill 
Farm, near Newburyport, Massachusetts. He re- 
moved to California in 1852 with his family, and en- 



96 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



in San Jose in the same profession. There 
are many places in San Jose and CaHfornia that bear 
witness to his master skill and rare taste and culture 
in the art of beautifying the face of nature. He was 
the means of bringing to California, and propagating 
here, many valuable plants and trees, to which em- 
ployment he was devoted up to his death, in 1874. 
A man of genial, affable disposition, fond of telling 
and listening to a good story, he had many and 
valued friends; in fact, a very happy type of the 
representative English gentleman. He was several 
times elected a member of the City Council of San 
Jose. Mr. Lowe's mother was a native of Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts, and a member of the celebrated 
Sherborn family, of New Hampshire. 

Further particulars of Mr. Lowe's services as a hor- 
ticulturist in Santa Clara County will be found in 
our chapter on horticulture. 



Daniel W. Burchard. — Holding a prominent 
and important position among the public officers of 
this county, is Mr. Daniel W. Burchard, attorney at 
law and assistant district attorney. His father was 
the Rev. John L. Burchard, for ten years a member of 
the Missouri Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. While he was stationed in Benton County, 
Missouri, on March 5, 1858, the subject of this sketch 
was born, and came with his parents to Califor- 
nia in the same year. His father was located first 
at MarysviUe, remaining there four years, and after- 
wards for siv years in Stockton. In 1868 he was 
sent to Gilroy, where Daniel attended school. After 
a four years' residence here, his father returned to 
MarysviUe, when he was appointed Indian agent at 
Round Valley. In 1872 the family removed to Oak- 
land, in order to afford the children better educational 
advantages. After passing through the schools of 
Oakland, Daniel went up to the reservation, where he 
taught school and studied law. In 1879 and 1880 he 
studied law in the office of Henley & Johnson, of 
Santa Rosa, the senior member of that firm being 
Hon. Barclay Henley, late member of Congress from 
First District. Mr. Johnson is now attorney-general 
for the State. 

Mr. Burchard was admitted to the Bar nine days 
only after attaining his majority, and first "hung out 
his shingle " in Washington Territory. He remained 
there but a short time, when he returned to California, 
and for three years practiced law in Hollister, serving 
one year as city attorney. Removing to San Jose, 
he entered into partnership with Moore & Moore, and 



on the election of Howell Moore to the office of dis- 
trict attorney he was appointed deputy. 

Mr. Burchard is a hard worker, as can be gathered 
from the fact that he has appeared in fifteen hundred 
cases since he began practice, six hundred of them 
being criminal cases. It is noteworthy, also, that, al- 
though so young a man, he has been connected with 
many cases involving heavy interests. Among these 
may be noted the congressional election contest of 
Sullivan versus Felton; the senatorial contest of Ry- 
land versus Conklin; a number of homicide criminal 
cases in which the final penalty was inflicted, and 
others. 

On March 6, 1881, Mr. Burchard was married 
to Miss Cora, the eldest daughter of Hon. Rush Mc- 
Comas, the county treasurer. They have four chil- 
dren: Marcie, Mary, Ernest, and Ethel. 

Mr. Burchard's family is of Scotch and German 
extraction, and is fully represented in professional 
and intellectual pursuits. His father is a thoroughly 
self-made man, educating himself for the ministry by 
his own efforts, and passing his life in the service of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. His mother is a 
native of Virginia, a descendant of the pioneers who 
first settled that State. His only brother is Dr. L. 
S. Burchard, of Oakland, and his only sister is the 
wife of C. H. Twombly, the San Francisco capitalist. 



James H. Campbell, a prominent lawyer and 
former district attorney of Santa Clara County, was 
born in Andover, Massachusetts, in 1850. He came 
to Nevada County, California, in 1859, where he re- 
mained until 1867, since which time he has resided in 
San Francisco and in Santa Clara County. In 1871 
he graduated from the famous Santa Clara College, 
and in 1872 commenced the study of law, and was ad- 
mitted to the Bar in 1874. In the same year he was 
appointed to the office of assistant district attorney 
of Santa Clara County, in which position he continued 
until 1876. In 1879 he was elected district attorney, 
and remained in office until 1885. He was twice 
elected to that office, and, owing to the effect of the 
new constitution, then recently adopted, remained in 
office, by virtue of his first election, for nearly three 
years. Since 1885 he has been engaged in the gen- 
eral practice of his profession in San Jose, and occu- 
pies a prominent position among the members of the 
Bar of Santa Clara County. 

In 1878 Mr. Campbell was married to Miss Mary 
Faulkner, a native of Massachusetts, her parents, John 
F. and Ann Faulkner, having come to California in 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



97 



the early days. Of this union there are three chil- 
dren: Argyll, Maud, and Irene. 

During Mr. Campbell's incumbency of the office 
of district attorney, he conducted many important 
murder trials, including those of Majors, Jewell, and 
Showers, for the murder of William Renowden and 
Archibald Mclntyre, near Los Gatos. These pris- 
oners were all convicted, Majors and Jewell being 
hanged, and Showers sentenced to imprisonment for 
life. A peculiarity of Majors' trial was that he was 
first convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for life 
for the murder of Renowden, and, while serving this 
sentence, a second prosecution was instituted for the 
murder of Mclntyre, for which crime he was convicted 
and hanged. As a matter of courtesy, Mr. Campbell 
followed the case, which was transferred to Alameda 
County, on a change of venue, and prosecuted it there. 
He was also instrumental in the conviction of Wasi- 
lewsky, in Santa Clara County, for the murder of his 
former wife in Los Gatos, the prisoner being hanged. 
This case was remarkable for the discovery of the 
criminal and his conviction when every clue seemed 
to have vanished. In political principles Mr. Camp- 
bell is a Democrat. 



Hon. Albert W. Crandall was born in the town 
of Gaines, Orleans County, Western New York, in 
1835. His parents, John L. and Hannah (Brown) 
Crandall, moved into that State in iSi4or 181 5, when 
it was still a wilderness, and carved out there a home 
for themselves. Mr. Crandall attended the Albion 
Academy at Albion, the county seat, spending several 
years there preparing for college. He entered the 
University of Rochester, and graduated with honors in 
the class of 1862. Among his classmates at the uni- 
versity was Albion W. Tourgee, the author of the well- 
known "Fool's Errand." 

During the time Mr. Crandall was preparing for 
college he taught school for several terms, being at one 
time principal of one of the public schools of the city 
of Buffalo. After graduating he studied law in Albion, 
with the legal firm of Church & Sawyer. Mr. Church 
was afterwards the chief judge of the Court of Ap- 
peals of New York State. Mr. Crandall was admitted 
to the Bar in 1863, and until 1878 practiced law in 
Albion. In that year he came to California, stopped 
at San Jose, and went on to Los Angeles, where he re- 
mained until in 1880 ; he returned to San Jose, and has 
resided here since that time, enjoying a large practice. 
In Albion Mr. Crandall had built up a profitable and 
enlarging practice, but ill health compelled his re- 
13 



moval to this State, preferring to sacrifice his pro- 
fessional interests there rather than to jeopardize his 
health. During his residence in Los Angeles he lived 
an almost out-of-door life, riding and driving about 
the country until his health was perfectly restored, 
finding this particular life an incentive to remaining 
there for a time. 

In 1880, having completely recovered his health and 
strength, he returned to San Jose, and has since en- 
gaged actively in the practice of his profession, and 
having also a fondness for outside and open-air em- 
ployments, he purchased, with Mr. Gaines, an eighty- 
acre ranch, which is mostly planted to vines. This is 
situated on the Branham road, just west of the Ala- 
meda road, near the Five Mile House. The vines com- 
prise both wine and table grapes. The latter have 
always paid w ell, while the former, which are mostly 
made into dry wines (red and white), are also on a 
satisfactory paying basis. 

Mr. Crandall married Miss Maria Pettingill, of Mon- 
roe County, New York, in 1863. Her parents, Reuben 
and Clarissa (Green) Pettingill, were natives of New 
Hampshire, moving into New York State about 1816. 
Mr. Pettingill was well known as "Deacon Pettingill," 
having for more than forty years been prominently 
connected with the Baptist Church at Ogden, New 
York. There is only one child from this union, namely, 
Albertine, born in 1865, now living with her parents in 
San Jose. 

Mr. Crandall is a member of Friendship Lodge, No. 
210, of the Masons of San Jose. He is a Republican 
in politics, and earnestly in favor of a high protective 
tariff. He was chairman of the Central Committee of 
this county during the campaign of 1884, and is now 
senator for the Thirty-first Senatorial District of Cal- 
ifornia, having been elected by a triumphant majority. 
It should also be stated that Mr. Crandall was chair- 
man of the County Central Committee of the Repub- 
lican party in his county in New York State, during 
several political campaigns, and also held several civil 
offices while there, being collector of tolls on the Erie 
Canal for two terms, clerk of the Board of Supervisors, 
clerk of the Probate Court, and was once nominated 
for district attorney, but declined. 



Nicholas Bowden, attorney at law, of the firm of 
Archer & Bowden, rooms i, 2 and 3 Archer Building, 
San Jo.se, was born in the County Kilkenny, Ireland, 
in 1851. In 1S53 his parents removed to America, 
settling in Cooperstown, Otsego County, New York, 
where he attended the public schools up to the age of 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



fifteen years. He then entered a general merchandise 
store, the largest in that county, going through all the 
gradations from errand boy to head salesman and as- 
sistant bookkeeper, for four years. In 1869 he came 
West, and, after a short residence in St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, located at Evansville, Indiana. Here he re- 
mained seven years, engaging first as bookkeeper in a 
mercantile esiablishment. In 1874 he took charge of 
the Evansville Daily and Weekly Courier, one of the 
principal Democratic newspapers in the State of In- 
diana. This paper he successfully managed for three 
years, always taking an active interest in politics, al- 
though never accepting nomination or appointment to 
office. He was a member of the State Convention 
which nominated "Blue Jean" Williams for the gov- 
ernorship of Indiana in the campaign of 1876, which 
ticket, as well as the national Democratic ticket, were 
successful in that State after a very exciting campaign. 
He was one of the Democrats who went South to 
watch the visiting statesmen, as the gentlemen of both 
parties were called who went to Louisiana in that 
year to watch the returning Board, and see that each 
received a fair count of the votes cast. He was also 
endeavoring to recuperate his health, which had be- 
come impaired by too close attention to business. 
Returning to Evansville in March, 1877, and having 
another attack of typhoid pneumonia, he resigned his 
newspaper management, intending to pass a year in 
California. Finding his health improved, and liking 
the climate and people, he decided to remain. 

In the fall of 1877 he took the management of the 
San Jose Daily Herald, which he retained until June, 
1880. While the current of events had up to this time 
kept him in other business channels, his inclinations 
and ambitions had always tended towards the study of 
law, which he engaged in regularly in the fall of 1880, 
in the office of Archer & Lovell, for two years. In 
the fall of 1882 he was admitted to practice by the 
Supreme Court en banc, after the usual examination, 
and became a law partner of Judge Lawrence Archer, 
in the place of Mr. Lovell, who had retired, this asso- 
ciation continuing to this time. He was married on 
October 4, 1 883 , to Miss Sallie Trimble, a native of San 
Jose, the eldest daughter of John Trimble, lately de- 
ceased, one of the early pioneers of California and a 
veteran of the Mexican War. They have one child, 
Lawrence Archer Bowden, now about one year old. 

Mr. Bowden has always been actively and earnestly 
interested in the political questions of the day, and 
while not devoting time belonging to his profession, to 
active politics, he has always given a warm support 



to the Democratic party, and has been prominent in 
its councils. In recognition of his position and dis- 
interested party service, he has been nominated by the 
Democratic State Convention, recently held at Los 
Angeles, as one of the Cleveland and Thurman pres- 
idential electors for California. 



Bainbridge L. Ryder, attorney at law, is one of 
the rising and successful young lawyers of the Pacific 
Coast. He was born in the town of Natick, Massachu- 
setts, twenty-seven years ago. Mr. Ryder came to 
California for his health, arriving in the early part of 
January, 1882. On recuperating he employed his spare 
hours in reading law, and, later, entered the law office 
of Hon. T. H. Lane as a student, and was admitted 
to the Bar in February, 1885. In May, 1888, he was 
appointed court commissioner of the Superior Court 
of Santa Clara County. He is one of three attor- 
neys of the city who are recommended in the last 
"Bankers' Direatory," by the bankers of San Jose, 
as competent and trustworthy attorneys to attend 
to legal business from abroad. Mr. Ryder was the 
instigator and prime mover in organizing the San 
Jose Board of Trade, which is now a large and thrifty 
body, composed of about all of the leading men of 
the city, with a membership numbering more than two 
hundred. By his experience in the practice of com- 
mercial law he was brought in contact with such 
bodies in other cities, and deemed such an organi- 
zation of vital importance to this city and county. 
Mr. Ryder is interested in the Reed Gulch and 
Golconda Extension mines, and owns one hundred 
and sixty acres of land, twenty-one miles south of 
San Jose, which he intends planting to orchard. He 
is also a member of the Ryder Shingle Company, 
owning a shingle mill in the Santa Cruz Mountains, 
situated about twenty-five miles from San Jose. 



M. H. HVLAND, attorney at law, residing at No- 
132 North Fourth Street, San Jose, is a most pleasing 
example of what might be termed a pre-eminently 
self-made man. Courteous in his home, frank and 
affable in iiis conversation and intercourse with his 
fellow-man, he is withal a clear-headed and successful 
business man, an able attorney, and a politician 
honored in the councils of his party. Born in Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, in 1852, he was, by the death of 
his parents, Thomas and Jane (Leighton) Hyland, 
thrown upon his own resources at a very tender age. 
Leaving Boston at the age of nine years, he went to 
New Hampshire, where he worked on farms, and 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



later in Massachusetts for about six years. During 
that time he worked in Boston for about one year. 
In 1869 he came to California, remaining in San 
Francisco for a few months, when he came to San 
Jose, where he has remained almost constantly since 
that time. His first employment here was in a plan- 
ing mill, where he continued for about two years, 
gathering together sufficient capital to establish him- 
self in the poultry, fish, and game business. In this 
business he continued until 1882, making a fair finan- 
cial success In January, 1883, he accepted the posi- 
tion of chief deputy in the county clerk's office, hold- 
ing that position for two years, during which time he 
devoted his spare hours to the study of law. During 
all these years of labor and gradual advancement in 
life, Mr. Hyland had been studying privately and im- 
proving his mind, gathering together the elements of 
a self-acquired education. In January, 1885, he was 
admitted to the Bar by the Supreme Court of the 
State. He has since that time been engaged in the 
practice of law and in looking after his varied in- 
terests. 

He was married, in 1878, to Miss Annie E. Jami- 
son, a native of Clay County, Missouri, her parents 
having moved to that State from Kentucky. In 
1864 they came to California, crossing the plains in 
the regulation ox-team wagons. 

Mr. Hyland is a member of San Jose Lodge, No. 
34, 1. O. O. F., and is secretary of that Lodge. He 
is also secretary of the Odd Fellows' Hall Association. 
He is a member of the Democratic party and secre- 
tary of the Democratic County Committee. 



Samuel Alphonso Barker was born in Kenne- 
bec County, Maine, July 26, 1833. His paternal an- 
cestors were English, and those on his mother's side 
were Scotch. His family is one of the oldest in the 
country, his people having come to America about 
seven years after the Mayflozver. The family in 
this country is descended from two brothers, Noah 
and Carr Barker, the latter being the ancestor of the 
subject of this sketch. His descendants settled in 
Maine, while it was still a part of the province of 
Massachusetts. Mr. Barker's maternal ancestors were 
also early in America. His mother's father was a 
Revolutionary soldier, and it was while on the march 
to Canada, under Arnold, that he selected the tract of 
land upon which he afterwards settled. This tract 
was afterwards a part of the city of Hallowell. He 
engaged in ship-building for a few years, and then 
removed to the neighboorhood of Reedville, where he 



purchased a farm and devoted himself to agricultural 
pursuits. This farm is still in possession of his de- 
scendants. The subject of this sketch was educated in 
his native State, and, in 1S54, commenced the study 
of law in the office of Judge Josiah H. Drummond, 
who has since been attorney-general of the State. 
In 1857 Mr. Barker was admitted to the Bar of the 
Supreme Court of the State of Maine. He practiced 
his profession successfully for ten years in his native 
State, and in 1867 came to California, being attracted 
hither by a desire to renew his health, which too close 
application to business had impaired. He had chosen 
Santa Clara County for his residence and came di- 
rectly to San Jose. 

He here resumed the practice of his profession, 
selecting the department of counselor rather than 
that of advocate. He has confined himself as nearly 
as possible to probate and commercial cases and cases 
involving the title to lands. His sound judgment 
and knowledge of the law, especially in the depart- 
ments which he had selected for his specialties, 
brought him a large and lucrative practice. ' The ac- 
curacy of his opinions in regard to the investment of 
capital attracted to him many clients, who have trusted 
implicitly to his judgment and his integrity, and have 
never had occasion to regret their confidence. In 
all questions touching estates of deceased persons and 
the laws affecting real-estate titles, Mr. Barker is con- 
sidered an authority. He is a member of the Bar of 
the Supreme Court of the State and of the United 
States District Court. He is att rney for the Board 
of Trade of San Jose, and of the Garden City Sav- 
ings Union. He was married, April S, 1858, to 
Sarah E. Parshley, of Maine, and has three children: 
Charles A., now assistant manager of the San Fran- 
cisco Lumber Company; Frank P., deputy recorder 
and auditor of Santa Clara County, and Alfred, now 
a .student at the California Military Academy, at 
Oakland. 

Frank M. Pfister. — This gentleman, the son of 
Adolph Pfister, was born in San Jose in 1851. In 
early youth he attended the public schools, and the 
Gates Institute, then the Santa Clara College, for two 
years, after which he was three years at the Univer- 
sity at Ann Arbor, Michigan, from which institute he 
graduated as an attorney at law, in 1874. After his 
graduation Mr. Pfister returned to San Jose and con- 
tinued his studies of the statutes of California for a 
season, after which he went to Inyo County and com- 
menced the practice of law, remaining there during a 



100 



PEN PICTURES EROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



part of the years 1875-76. He then returned to San 
Jose and formed a co-partnership with J. J. Burt, in 
the practice of law, later drifting into the manufact- 
ure of lime, of which work Mr. Burt took especial 
charge, while Mr. Pfister became drawn into political 
life, being elected county treasurer in 1882. He 
remained in this office for the term of two years. 
Then, not wishing re-nomination to a position of 
such undue responsibility for the amount of recom- 
pense, he became a candidate for the office of city 
justice of San Jose, being elected in 18S4. That 
office he held for two years, then became justice for 
San Jose township, which position he now holds. 

Judge Pfister is yet interested with Mr. Burt in 
lime works in Santa Clara County, near the Guada- 
loupe mines. These works are of a capacity of one 
hundred and forty barrels per day. There are also 
works in San Benito County, near Tres Pinos, of a 
smaller capacity. 

Judge Pfister has always been identified with the 
Democratic party. He is a member of the San Jose 
Parlor, N. S. G. W. 



Judge Joseph Basil Lamar is a descendant of 
old Huguenot ancestors, who settled in Charleston, 
South Carolina, in colonial days. Both his grand- 
sires — Lamar and Winn — were soldiers in the War of 
the Revolution. The Judge has a highly prized relic 
of those times, — a gold watch which strikes the time, 
which his grandfather Winn carried during that war, 
and was on his person when he was taken prisoner by 
Lord Cornwallis at Camden, South Carolina. 

Judge Lamar was born in Georgia in 1827, edu- 
cated and reared in his native State, and studied law 
and was admitted to the Bar before he was twenty-one 
years of age, by special act of the Legislature. After 
practicing a short time he came to California. Start- 
ing from home in company with five other young 
men, they halted at New Orleans, where they met 
Gen. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the 
republic of Texas, and relative of the Judge — who 
advised the party to make the trip through Mexico. 
And, furnished with letters of introduction to prom- 
inent persons at the principal cities, and a good stock 
of information and advice from him, they crossed the 
gulf to Vera Cruz, and made the trip overland, visit- 
ing the city of Mexico and other points- of interest, 
and consuming three months en route. Embarking 
at Mazatlan, they sailed for San Francisco, where 
they arrived April 24, 1849. Mr. Lamar and his 



companions, like most of the immigrants of that day, 
were gold seekers and went into the mines. 

Mr. Lamar settled in Mendocino County in 1854. 
In 1858 he was elected to the Legislature from 
Sonoma County. While serving in that body the fol- 
lowing year, Mr. Lamar prepared and introduced the 
bill organizing Mendocino County; and in i860 he 
was elected to represent the new county in the Leg- 
islature. In 1866 he was elected county judge of 
Mendocino County; he served one term — four years — 
and then resumed his law practice, in which he has 
been engaged ever since. In 1876 he was appointed 
attorney for the Board of State Harbor Commissioners, 
and held that position four years. In 1883 he set- 
tled in San Jose, where he has ever since been en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession. 



Wm. p. Veuve, one of the junior members of the 
Bar of San Jose, was born in that city on the twenty- 
eighth day of March, 1853, under the shadow of the 
old juzgado, or town hall, in which the ayuntamiento, 
or town council, held its sessions in the days when, 
under Spanish and Mexican rule, the city was a 
pueblo, known as San Jose de Guadalupe. Located 
in the center of the plaza, or square, the adobe houses 
of the pobladores, or founders of the pueblo, faced the 
juzgado from the four sides of the plaza. In one of 
these primitive dwellings, the residence of Donna 
Juana Pacheco, the subject of this sketch first saw the 
light of day. The exterior of Donna Pacheco's adobe 
house might not have indicated that it was the abode 
of opulence, yet the owner was the widow of a poblador 
whose lands were measured by leagues, and whose 
cattle were numbered by hundreds. 

The hospitality of the native Californians was 
proverbial, but at no hacienda in the land was there a 
warmer welcome for stranger or friend than at the 
casa of this good old lady. Dead these many years, 
may she have found the "ever-during" gates of 
Heaven as widely open as were always the doors of 
her humble abode on Market Street, in the pueblo of 
San Jose. 

Mr. Veuve's father, Eugene L. Veuve, is a native 
of Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, of Huguenot ances- 
try, and came to America in 1845, landing at Mobile, 
Alabama, where, after a brief sojourn, he went to New 
Orleans, and from there, in 1849, made the overland 
journey to California, through New Mexico and Ari- 
zona, in an emigrant train. Escaping the perils of 
"field and flood" and Indians, he reached Los Angeles 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



in the winter of '49. He remained there about six 
months, and then joined the tide of travel setting 
northward to the mines, arriving in San Jose in the 
spring of '50. Here, struck with the natural advan- 
tages of the place, he decided to locate for the prac- 
tice of his trade, that of watchmaker and jeweler, and 
at once opened a shop on Market Street, near the old 
juzgado. Mr. Jackson Lewis arrived in San Jose 
about this time, and he and the elder Mr. Veuve are 
the pioneer watchmakers of the city. 

Mr. E. L. Veuve's wife, and the mother of Wm. P. 
Veuve, was born in the County Kildare, Ireland, and 
went to Chili, South America, when a young girl. 
Her maiden name was Eleanor Nugent. Upon the 
discovery of gold in California, the exodus from Chili 
to the New El Dorado bore her thither, with many 
other pioneer residents of all parts of the State. Her 
husband (she had married a Mr. Pettit) had left Chili 
in a sailing vessel with all his worldly possessions, and 
she was to follow afterward by steamer and join him 
in San Francisco. But one disaster after another 
overtook him. He was shipwrecked off the coast of 
Mexico, and lost a valuable stock of goods that was a 
part of the ship's cargo. He was taken down with 
fever, and, while lying sick and helpless in a strange 
land, was robbed of his money. But after many 
hardships he reached San Jose, whither his wife had 
gone, but only to be stricken with cholera, of which 
terrible scourge he died. 

Mr. Wm. P. Veuve's parents were married in San 
Jose, in 1852, and have ever since then resided here. 
Their old homestead, facing Market Plaza, was built 
about the year 1854, and is one of the ancient land- 
marks in that part of the city. About this time there 
was established a public school in a rude building on 
the plaza, and a Mr. Erie presided over its destinies. 
To this school went the subject of this sketch when 
but a child, accompanying his elder half-brother, who 
was a regular attendant at its exercises. The school 
was afterwards transferred to quarters on Washing- 
ton Square, Mr. Erie continuing to be its principal 
teacher. Under this pioneer school-master of San 
Jose it was not a case of Spare the rod and spoil 
the child, for he was an exponent of what might be 
termed muscular tuition. Young Veuve continued 
to attend the public schools of his native city until 
1868, when he entered Santa Clara College, from 
which institution he was graduated in 1874. His 



studies there were not, however, continuous, for they 
were interrupted by a two years' engagement with 
the firm of Auzerais Brothers, as their book-keeper. 
After receiving his degree in the classical course, but 
not immediately, Mr. Veuve commenced the study of 
the law in the office of Thos. H. Bodley, Esq., an old 
and well-known practitioner at the Bar. In April, 
1877, he was duly licensed to practice by the Supreme 
Court of the State, and from that time he has de- 
voted himself to his chosen profession, practicing at 
the Bar or presiding on the Bench. 

At the general election of 1880 he was elected city 
justice and police judge, being one of only two suc- 
cessful candidates on the Democratic ticket. In 1882 
he was re-elected to the same office. Mr. Veuve was 
the first incumbent of this office, and in the beginning 
of his first term experienced considerable difficulty in 
administering its jurisdiction, owing to defects in the 
law creating it. The Legislature, however, at the 
suggestion of Mr. Veuve, passed a remedial measure, 
and thereafter no trouble was encountered. In 1884, 
having received superior inducements from friends in 
the county of San Luis Obispo, he resigned his office 
and took up his residence there. The ties, however, 
which bound him to his native city were so strong 
that, after an absence of about two years, he returned 
to San Jose, where he has since continued to practice 
law, with ever-increasing success. 

In 1 88 1 Mr. Veuve married Miss Jennie Wilson, 
and a little girl, named Vida, is the result of their 
union. 

He has a half-brother, H. H. Veuve, who is of the 
firm of A. Vignier & Company, French importers, 
San Francisco, and a younger full brother, A. L. 
Veuve, who was for a long time manager of the Pa- 
cific Manufacturing Company, at Santa Clara, and 
who is now engaged in managing the affairs of the 
Shasta Lumber Company, in Shasta County. 

Mrs. Mary C. Hoffman, widow of the late Herman 
Hoffman, is a half-sister of Mr. Veuve, whose parents, 
still living, hale and hearty in their old age, reside 
with her on Guadalupe Street, in San Jose. 

In politics Mr. Veuve is a Democrat, active and 
prominent in his party's councils. 

He is a member of Los Gatos Parlor, No. 126, N. 
S. G. W., and takes great interest in the success of 
this distinctively Californian Order. 





8-T^FiEi f>:r.ei©^. 




THE first newspaper published in Santa Clara 
County was issued in 1850, by James B. Devoe. 
It was called the State Journal, and was discontinued 
on the adjournment of the Legislature, in 1851. 

In January, 1851, the San Jose Daily Argus was 
published during the senatorial campaign. It was in 
the interest of John C. Fremont. 

San Jose Weekly Visitor. This was the first per- 
manent newspaper in San Jose. It was commenced 
June 20, 185 1, by Emerson, Damon & Jones. At 
first it was Whig, but in October it changed over 
to the Democracy. In August, 1852, its name was 
changed to the 

Register, and was published by T. C. Emerson 
and Givens George, with F. B. Murdoch as editor. 
In 1853, Murdoch having obtained control of the 
Register, its name was changed to the 

San Jose Telegraph. In i860 the Telegraph went 
into the hands of W. N. Slocum, and in 1861 it was 
changed to the 

San Jose Weekly Mercury, with J. J. Owen and B. 
H. Cottle as proprietors. In November of that year 
the 



Daily Mercury was started in connection with the 
Weekly, but was discontinued in 1862. In 1869 J. J. 
Conmy came into the firm, and in August of that 
year the publication of the Daily was resumed, but 
discontinued in 1870. Mr. Conmy retired from the 
firm this year. In 1871 Cottle sold out his interest 
to Owen. In 1872 Owen, having purchased the 
Daily Guide, again resumed the publication of the 
Daily Mercury in connection with the Weekly. Soon 
after, Cottle again bought a half interest in both 
papers, but again sold to Owen, in 1874. In 1877 
it was incorporated under the style of the Mercury 
Printing and Publishing Co., Mr. Owen holding the 
majority of the stock. In 1884 he sold his interest 
to C. M. Shortridge, proprietor of the Daily Times, 
and the name of the paper was changed to the Times- 
Mercury. In 1885 F. A. Taylor entered into nego- 
tiations for the purchase of the paper, but the trans- 
(102) 



action was not consummated. In the meantime the 
name was changed back to the Daily Mercury. At 
this time it absorbed the Daily Republic. 



Charles M. Shortridge, the present editor and 
proprietor of the San Jose Daily and Weekly Mercury^ 
was born at Pleasant Grove, a small hamlet near Mt. 
Pleasant, Iowa, on the twenty-fourth day of August, 
1857. He came to California when a small boy. He 
first stopped at Nevada City, where he worked until 
he had saved a few dollars, when he came to San Jose 
for the purpose of attending the public schools, which 
had a great reputation for efficiency. Not having 
money enough to support himself while attending 
school, he hired out to the San Jose Gas Company 
as a lamp-lighter, for a salary of $28 per month. 

Having completed his course at the public schools 
with honor, he went to work in the office of the Daily 
Mercury as general utility boy, sweeping out the 
office, running errands, and doing whatever was to 
be done. While attending school he had selected 
journalism as his future profession, and determined 
to master the business in all its departments. Hav- 
ing no money of his own, and no rich relatives to 
start him in business, he was obliged to commence 
at the bottom of the ladder. But when he had placed 
his foot on the first round, he fixed his eye on the 
top, and never rested until he was there. While 
working as office boy he familiarized himself with 
the details of the composing room and press rooms. 
He worked his way into the business department, 
keeping the books and collecting the bills, and over- 
seeing the mailing and subscription department, and 
thence he went on the local staff He continued 
with the Merairy for seven years, until 1883. He 
was then twenty-six years old, with all the informa- 
tion in regard to the newspaper business that he 
could acquire in San Jose, and determined to start 
for himself He had no money, but was full of prac- 
tical ideas which he had worked out while with the 
Mercury. 

He severed his connection with this paper, and 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



103 



went into the real-estate and insurance business. 
This was for the purpose of keeping the " pot boiling" 
until he could perfect his plans. Some of the busi- 
ness men and capitalists of San Jose had watched 
young Shortridge's career, and had been favorably 
impressed with his talent, pluck, and perseverance. 
He had many offers of lucrative positions, but he 
would not turn aside from the aim of his life. He 
succeeded, after some time, in securing financial back- 
ing sufficient to purchase the Daily Tifnes, paying 
$5,500 for it. He immediately enlarged it, and, at 
great expense, secured the exclusive right to the 
morning telegraphic dispatches for San Jose. Many 
of his friends looked on with dismay at what seemed 
to them to be the most reckless extravagance, while 
his enemies and journalistic rivals prophesied speedy 
bankruptcy. But the young man was hewing to the 
line he had laid down for a guide after careful meas- 
urement. What seemed to his friends as recklessness 
was, in fact, the result of the soberest kind of thought. 
He was simply exhibiting the nerve necessary to the 
proper execution of his plans. This was in 1883. 

In 1884 he secured control of the stock of t';e Mer- 
cury Printing and Publishing Co., and, in less than 
two years from the day he walked out of the Mer- 
cury office a poor boy, with scarcely a penny in his 
pocket, he walked back again as its proprietor. He 
combined the Times and Mercury, added new mater 
rial and presses, and proceeded to make the new 
journal twice as good as either of them were before. 
His expenses were greatly increased, but the income 
was in a much larger proportion. In 1885 he ab- 
sorbed the Republic, a morning paper which had been 
started that year. This plan of combining forces is 
one of the peculiarities of Mr. Shortridge's journalistic 
career. He wastes no ammunition in fighting com- 
peting journals. If a paper develops enough im- 
portance to become a rival, he absorbs it; but unless 
it has this importance he ignores it. 

During Mr. Shortridge's ownership of the Mercury, 
more special editions have been issued than during 
all the former history of journalism in San Jose. 
These specials run from sixteen to sixty-four pages, 
generally profusely illustrated, and always in the 
interest of the material resources of the county. Mr. 
Shortridge is now, 1888, thirty-one years of age. He 
is a ready speaker, a Republican in politics, devoted 
to the principle of protection for American industries, 
and a firm believer in the future greatness of the 
Santa Clara Valley, the '^ garden of the world." 



The Semi-Weekly Tribune was issued by Givens 
George, July 4, 1854. In 1855 it was published by 
George & Kendall. In 1859 it was sold to George 
O'Dougherty. In 1862 and 1863 it was suppressed 
for eight months by order of General Wright. In 
1863 it was purchased by F. B. Murdoch, who changed 
the name to the 

Patriot. The San Jose Weekly Patriot was started 
by Murdoch in 1863. In 1865 he commenced the 
publication of the Daily Patriot. In 1875 he sold 
out to S. J. Hinds and J. G. Murdoch. In 1876 
it was purchased by the Murphys, and the name 
changed to the 

San Jose Daily Herald, which name it still retains. 
In 1878 it purchased and absorbed the San Jose 
Argus, the weekly being called the Herald Argus. 
In October, 1884, a joint-stock company was formed 
under the style of the Herald Publishing Company, 
which purchased the Herald, and still conducts it. 
The officers of the company are: H. H. Main, presi- 
dent; W. C. Morrow, secretary; J. F. Thompson, 
treasurer. Mr. Thompson is editor, Mr. Morrow 
is city editor, and Mr. Main is business manager. 
Under this administration the Herald has thrived 
wonderfully and taken a high rank among the journals 
of this coast. The Herald \^ Democratic in politics, 
having changed its political affiliations when it 
changed its name from the Patriot. 



J. F. Thompson, editor of the Herald, was born 
in Massachusetts, and is now fifty-one years of age. 
He entered journalism at the age of twenty. He 
came to California in the '70's, and was engagrd 
on some of the leading papers of the State. In 1878 
he went on the Herald as its editor, and afterwards 
leased it from the Murphys and ran it successfully 
until 1884, when he went into the joint-stock company 
that purchased it. He has been its editor continu- 
ously for ten years, and his efforts have done much 
towards placing the paper in its present prosperous 
and influential position. He early became identified 
with the horticultural and viticultural interests of the 
county, and his opinions on these subjects are consid- 
ered authoritative. 

W. C. Morrow, city editor of the Herald, was 
born in Alabama, and is now thirty-four years of age. 
He early developed great literary talent, and, when a 
mere boy, wrote many things that provoked favorable 
comment from distinguished literary men. He came 
to San Jose in 1879, and was immediately engaged as 



104 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



a writer on the Mercury. While engaged in news- 
paper work he wrote several charming novels, poems, 
and short stories that gave him high standing among 
the literati of the coast. His efforts attracted the 
attention of Eastern publishers, and many of the pro- 
ductions of his pen found place in the columns of 
leading magazines and journals of the Atlantic 
States. When the Herald \V3.5 reorganized he became 
its city editor, to the profit of the paper and the bene- 
fit of the community. 



H. H. Main, the business manager of the Herald, 
was born in Wisconsin, and is forty years of age. He 
taught school for several years in that State, and 
came to California for the benefit of his health. For 
sanitary reasons, he settled at Los Gatos, and engaged 
in the lumber and wood business. In 1880 he was 
elected a member of the county Board of Supervisors, 
and re-elected in 1883, being chosen as chairman of 
the Board during the latter term. He had a natural 
taste for journalism, being a close reasoner and a 
ready writer. He was the projector of the Los Gatos 
Mail, and its business manager during the first years 
of its existence. He came onto the Herald when 
the company was incorporated, and his management 
has steered it prosperously through the shoals and 
quicksands which have wrecked so many journalistic 
barks in Santa Clara County, and brought it to the 
open sea and prosperous gales of success. 



The Sa.n ]ose Daify Re/>orter was started in i860, 
by W. Frank Stewart. It soon changed to a weekly, 
and was finally discontinued, after a few months' exist- 
ence. 

The Daily and Weekly Courier was started in 1865, 
by Geo. O. Tiffany, but lasted only a few months. 

The Santa Clara Argus, by W. A. January, com- 
menced publication in 1866 as a weekly. In 1876 
the Daily Argus was issued and ran for two years, 
until .sold to the Herald, in 1878. 

The Saturday Advertiser began publication Au- 
gust II, 1866. It was discontinued February 19, 
1869. 

The Daily Independent was started May 7, 1870, 
by a company of printers. It was the first paper in 
San Jo.se to receive news by telegraph. In Decem- 
ber of that year it was purchased by Norman Porter, 
who, in turn, sold it to the Guide in 1871. 

The Daily Guide was started by Stockton and 
Hansborough, in February, 1871. Hansborough sold 
out his interest to Stockton during the same year. 



Stockton purchased the Independent of Porter and 
absorbed it. In January, 1872, Porter took the 
Guide and sold it to J. J. Owen, who merged it into 
the Daily Mercury. 

The Daily Press was published by J. J. Conmy for 
a few weeks during 1872. 

The Reporter was published by H. A. De Lacy, 
from April to August, 1872. 

The California Agriculturist (monthly) was started 
by Brand and HoUoway, in 1871. S. H. Herring 
purchased it in 1874, and, after running it a few years, 
sold it to the Rural Press, of San Francisco. 

The Daily Evening Tribune was published during 
the campaign of 1872, by Clevenger and Armstrong. 

The Daily Independent Californian was published by 
Herring and Casey during the local option campaign 
of 1874. 

The Daily Garden City Times was started by a 
syndicate of printers and literary men in 1874. It 
lasted about six weeks. 

The Daily and Weekly Advertiser was published by 
B. H. Cottle from May to December, 1875. 

The Weekly Balance Sheet, a commercial paper, was 
started by H. S. Foote, February, 1876, and was sold 
the same year to the Weekly Argus. 

The California Journal of Education was run for a 
few weeks, in 1876, by George Hamilton. 

The Temperance Clidmpion was published by A. P. 
Murgotten, in 1876. It was discontinued the next 
year. 

The Pioneer, devoted to the interests of the "Men of 
'49," was started by A. P. Murgotten, in 1876. It was 
discontinued in 1881. 

The Headliglit, an evening daily, was started by a 
syndicate of printers, in 1879. Its name was after- 
wards changed to the Record, and it soon afterwards 
retired from the field. 

The Daily Moniing Times was started in 1879. 
The history of this paper is contained in the following 
biographical sketch of its projector. 



Stephen W. De Lacy was born in New Orleans, 
Louisiana, May 3, 1843. Here he learned the trades 
of ship carpentering and steam engineering. In 1863 
he removed to New York City, and in the summer of 
that year sailed via Panama for California, arriving in 
San Francisco July 2. Proceeding at once to Santa 
Clara County, where his parents resided, he first set- 
tled in Almaden township, and remained for two 
years in the employ of the company then managing 
the celebrated quicksilver mines. He then removed 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



105 



to the city of San Jose, and went into tlie business of 
contracting and building, which he followed for sev- 
eral years. In 1870 he entered the ranks of journal- 
ism, as a reporter with the San Jose Daily Independ- 
ent, and shortly, in conjunction with his brother, 
Hugh A. De Lacy, started the San Jose Weekly Re- 
porter. In 1872 he joined the Dally Record at Fiochc, 
Nevada, remaining as its city editor for nearly a year. 
Returning to San Jose in 1873, he became the city 
editor of the Daily Evening Patriot, and continued in 
the position when the name of that paper was changed 
to Herald. Resigning in 1879, Mr. De Lacy began 
the publication of the Daily Morning Times, believing 
that the field was good for an independent newspaper. 
In that enterprise he was associated with J. G. Mur- 
doch, formerly foreman of the Herald; the editorial 
department being intrusted to F. B. Murdoch, a vet- 
eran journalist, formerly proprietor of the Patriot, 
who subsequently became a partner in the newspaper. 
The firm name was Times Publishing Company. 
Their first issue was on July 15, 1S79, and the paper 
was favorably received. On the first of January, 1880, 
Mr. De Lacy became sole proprietor by purchase of 
the interests of his partners. From that time the suc- 
cess of the Times was remarkable. The aim of the 
owner and manager was to present a paper which, in 
its treatment of local events, should be equally read- 
able and reliable; in general, the implacable foe of 
wrong, the inflexible champion of right, and at all 
events independent in opinion, and fearless in its ex- 
pression beyond the possibility of clique, faction, or 
sinister interest to influence. In the realization of 
that ideal, his success was decisive and permanent. 
But at the height of success, Mr. De Lacy conceived 
the idea that a daily newspaper founded and conducted 
on the principles of the Times would flourish in San 
Francisco. Accordingly, on the sixth of September, 
i8'83, he sold to C. M. Shortridge, proprietor of the 
San Jose Alerciuy, his entire interest in the Times, 
binding himself not to resume journalism in San Jose 
for three years. 

On the sixteenth of February, 1884, in connection 
with James H. Barry, a popular printer of San Fran- 
cisco, Mr. De Lacy began, under what seemed favor- 
able auspices, the publication of the Daily Evening 
Star. Its principle was — in the expressive phrase of 
the day — "anti-boss, anti-monopoly." But powerful 
enemies and journalistic rivalry, and especially the 
spurious fidelity of the industrial classes, in whose in- 
terest the paper was conducted, proved too much for 
the enterprise. On the nineteenth of June, 1884, hav- 
14 



ing lost heavily, the Star Company suspended, 
promptly discharging all its obligations to a penny. 
Mr. De Lacy returned to San Jose and engaged in 
various business. On the sixth of September, 1886, 
upon the expiration of his bond, he pluckily re-issued 
the Daily Morning Times, meeting with great success 
in the enterprise of re-establishing it, conducting it 
upon its original plane, and pushing it up to its former 
position as a generous advocate of the rights of the 
people. 

Mr. De Lacy married, September 10, 1875, Clara J., 
daughter of J. W. Haskell, and has five children: 
Edith Viola, Walter Haskell, Stephen Percival, Ed- 
ward Ralph Merlin, and Clara Estelle De Lacy. 



The Daily Evening News was started and run dur- 
ing the campaign of 1882, by W. D. Haley. 

The City Item was established by H. A. De Lacy, 
in 1883. Its name was changed, in 1885, to the Eve- 
ning News, which name it still bears. 

The projector of this journal, Mr. H. A. De Lacy, 
was born in New Orleans, September 23, 1845. He 
came to California in 1862, and went to work at 
the New Ahiiaden mines as engineer. In 1865 he 
came to San Jose and engaged in the business of 
carpenter and builder for several years. In 1870 he 
was appointed deputy sheriff, where he developed 
great skill as a detective officer. After his term ex- 
pired as deputy sheriff", he was appointed on the 
police force of San Jose, and was afterward elected 
constable of the township. In 1872 he published the 
Reporter, but discontinued it in order to devote his 
whole time to his professional duties. But he had 
developed a taste for journalism that could not be 
wiped out, and in 1883 he established the City Item, 
intending to make it small and do all the work him- 
self. However, it met with such success that he was 
compelled to enlarge it and secure assistance in his 
work. Mr. C. W. Williams, a young man of great 
business ability, was taken in as a partner and as- 
sumed the business management of the enterprise, 
Mr. De Lacy confining himself entirely to the edito- 
rial department. This was a strong combination, and 
its effect was immediately apparent. The business 
rapidly increased, and the paper has been enlarged no 
less than six times during the five years of its exist- 
ence. In 1885 the name was changed to the Evening 
Nezvs, which name it now bears. 

The Santa Clara Valley, a monthly journal devoted 
to the horticultural and viticultural interests of the 
community, and to advertising the resources of the 



106 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD" 



county, was started by H. S. Foote, in 1884. In 1886 
he sold out to Mr. H. A. Brainard, who has conducted 
the paper ever since, having added to its name the 
Pacific Tree and Vine, thus enlarging its field to the 
entire State, and doing away « ith its exclusively local 
character. 

Mr. H. A. Brainard is a native of New York, and 
received a liberal education, including the highest 
classical course in the educational institutions of that 
State. The peculiar tendency of his mind, however, 
was toward natural science, and he became one of the 
most accurate engineers and surveyors of the Empire 
State. His work in laying out and superintending 
the construction of a large section of the West Shore 
Railroad, is unsurpassed in the history of railroad 
construction in that State. He became also a thor- 
ough theoretical and practical botanist, and these two 
qualifications he brought to bear in his work on the 
Santa Clara Valley. The first he utilized in making 
accurate and detailed maps for publication in his jour- 
nal, and the latter for imparting valuable horticultural 
information to his readers. His maps have been 
found of great value to nearly every citizen, and his 
paper has become a recognized authority on the 
coast, and has been the means of bringing many 
settlers to this county. The literary department is 
under the direction of Miss Louise E. Francis, a lady 
of great talent and a graceful writer. 

The Enterprise, a weekly paper, was published in 
Mayfield, by W. H. Clipperton, in 1869-70. It was 
afterwards removed to Gilro}', and its name changed 
to the 

Gilroy Telegram, but it was discontinued after the 
political campaign of the latter year. 

The Gilroy Advocate was established at Gilroy, 
September, 1868, by G. M. Hanson and C. F. Macy. 
In 1869 it went into the hands of Kenyon & Knowl- 
ton, and in 1873 to Murphy & Knowlton. H. Cof- 
fin became publisher in 1873, and continued for two 
years, when he was succeeded by H. C. Burckhart. 
In January, 1876, J. C. Martin took charge, but was 
succeeded by Rev. D. A. Dryden, in October of the 
same year. The paper was soon afterwards leased 
to Frank Dryden and J. Vaughn, who conducted it a 
few months, when F. W. Blake, the present proprietor, 
having purchased the majority of the stock, assumed 
control. During all its twenty years of existence the 
Advocate has been highly esteemed as a home paper, 
and particularly is this the case under its present 
management. 



F. W. Blake is a native of London, England, hi-s 
father being a leading physician of that city. Two 
of his brothers were educated in that profession and 
are now iri full practice, one in England and another in 
San Francisco. The subject of this sketch had no taste 
for medicine, and he secured a clerkship in the Depart- 
ment of Customs. Here he remained for five years, 
coming in contact with the officers of merchant ves- 
sels from all parts of the world. When his parents 
died, he being then twenty-five years old, he accepted 
the invitation of the captain of a merchant vessel to 
make a voyage with him. He came to New York 
in 1 86 1, and, after remaining a few weeks, went to 
Chicago and soon after joined the telegraph ex- 
pedition to Salt Lake City. From there he came to 
San Francisco. Here he went into the mercantile 
business, in which he continued for twelve years. He 
had been liberally educated, and had cultivated a de- 
cided literary taste. He was a close and forcible, as 
well as a graceful, writer. Retiring from the mercan- 
tile business, he took a position on the Hollister Ad- 
vance, and soon after purchased Xho. Advocate, ■sjs, above 
stated. In his statement of events he is terse and ac- 
curate, and in his editorials his reasoning is logic. 
He has made the Advocate a representative of the 
people composing the community where it is pub- 
lished. 

The Gilroy Crescent was established in January, 
1888, by R. G. Einfalt. It started prosperously from 
the first and has maintained its position ever since. 
It is well conducted and thoroughly meets the demands 
of its patrons, as its increasing business well proves. 
Mr. Einfalt, its publisher, is a native son of the Golden 
West,havingbeen born at Weaverville, Trinity County, 
California, October 23, 1866. His parents were J. M. 
and E. J. (Smith) Einfalt. His father is a native of 
Germany and his mother of Missouri, her parents 
having emigrated from Virginia to that State. In 
1868, when Mr. Einfalt was only two years old, his 
parents removed to Gilroy, and the subject of this 
sketch grew up with the city. 

During his course at the Gilroy High School, he 
suspended his studies and went into the office of the 
Valley Record, in 1883, where he remained two years 
and a half He then returned to school and com- 
pleted the course, graduating with honor. During 
his connection with the Valley Record he developed 
great journalistic ability, and, on leaving school, es- 
tablished the Crescent. He is a member of the Gilroy 
Parlor N. S. G. W., of which he is secretary. Al- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



107 



though a young man, he is greatly respected, both on 
account of his worth as a citizen and his abiHty as 
a journalist. 

The Valley Record, of Gilroy, was established May 
7, 1 88 1, by E. S. Harrison. In 1884 it was purchased 
by B. A. Wardell. He negotiated its sale to other 
parties, who changed the name to the Gilroy Gazette, 
but the conditions not being complied with, the paper 
reverted to Mr. Wardell, who is its present publisher 
and editor. 

Mr. Wardell has had quite an eventful life. He 
was born in New York City, January 15, 1830. He 
traces his ancestry on his father's side back to the 
early settlement of New Jersey in colonial times, the 
family coming from Wales and locating at the beach 
at Long Branch, which took the name of Wardell's 
Beach. His father was a wholesale merchant in New 
York City. His mother's family is one of the oldest 
in New York. Her father was a sea captain engaged 
in the East India trade. The subject of this sketch 
was reared in New York City, and began his business 
career in a China shipping house. The firm sent him 
to China in 1845 for the benefit of his health. On 
reaching Shanghai he accepted the position of book- 
keeper in the house of Wetmore & Co. In about a 
year this firm failed and Mr. Wardell went into busi- 
ness with a fellow-clerk at Foochow; at the end of 
two years he sold out and established a general ship- 
ping house at Shanghai, under the firm name of Howe 
& Co. This firm bought the first steamer from Cali- 
fornia, the Santa Cruz, to run on the Yang-tse-Kiang. 
Afterwards they purchased the John T. Wright in 
San Francisco, and these, with the steamer Helles- 
pont, purchased in China, constituted the line run- 
ning from Shanghai to Hongkong. He closed out 
his business in China in 1863, returning to the United 
States via Europe. The money he had made in 
China was dropped in unsuccessful speculations in 
Wall Street, and in 1872 he started for California, in- 
tending to locate in Los Angeles. This was before 
the boom, and, not being satisfied with the appear- 
ance of the Southern country, he went to San Fran- 
cisco and accepted the position of cashier in the of- 
fice of the San Francisco Chronicle. He remained 
there until 1 884, when he purchased the Valley Rec- 
ord, as before stated. Mr. Wardell is a member of 
the F. and A. M. in Gilroy, the I. O. O. F. and the 
A. O. U. W. in San Francisco, and the O. E. S. in 
Gilroy. He was married in California, in 1876, to 
Miss Pauline Fliess, a native of Vienna, Austria. Mr. 
Warden's business experience and literary ability have 



enabled him to make the Gazette a flattering success. 

The Los Gatos Weekly Mail is a seven-column folio, 
published by the Mail Publishing Company, the fol- 
lowing gentlemen being the officers: Peter Johnson, 
president; Wm. P. Hughes, editor and manager. It 
is one of the neatest looking and most ably edited 
country papers in California. Established in 1884, 
it met with success from the start. But after about 
eight months, the manager, H. H. Main, chairman of 
the Board of Supervisors, becoming interested in many 
other enterprises, found that the Mail or his other 
business would have to be given up, so he sold to 
Wm. P. Hughes, the present editor and manager, and 
practical proprietor. 

Mr. Hughes had a great many disadvantages to un- 
dergo, but with energy, perseverance, and intelligence 
he has made the Mail what it is to-day — first-class in 
every respect, and paying handsomely. Its circula- 
tion is large and rapidly increasing, and the people of 
the section have the utmost confidence in it. 



Wm. p. Hughes, the editor and manager of the 
Mail, was born in Salem, Marion County, Illinois, on 
October 14, 1857. His parents removed to Dixon, 
Lee County, Illinois, in 1859, thence to Austin, 
Texas, where Mr. Hughes resided until ten years of 
age, when he left home, went to San Antonio, Texas, 
and engaged, with a namesake, Thomas Hughes, to 
go up the Chism trail, through the Indian Territory, 
with a herd of ten thousand cattle. After arriving in 
Parker, a town near the border of the Territory, in 
Kansas, he engaged as an apprentice on the Journal, 
a cow-boy paper published there at that time. After 
serving about a year he went to Topeka, the capital, 
and served three years on the Daily State Gazette, 
when he left for Quincy, Illinois, where he joined the 
Typographical Union, of which society he is an hon- 
ored member to-day. He then traveled extensively 
throughout the United States and Canada, working 
on the most influential dailies in North America, 
when he returned to his old home in Austin in 1876. 

In the spring of this year he joined the Frontier 
Battalion of the State of Texas, known as the Texas 
Rangers, and served with honor and credit to him- 
self and State until November 30, 1877, when he re- 
ceived an honorable discharge. He was the youngest 
member ever in that service. He then foremanized 
on various papers in Texas, and went to New Orleans 
in the fall of 1878, where he worked on the Democrat. 
In the spring of 1 879 he took a trip up the Mississippi 
River, visiting Vicksburg, Memphis, Cairo, and St. 



108 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



Louis, thence to Kansas City, and finally to Denver, 
where he remained until August, when he went to the 
then "booming" mining camp of Leadville, where he 
resided for nearly two years, working on the Clironi- 
cle and dealing in mining property. 

In the fall of 1881 he went to Laramie City, Wy- 
oming Territory, where he took the position of fore- 
man on the Evening Times, which he held for about 
a year, when he came to California. After residing 
in San Francisco and Sacramento about six months, 
he returned to Laramie, at the urgent request of the 
proprietor, to resume charge of the composing room 
of the Times. Here he fell a victim to Cupid's darts, 
and married his present wife, the daughter of P. G. 
Murphy, one of the best-known and most highly re- 
spected ranchers in the Rocky Mountains. He and 
his wife then went to Denver and Pueblo, Colorado, 
where they resided until 1883, when they went to 
Eureka, Nevada. Mr. Hughes held a responsible 
position on the Sentinel until December, 1884, when 
he removed, with his family, to San Francisco. 

In January, 1885, he purchased the controlling in- 
terest in the Los Gatos Mail. 

He is a young man, thirty years old, and is possessed 
of that force of character which always places a man 
in the front rank, and yet has that control over his 
temper, smoothness of disposition, courteous and ur- 
bane nature, which make him universally esteemed. 



The Los Gatos Weekly News was established July 
2, 1 88 1, by W. S. Walker, who went to Saratoga, on 
the advice of friends, to start a newspaper enterprise 
in that town, but, passing through Los Gatos, saw that 
it had a bright future before it, and at once com- 
menced the publication of the News, a five-column 
quarto, with "patent inside." He afterward increased 
the size of the paper to a six-column quarto, still 
using " ready prints." By his enterprise, and a con- 
stant advocacy of Los Gatos' splendid claims, the 
town received new life, and Mr. Walker had a liberal 
patronage for his pioneer paper of the foot-hills. In 
April, 1885, Mr. Walker sold out the News to Messrs. 
W. H. B. Trautham, C. C. Suydam, and G. Webster. 
In March, 1886, Mr. Webster sold out his interest to 
W. H. B. Trautham and C. C. Suydam, the present 
owners and publishers of the paper. 

The paper has been, and is yet, independent in 
politics, and is devoted to the horticultural and viti- 



cultural interests of the upper part of Santa Clara 
Valley; and it has been a 'powerful factor in the on- 
ward march of that section. In March, 1887, the 
publishers cast aside the " ready prints," and im- 
proved the typographical appearance of the paper, 
which has had a liberal patronage from its founding. 

The editor of the News, W. H. B. Trautham, was 
born in Greene County, Missouri, March 16, 1847. 
The early part of his life was spent on a farm in his 
native county. After a solicitous life incident to the 
battles in and near Springfield, he entered the dis- 
trict schools, and soon made a teacher of himself, but 
not being content with the education attained, com- 
menced a course of study in the Missouri University 
in 1868, and graduated from that institution in 1872. 
At the close of his college life, Mr. Trautham became 
the principal of the Varona, Missouri, public schools, 
which position he held for two years, when he was 
unanimously called by the Board of Education of 
North Springfield, Missouri, to the head of that insti- 
tution. At the end of four years, his health having 
somewhat failed, he resolved to give up teaching and 
bought a half interest in the North Springfield South- 
zvester, but the Board of Education of the city of 
Springfield prevailed on him to take charge of their 
High School, which position he gave up in the spring 
of 1878, to give his undivided attention to the journal- 
istic venture. The paper was improved, and a daily 
inaugurated. Poor health, in the spring of 1884, made 
another change necessary, when the Soiithwester news 
and job offices were sold out, and Mr. Trautham came 
with his family to Los Gatos, where he has entirely 
regained health, and where he has been constantly 
connected with the Neivs since 1885. 

In 1885 a weekly paper called the Courier was pub- 
lished at Mountain View, by George Wagstaff It 
was in existence but a few months. 

'Y\\& Mountain View Weekly Register commenced 
publication in April, 1888, under the auspices of the 
Register Publishing Company, with Harry Johnston 
as editor and F. W. Bacon as manager. The paper 
is well conducted, newsy, and a staunch representa- 
tive of the community in which it is published. The 
business management shows an intelligent energy that 
will insure success, while the editorial and literary de- 
partments are of a character that would do credit to 
many other more pretentious journals. 



THE first election for officers was held May, 1850, 
and the following were chosen: — 

J. W. Redinon, county judge. 

H. C. Melone, county clerk. 

J. T. Richardson, county recorder. 

John Yontz, county sheriff. 

John M. Murphy, county treasurer. 

J. H. Moore, county attorney. 

Charles E. Allen, county assessor. 

Another election was called for the first Wednesday 
in September of the same year, but as this day fell on 
the fourth of the month, and the State was not ad- 
mitted until the ninth, the election was illegal and the 
old officers held over until 1851, when the following 
were elected: — 

H. C. Melone, clerk. 

Joseph Johnson, sheriff. 

F. G. Appleton, treasurer. 

J. M. Murphy, recorder. 

J. H. Moore, county attorney. 

W. Gallimore, assessor. 

There is no existing record of these two elections, 
and therefore we are unable to give the number of 
votes cast for each candidate. From this time, how- 
ever, the record is complete, and the following tables 
will show the names of each candidate, the number of 
votes received by each, and the party to which he 
belonged. The following abbreviations are used: W 
for Whig; D, Democrat; DD, Douglas Democrat ; R, 
Republican; I, Independent; P, People's ; T, Temper- 
ance; WM, Workingmen's; NP, Non-partisan; KN, 
Knownothing; YM, Young Men's; A, American; Pn, 
Prohibition; G, Greenback. 

1852. 

State Senator — 

Jacob Grewell (W) 833 

J. F. Williams (D) 704 

Members of Assembly — 

Henry C. Smith (D) 806 

Wm. S. Letcher (D) 805 

Wm. E. Taylor (W) 790 

Albert Warthen (W) 742 



District Judge — 

Craven P. Hester (W) 906 

Peter O. Minor (D) 613 

County Attorney — 

Jno. H. Moore ( W) 77 1 

C. T. Ryland (D) 762 

Public Administrator — 

Thos. Campbell (W) 790 

County Assessor — 

Thomas S. Burnett (W) 77% 

Isaac N. Senter (Dj 765 

County Treasurer — 

Wm. Aikenhcad (W) 799 

Total vote of county 1,61 1 

I8S3- 
Members of Assembly — 

Wm. S. Letcher (W) 1,046 

F. S. McKinney (W) 1,009 

J. R. Weller(D) 900 

D. W. Dickey (D) 771 

County Judge — 

R. B. Buckner (Wj 1,010 

F. W. White (D) 874 

County Clerk — 

John B. Hewson (W) 1,072 

S. J. Easley (D) 810 

Sheriff— 

Wm. McCutchen (W) 996 

D. O. Houghton (D) 883 

District A ttorney — 

Jno. H. Moore (W) 998 

Couttty Recorder — ■ 

S. A. Clark (W) 982 

J. M. Mur,.hy (D) 915 

County Treasurer — 

F. G. Appleton ( W) 996 

H. C. Skinner (D) 885 

Public Administrator — 

F. D. Hawkins (W) 1,052 

A. Shearer (D) 797 

County Assessor — 
J. H. Morgan (W) 1,033 

E. P. Reed(D) 838 

(109) 



110 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



County Surveyor— 

W. J. Lewis (D) I,ii6 

Wm. Campbell (W) 737 

Coroner — 

Asa Finley (W) 966 

Solomon Rogers (D) 867 

Total vote of county i,794 

1854. 
State Senator — 

Sherman Day (D) 1,022 

Wm. S. Letcher (W) 857 

Members of Assembly — 

C. T. Ryland (D) 1,275 

Wm. R. Gober (W) 861 

Isaac N. Senter (D) 842 

F. S. McKinney (W) 640 

Public Administrator — 

Cornelius Yeager (D) 1,124 

J. A. Moultrie (W) 716 

Scattering i 

County Assessor — 

Wesley Gallimore (W) 915 

E. P. Reed (D) 889 

D. Jackson 20 

Total vote of county 1,879 

1855. 

Members of Assembly — 

George Peck (KN) 1,065 

Caswell Davis (KN) 1,055 

W. J. McClay (,W) 1,014 

Augustus Redmon (D) 1,006 

Sheriff— 

Philip T. McCabe (KN) 1,085 

S. O. Houghton (D) 990 

County Clerk — 

John B. Hewson (KN) 1,124 

Joseph R. Weller 973 

County Treasurer — 

F. G. Appleton (D) 1,080 

N. E. Branham (KN) 1,028 

County Recorder — 

S. A. Clark (KN) 1,143 

Green Hanna (D) 958 

County Assessor — 

Jno. C. Bland (KN) 1,036 

E. P. Reed (D) 1,034 

District Attorney — 

J. Milton Williams (KN) 1,082 

Wm. Matthews (D) 1,017 

Public Administrator — 

A. B. Caldwell (KN) 1,104 

John Yontz (D) %77 



County Surveyor — ■ 

L. B. Healy(KN) 1,152 

J. R. Conway (D) 938 

Coroner — 

H. P. Swain (KN) 1,103 

Harry Wade (D) 98 1 

Superintendent of Schools — 

Freeman Gates (KN) 1,068 

A. T. Swart (D) 1,025 

Prohibitory Liquor Law, Yes, 690; No, 525. 

Total vote of county 2,129 

1856. 

State Setiator — 

John Williams (W) 727 

Noble Hamilton (D) 488 

Sam'l B. Bell 772 

Members of Assembly — 

H. J. Bradley (W) 671 

F. S . McKinney (W) 603 

L. C. Everett (D) 545 

Wm. M. Lent (D) 521 

Jno. A. Ouimby (R) 787 

Noah PaTmer (R) 775 

Total vote of county 2,064 

1857. 

Pay the State Debt, 768; Repudiate the State 

Debt, 919. 

Members of Assembly — 

Solon S. Simons (D) i ,404 

W. W. McCoy (D) 1,407 

John A. Quimby (R) 722 

Noah Palmer (R) 763 

County fudge — • 

John H. Moore (D) i,390 

A. L. Rhodes (R) 772 

County Clerk — 
John B. Hewson (D) 1,370 

E. A. Clalk (R) 778 

District Attorney — 

J. Alex. Yoell (D) 1,399 

Juhan Smart (R) 676 

A. Redmon (I) 3 

Sheriff— 

John M. Murphy (W) 987 

H. H. Winchell (R) 520 

Philip T. McCabe (I) 680 

County Recorder — 

Austin M. Thompson (D) 1,280 

S. A. Clark (R) 884 

J. A. Clark (I) 3 

County Treasurer — 

H. C. Malone (D) 1,337 

F. G. Appleton (R) 938 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



Ill 



County Assessor — 

W. H. Patton (D) i,o8o 

Robert Hutchinson (R) 603 

John C. Bland {\) 449 

Wm. Campbell (I) 47 

Public Administrator — 

A. B. Caldwell (D) 1,487 

Harry Wade (R) 654 

County Surveyor — 

Chas. T. Healy (D) 1,435 

H. C. Benson (R) 742 

Superintendent of Schools — 

Matthew Mitchell (D) 1,328 

James Rogers (R) 811 

Freeman Gates (i) 2 

Coroner — 

Thomas J. Ingersol (D) 1,453 

P. M. Fowler (R) 716 

Total vote of county 2,289 

1858. 

State Senator — 

R. A. Redmon (D) 1,004 

Sam'l B. Bell(R) 613 

Members of Assembly — 

James P. Springer (D). . . . ; 910 

E. C. TuUy (D) 1,005 

Thos. J. West (R) 746 

E. D. Bevens (R) 624 

Public Administrator — 

Jas. H. Kincaid (D) 1,027 

Robert Hutchinson (R) 616 

Total vote of county 1,71 7 

1859- 

For Governor — 

Milton S. Latham (D) 1,407 

Leland Stanford (R) 626 

John Carney (I) 367 

Members of Assembly — 

Jno. Milton Williams (D) 1,433 

D. B. Bailey (D) 1,349 

Thos. J. West (R) 1,075 

H. D. Van Shaick (R) 772 

Sheriff- 

Jno. M. Murphy (D) 1,334 

Ja.s. H. Morgan (R) 968 

District Attorney — 

A. L. Rhodes (R) 1,237 

Chas. B. Younger (D) 968 

County Recorder — 

Jno. R. Wilson (D) 1,510 

C. M. Putney (R) 782 

S. A. Clark 2 



County Treasurer — 

H. C. Melone (D) 1,406 

C. W. Pomeroy (R) 924 

County Assessor — 

Wm. R. Davis (D) 1,227 

James Brownlce (R) 1,089 

County Surveyor — 

Charles T. Healy (D) 1,722 

Public Administrator — 

Wm. Daniels (D) 1,635 

John Cook (R) 661 

Coroner — 

Thos. J. Ingersol (D) 1,311 

Jacob Allen (R) 992 

Superintendent of Schools — 

Matthew Mitchell (D) 1,198 

Freeman Gates (R) i ,092 

County Clerk — 

Jno. B. Hewson (D) i ,408 

David B. Moody (R) 900 

A. L. Rhodes 11 

Total vote of county 2,458 

1 86a 

Pay the State Debt, 684; Repudiate the State 

Debt, 660. 

State Senator — 

Jno. H. Moore (DD) 922 

A. L. Rhodes (R) i,477 

Wm. Van Voorhies (D) 618 

Members of Assembly — 

Daniel Murphy (DD) 952 

H. D. McCobb (DD) 826 

H. W. Briggs (R) 1,474 

J. H. Morgan (R) 1,338 

R. B. Buckner (D) 7SS 

A. B. Caldwell (D) 627 

Total vote of county 3,202 

1861. 

Members of Assembly — 

Charles Maclay (R) 1,722 

J. Brown (R) 1,636 

John Zuck (R) 1,767 

W. T. Wallace (D) 1,201 

I. N. Thompson (D) 1,169 

W. R. Bane (D) 1,030 

Wm. M. Lent (DD) 604 

John W. Owen (DD) 449 

Jacob Doane (DD) 380 

Scattering 2 

County fudge — 

Isaac Senter (R) 1,798 

J. M. Williams (D) i,i49 

S. O. Houghton (D) 368 

J. S. Wallis (R) 4 



112 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ^"GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



Comity Clerk — 

Jas. A. Clayton (R) 1,691 

E. Leavesly (D) 1,060 

Levi P. Peck (D) 576 

Sheriff— 

J. F. Kennedy (R) 1.810 

Wm. McCune (D) i ,302 

Samuel L. Morrison (D) 221 

County Treasurer — 

C. W. Pomeroy (R) 1,912 

J. P. Martin (D) 1,171 

Jno. R. Wilson (D) 233 

County Recorder — 

L. C. Bostick (R) 1,801 

G. B. Montgomery (D) 1,136 

W. A. Senter (D) 399 

District Attorney — 

Frank E. Spencer (R) 1,780 

Thos. H. Laine (D) 1,170 

D. W. Herrington (I) m 

Coujity Assessor — 

D. M. Harvvood (R) 1,759 

J. W. Eastin (D) 1,179 

T. J. West (I) 409 

Public Administrator — 

Harry Wade (R) 1,751 

A. B. Caldwell (D) 1,049 

Henry Uhrbroock (D) 369 

Superintendent of Schools — 

S. S. Wiles (R) 1,791 

M. Mitchell (D) 1,228 

R. P. Thompson (D) 311 

Tax Collector — 

Noah Palmer (R) 1,731 

Jno. M. Murphy (D) 1,389 

Elliott Reed (I) 229 

County Surveyor — 

John Reed (R) 1,807 

S. W. Smith (D) 1,281 

C. T. Healy (D) 247 

Coroner — 

Jacob Allen (R^ 1,769 

J. N. Brown (D) 1,165 

A.J. Cory (I) 398 

Total vote of county 3,447 

1862. 

State Senator — 

Joseph S. Wallis (R) 1,747 

Thomas Fallon (D) i ,426 

Members of Assembly — 

J.J. Owen (R) 1,684 

J. W. Owen (R) 1,725 

D. W. Herrington (R) i,73S 



Solon S. Simons (D) i,4S7 

Martin J. Murphy (D) 1,465 

Cortes D. Cheney (D) i,459 

Total vote of county 3, 1 73 

1863. 

State Senator — 

Wm. S. McMurtry (R) 1,966 

Wm. M. Lent (D) 1,479 

Members of Assembly — 

J. J. Owen (R) 1,921 

H. D. Van Schaick (R) 1,967 

Wm. Erkson {VC\ 1,966 

P. B. Tully (D) 1,466 

Cary Peebles (D) i ,470 

Jesse Shuart (D) 1,481 

Sheriff— 

J. H. Adams (R) 1,978 

Wm. Aram (D) 1,460 

County Clerk — 

Jas. A. Clayton (R) 1,964 

John B. Hewson (D) 1,475 

County Treasurer — 

C. W. Pomeroy (R) i,957 

Wm. H. Hall (D) 1,487 

County Recorder — 

M. Leavenworth (R).' 1,976 

Wm. S. Letcher (D) 1,465 

District Attorney — 

F. E. Spencer (R) i,9S7 

Jno. H. Moore (D) 1,483 

County Assessor — 

D. M. Harwood (R) 1,965 

J. J. Rogers (D) 1,470 

Public A dm iuistrator — 

John Erkson (R) 1,967 

Felix Raney (D) i ,472 

Superintendent of Schools — 

Wesley Tonner (R) i,97i 

U. E. Squires (D) 1,469 

County Surveyor — 

A. D. Fuller (R) 1,968 

S. W. Smith (D) 1,472 

Coroner — 

A. J. Cory (R) 1,973 

G. B. Tollman (D) 1,471 

Tax Collector — 

Noah Palmer (R) 1,915 

Martin Corcoran (D) 1,526 

Total vote of county 3,559 

1865. 
State Senator — 

W. J. Knox (R) 1,641 

Chas. Maclay (I) i > 1 39 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



113 



Members of Assembly — 

Jno. Zuck (R) 1 ,640 

J. M. Cory (R) 1,668 

A. B. Hunt fR) 1,574 

D. S. Blanchard (I) 1,164 

H. D. Coon (I) 1,157 

Jno. Erkson (I) 1,172 

Sheriff— 

J. H. Adams (R) 1,741 

Geo. H. Jefferson (I) 1,072 

James Houston (D) 11 

Tax Collector — 

D. J. Burnett (R) 1,670 

G. Brohaska (I) 1,132 

County Clerk — 

A. E. Pomeroy (R) 1,719 

F. B. Murdoch (I) 1,077 

County Recorder — 

M. Leavenworth (R) 1,727 

B. F. Headen (I) 1,088 

County Treasurer — 

A. McCall (R) 1,638 

R. G. Moody (I) 1,162 

District A ttorney — 

D. W. Herrington (R) 1,611 

Chas. N. Senter (I) 1,176 

T. H. Laine(D) 13 

County Surveyor — 

J. J. Bowen (R) 1,655 

A. H. Parker (I) 1,156 

Coroner — 

A. J. Cory (R) 1,649 

R. Eichler(I) 1,157 

County Assessor — 

W. O. Barker (R) 1,678 

W. F. Hester (I) 1,125 

Public Administrator — 

W. W. Lawrence (R) i ,602 

S. W. Brundage(I) 1,180 

Superititendetit of Schools — 

Wesley Tonner (R) 1,706 

John Sharp (I) 1,103 

Total vote of county 1,780 

1867. 

Members of Assembly — 

D. Huber (R) 1,883 

Wm. Erkson (R) 1,889 

J. F. Holloway (R) 1,838 

C. T. Ryland (D) 2,030 

Jno. H. Moore (D) 2,002 

W. Z. Angney (D) 1,992 

15 



Sheriff— 

J. H. Adams (R) 1,995 

N. R. Harris (D) 1,895 

Tax Collector— 

D. J. Burnett (R) 1,909 

Martin Corcoran (D) ',985 

County Clerk — 

A. E. Pomeroy (R) 1,902 

J. B. Hewson (D) 1,983 

County Recorder — 

M. Leavenworth (R) 1,912 

J. R. Johnson (D) 1,973 

County Treasurer — 

D. B. Moody (R) 1,906 

Thos. Fallon (D) 1,975 

District Attorney — 

J. H. Logan (R) 1,901 

D. M. Delmas (D) 1,988 

County Siirveyor — 

William Isaacs (R) 1,921 

A. H. Parker (D) 1,964 

Coroner — 

Jacob Allen (R) 1,907 

J. Turner (D) 1,989 

County Assessor — 

D. R. Jaynes (R) 1,906 

Henry Phelps (D) 1,977 

Public Administrator — 

J. M. Billings (R) 1,897 

Wm. M. Lovell (D) 1,992 

Superintendent of Schools — 

Stephen McPherson (R) 1,928 

J. H.Braly(D) i,947 

County fudge — 

R. F. Peckham (R) 1,581 

L. Archer (D) i,794 

Total vote of county 3.384 

1S69. 

State Senator — 

Chas. Maclay (D) 2,125 

Charles Silent (R) i,9S7 

Members of Assembly — 

Wm. B. Shoemaker (D) 2,165 

B. D. Murphy (D) 2,229 

Thos. R. Thomas (D) 2,192 

E.A.Clark fR) 1,94' 

H. D. Van Schaick (R) 1,924 

J. P. Sargent (R) 2,02 1 

Sheriff— 

N. R. Harris (D) 2,229 

R. B. Hall (R) 1,887 



114 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



Coiinty Clerk — 

Jno. M. Littlefield (D) 2,141 

Edgar Pomeroy (R) 2,032 

County Recorder — 

Jos. R. Johnson (D) 2,242 

John E. Youngberg (R) 1,924 

Coicnty Assessor — 

Henry Phelps (Dj 2,246 

W. A. Z. Edwards (R) 1,918 

District A ttorney — 

J. M. Williams (D) 2,180 

S. A. Barker (R) i,97S 

Treasurer and Collector — 

M. Corcoran (D) 2,262 

W. J. Colahan (R) 1,911 

County Surveyor — 

A. H. Parker (D) 2,184 

L. B. Healy (R) 1,983 

Superintendent of Schools — 

Nicholas Eurlong (D) 2,220 

J. R. Brierly (R) 1,930 

Coroner — 

Luke Robinson (D) 2,216 

A. J. Cory (R) i ,949 

Pu blic A dm in isti-ator — 

John M. Swinford (D) 2,217 

J. M. BilHngs (R) 1,943 

District Judge — 

P'rancis E. Spencer i,599 

Sam Bell McKee i ,500 

Total vote of county 3.099 

1871. 

Member of Congress — 

Lawrence Archer (D) 2,369 

S. O. Houghton (R) 2,808 

Members of Assembly — 

; no. H. Moore (D) 2,494 

Isaac H. Harris (D) 2,285 

John O'Toole (D) 2,309 

Frs. E. Spencer (R) 2,822 

J. P. Sargent (R) 2,854 

F. C. Franck (R) 2,777 

County Clerk — 

J. V. Tisdall (D) 2,418 

Cornelius Finley (R) 2,762 

Comity Recorder — 

Jno. R. Wilson (D) 2,389 

D. C. Bailey (R) 2,789 

L. C. Bostick (I) 12 

District A ttorney — 

Wm. M. Lovell (D) 2,573 

J. C. Black (R) 2,626 



Sheriff— 

N. R. Harris (D) 2,490 

J. H. Adams (R) 2,615 

Treasurer and Collector — 

M. Corcoran (D) 2,599 

R. K. Ham (R) 2,589 

County Assessor — 

Henry Uhrbroock (D) 2,536 

Thos. M. Lilly (R) 2,660 

Superintendent of Schools — 

Jno. H. Braly (D) 2,467 

G. F. Baker (R) 2,712 

County Surveyor — 

E. Raynor (D) 2,485 

A. T. Herman (R) 2,722 

A. Parker i 

Public Administrator — 

Jno. Paine (D) 2,472 

J. H. Morgan (R) 2,721 

Coroner — 

J. Turner (D) 2,449 

A. J. Cory (R) 2,755 

For Selling R. R. Stock, 2,001; Against Selling R. 
R. Stock, 2,368. 
County Judge — 

R. I. Barnett (D) 1,479 

D. S. Paine (R) 2,287 

Total vote of county 5,217 

1S72. 
For Congress — 

S. O . Houghton (R) 2,049 

E. J. C. Kewen (D) 1,71 1 

1873- 

State Senator — 

W. S. McMurtry (R) 1,721 

Thomas H. Lainc (I) 2, 1 56 

Charles Maclay (D) 329 

Members of Assembly — 

Thomas Rea (R) 2,033 

F. C. Frank (R) 2,203 

J. W. Haskell (R) 1,766 

J. A. Moultrie (I) 1,939 

J. M. Cory (I) 1,738 

Alex. Hay (ij i,994 

John M. Bruen (D) 269 

J. F. Holloway (I) 277 

County Treasurer — 

D. C. Bailey (R) 2,505 

Geo. W. Zimmer (I) 1,582 

A. B. Moffit (D) 83 

County Clerk — 

Cornelius P'inley (R) 2,354 

John B. Hewson (I) 1,816 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



115 



Auditor — 

H. Fairfield (R) 2,214 

J. M. Braly (I) 1,768 

John M. Littlefield (D) 155 

Sheriff— 

J. H. Adams (R) 2,233 

S. W. Boring (I) 1,946 

Tax Collector — 
James H. Morgan (R) 2,227 

B. F. Headen (I) 1,532 

Jos. Ingham (D) 483 

District Attorney — 

J. C. Black (R) 2,057 

Thos. Bodley (I) 2,101 

— Bartlett i 

Recorder — 

Wm. J. Colahan (R) 2,496 

E. H. Swarthout (I) 1,486 

John Coombe (D) 107 

Henry Phelps i 

County Surveyor — 

A. T. Herrmann (R) 2,017 

F. P. McCray (I) i ,974 

A. H. Parker (D) 175 

County Assessor — 

Thos. M. Lilly(R) 2,146 

Henry Phelps (I) i ,9 1 2 

John Erkson (D) 1 1 1 

Superintendent of Schools — 

R. E. Hewett (R) 1,949 

James G. Kennedy (I) 2,205 

Coroner — 

A. J. Cory (R) 2,023 

J. N. Brown (I) 2,007 

T. D. Johnson (D).. 136 

Public Administrator — 

E. W. Harrison (R) 2,05 1 

J. C. Bland (I) 2,017 

L. O'Toole(D) 48 

District Judge — 

David Belden 2,4 1 5 

Scattering 11 

Total vote of county 4,207 

1875. 

State Senator— 

Jno. A. Ouimby (R) 1,850 

W. Z. Angney (D & I) 3,131 

H. Jones i 

Ben Hurd i 

Members of Assembly — 

Cyrus Jones (D & I) 2,275 

Thos. M. Lilly (R) 2,151 

C. T. Settle (R) 2,053 



L. Archer (D & I) 2,987 

S. I. Jamison (D & I) 3,i 14 

Hugh Jones (D) 2,217 

David Patterson (I) 58 

Treasurer and Collector — 

J. T. Cochran (R) i ,797 

Wm. A. January (D & I) 3.196 

Comity Clerk — 

J. J. Sontheimer (R & I) 2,692 

B. Newman (D) 2,283 

Sheriff— 

J. H. Adams (R) . 2, 140 

N. R. Harris (D & I) 2,854 

District Attorney — 

S. F. Leib(R& I) 2,252 

Wm. M. Lovell (D) 2,733 

Recorder and Auditor — 

J. W. Herndon (R & I) 2,387 

Wm. B. Hardy (D) 2,618 

County Assessor — 

W. G. Campbell (R) 2,046 

Henry Phelps (D & I) 2,917 

County Surveyor — 

A. T. Herrmann (R & I) 2,257 

John Coombe (D) 2,522 

Superintendent of Schools — 

W. \V. Kennedy (R) 2,257 

E. Rosseau (D & I) 2,688 

Sarah L. Knox i 

Coroner and Public Administi-ator — 

F. B. Smith (R & I) 2,476 

J. Turner (D) 2,480 

J. D. Scott (I) 13 

County Judge — 

D. S. Payne (R & I) 1,762 

R. B. Buckner (D) 1,663 

Total vote of county 5,084 

1877. 
State Senator — 

W. H. Ware (R) 2,565 

B. D. Murphy (D) 3,262 

Members of Assembly — 

Cyrus Jones (R) 2,5 10 

Rush McComas (R) 2,964 

Daniel Finch (R) 2,800 

Wm. Hanna (D) 2,997 

C. W. Upton (D) 3,145 

J. J. McDaniel (D) 2,943 

Dave Patterson (I) 8 

Mrs. Knox i 

Treasurer and Collector^ 

F. C. Frank (R) 2,237 

W. A. January 3,575 



116 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



County Clerk — 

J. J. Sontheimer (R) 2,962 

Louis Krumb (D) 2,862 

Sheriff— 

A. G. Hinman (R) 2,381 

N. R. Harris (D) 3,425 

District Attorney — 

D. W. Herrington (R) 2,630 

Wm. M. Lovell (D) 3.204 

— Yoell 2 

Recorder and Auditor — 

Leon E. Jones (R) 2,686 

W. B. Hardy (D) 3,121 

County Surveyor — 

W. B. Covell (R) 2,703 

John Coombe (D) 3, 1 27 

Superintendent of Schools — 

L. J. Chipman (R) 2,966 

H. D. Burnett (D) 2,652 

Coroner and Public Administrator — 

A. McMahon (D) 3,079 

J. B. Cox (R) 2,652 

Total vote of the county 5,827 

1878. 
SPECIAL ELECTION. 
State Senator — 

S. W. Boring (NP) 2,415 

G. E. McDougall (W) 2,394 

Assembly — • 

W. M. Williamson (NP) 2,295 

J. E. Clark (WM) 2,453 

Total vote 4,748 

For Delegates to Constitutional Convention — 

T. H. Laine(NP & YM) 2,186 

R. McComas (NP & YM) 2,183 

E. O. Smith (NP & YM) 2,238 

A. Greeninger (NP) 1 647 

J. G. Kennedy (YM) 771 

J. E. Clark (WM) 1,635 

J. Carrick (WM) 1,627 

D. W. Herrington fW & YM) 1,949 

J. A. Moultrie (WM) i 563 

H. W. Kelly (WM) 1,591 

J. R. Weller (NP & YM) 1,848 

Total vote 3,82 1 

1879. 
State Senator — 

George F. Baker (R) 2,460 

J. C. Zuck(R) 2,376 

J. E. Clark (WM) 1,975 

L. B. Ingalls (WM) 1 9^5 

E. O. Smith (D) 1,485 



J. R. Weller (I)... 399 

H. C. Morey (D) 1,386 

Members of Assembly — 

Rush McComas (R) 2,582 

J. L.York(R) 2,162 

D. Frink (R) 2,302 

William Vinter (WM) 1 ,839 

Robert Thomas (WM) 1,878 

John Chisholm (WM) i,744 

A. W. Jones (G) 307 

Massey Thomas (G) 257 

Rufus Fiske (G) 327 

John P. Finley (D) 1,844 

A. French (D) 1,385 

C. E. Shore (D) 1,361 

Judges of Superior Court — 

David elden (R) 2,646 

Francis E. Spencer (R) 2,364 

C. C. Stephens (WM) 1,917 

D. W. Herrington (WM) 2,085 

Lawrence Archer (D)-. 1,614 

Jno. H. Moore (D) 1,375 

County Treasurer — 

Henry Philip (R) 1,818 

N. B. Edwards (WM) 1,836 

Wm. A. January (D) 2,354 

County Clerk — 

J. J. Sontheimer (R) 2,881 

Louis Bruch (WM) 2,734 

J. G. Kennedy (D) 14 

Sheriff— 

F. E. Williams (R) 2,341 

Leon E. Jones (WM) 1,542 

N. R. Harris (D) 2,097 

District Attorney — 

W. W. McKaig (R) 2,334 

James H. Campbell (WM) 2,373 

John T. Malone (D) 1,276 

County Recorder — 

Hamilton W. Stephens (R) 2,417 

David Wight (WM) 1,744 

James M. Pitman (D) 1,866 

County Assessor — 

Hiram Fairfield (R) 2,402 

Alfred Chew (WM) 1,909 

Fred Farmer (D) 1,71 1 

County Surveyor — 

W. A. Richards (R) 2,818 

John Coombe (WM) 2,333 

John Gash (D) 780 

Superintendent of Schools — 

L. J. Chipman (R) 2,866 

F. H. Gould (WM) 1,772 

H. D. Burnett (D) 1,378 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



117 



Coroner — 

J. T. Harris (R) 2,273 

M. S. McMahan (WM) 1,944 

A. McMahon (D) 1,798 

For Chinese Immigration 36 

Against Chinese Immigration 5,881 

Total vote of county 6,045 

1880. 
Members of Assembly — 

John Reynolds (R) 3,064 

Milus H. Gay (R) 3,099 

Christian Wentz (R) 3,097 

J. A. Moultrie (D) 2,889 

L. B. Ingalls (Dj 2,724 

L. A. VVhitehurst (D) 2,842 

John Robertson (WM) 114 

Robert Summers (WM) 109 

Thomas Shannon (WM) 117 

Total vote of county 5,936 

1882. 
State Senator — 

H. M. Leonard (R) 2,826 

S. F. Leib (R) 2,859 

B. D. Murphy (D) 3,377 

C. H. Maddox (D) 3,067 

David E. Gish (G) 69 

Thomas Shannon (G) 40 

Members of Assembly — 

S. F. Ayer (R) 2,921 

J. E. Glendenning (R) 2,875 

Howell C. Moore (R) 2,853 

Adam Riehl (D) 3,091 

A. B. Hunter (D) 3,098 

J. H. M. Townsend (D) 3420 

County Treasurer — • 

C. Wentz (R) ' 2,847 

F. M. Pfister(D) 3,263 

County Clerk — 

Clifford J. Owen (R) 2,997 

W. H. Owens (D) 3, 145 

Sheriff— 

David Campbell (R) 2,694 

B. F. Branham (D) 3,458 

District Attorney — 

F. P. Bull (R) 2,836 

Jas. H. Campbell (D) 3,296 

County Recorder and A uditor — 

H. W. Stephens (R) 3,000 

Jas. M. Pitman (D) 3,131 

County Assessor — 

H. Fairfield (R) 2,88 1 

L. A. Spitzer (D) 3,263 

County Surveyor — 

Chas. Herrmann (R) 3,075 

John Coombe (D) 3,065 



Superintendent of Schools — 

L. J. Chipman (R) 3,268 

E. J. Gillespie (D) 2,895 

Coroner and Public Administrator- — 

J. T. Harris (R) 3,135 

A. McMahon (D) 2,991 

Total vote of county 6,171 

1884. 
State Senator — 

James R. Lowe (R) 3,829 

A. W. Saxe (R) 3,877 

N. T. Biddle (D) 3,266 

M. Lennon (D) 3, H5 

J. D. Canney (Pn) 145 

Robt. Summers (G) 213 

Members of Assembly — 

63d Dist— W. T. Patterson (R) 1,347 

B. E. Burns (D) 878 

S. D.Wood (P) 76 

64th Dist— J. W. Cook (R) 1,370 

A. F. Sauffrignon (D) 1,363 

R. J. Langford(Pn) 37 

65thDist.— D. M. Pyle (R) 1,125 

Adam Riehl (D) 975 

C. W. Pedlar (Pn) 31 

fudges of Superior Court — 

David Belden (R) 4,285 

Francis E. Spencer (R) 4,049 

J. A. Moultrie (D) 3,037 

Luis Argues (D) 3,013 

Sheriff— 

F. E. Williams (R) ■. .2,919 

B. F. Branham (D) 4046 

Giles E. McDougall (G) 152 

D. D. Briggs (Pn) 114 

County Clerk — 

M. J. Ashmore (R) 3,71 1 

J. R. Payne (D) 3.372 

E. B. Fowler (Pn) 132 

Recorder and Auditor — 

C. J. Lightston (R) 3,402 

J. M. Pitman (D) 3,696 

M. A. Stidston (Pn) 134 

Treasurer — 
Rush McComas (R) 3,710 

G. E. Graves (D) 3,409 

H. B. Land (Pn) 139 

District Attorney — 

Howell C. Moore (R) 3,604 

J. H. Campbell (D) 3,597 

Coroner and Public Administrator — 

J. T. Harris (R) 3.652 

J. R. Curnow (D) 3.5 '7 



118 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



S2irveyor — 

Chas. Herrmann (R) 3,778 

John Coombe (D) 3.309 

N. E. Beckwith fPn) 147 

Total vote of county 7,282 

1886. 
State Senator— 

3istDist.— A. W. Crandall (R) 1,863 

P. B. Tully(D) 1,452 

W. E. Ward (Pn) 106 

32d Dist.— E. B. Conklin (R) 1,842 

J. W. Ryland(D) 1,833 

A. L. Kellogg (Pn) 123 

Members of Assembly — 

63d Dist. — Henry McCleary (D) 1,016 

I. A. Wilcox (R) 1,245 

Wm. Rice(Pn) 98 

64thDist.— Wm. Vinter(D) 1,215 

C. M. Weber (Rl 1,553 

F. E. Caton (Pn) 66 

65th Dist— S. N. Rucker (D) i ,066 

George Polhemus (R) 995 

C. W. Pedlar (Pn) 74 

Sheriff— 

B. F. Branham (D) 3,378 

Jonathan Sweigert (R) 3,828 

F. T. Holland (Pn) 190 

County Clerk — 

C. F. Singletary (D) 3,744 

M. J. Ashmore (R) 3,420 

J. B. Capp(Pn) 232 

Auditor a>id Recorder — 

David T. Bryant (D) 3,194 

Charles P. Owen (R) 3,987 

Chas. A. Tupper (Pn) 249 

District A ttomey — 

J. H. Campbell (D) 3,511 

Howell C. Moore (R) 3,660 

E. B. Fowler (Pn) 240 

Treasurer — 

John T. Sherman (D) 3,042 

Rush McComas (R) 4,127 

Geo Follett (Pn) 251 

Assessor — 

L. A. Spitzer (D) 3,727 

H. Fairfield (R) 3,485 

W. R. Bardwell (Pn) 222 



S7iperintendent of Schools — 

E. Rousseau (D) 3, 1 36 

L. J. Chipman (R) 4,053 

S. M. Severance (Pn) 238 

Coroner and Public Administrator — 
A. R. Tomkin (D) 3,85 1 

F. K. Saxe(R) 3,335 

F. L. Voorhies (Pn) 263 

Surveyor — 

John Coombe (D) 3,380 

Chas. Herrmann (R) 3,770 

E. E. Gary (Pn) 268 

Total vote of county 7,477 

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. 
Following is the vote cast in Santa Clara County, 
at the different Presidential elections, since its organi- 
zation: — 

1852. 

Pierce and King 829 

Scott and Graham 682 

1856. 

Buchanan and Breckinridge. . 809 

Fremont and Dayton 576 

Bell and Everett 673 

i860. 

Douglas and Johnson 881 

Lincoln and Hamlin i,477 

Breckinridge and Lane 722 

1864. 

Lincoln and Johnson i,930 

McClellan and Pendleton 1,202 

1868. 

Grant and Colfax 2,307 

Seymour and Blair 2,330 

1872. 

Grant and Wilson 2,219 

Greeley and Brown 1,670 

1876. 

Hayes and Wheeler 3,336 

Tilden and Hendricks 3,065 

1880. 

Garfield and Arthur 3,i 16 

Hancock and English 2,820 

1884. 

Blaine and Logan 3,839 

Cleveland and Hendricks 3.172 




THE matter of furnishing easy and convenient 
means of communication between the different 
sections of the county, has been made an important 
question by the county government since its organ- 
ization. The demand for good roads has been met, 
almost before it was expressed, and the result of this 
policy, long continued with a liberal spirit, is seen in 
the broad, smooth, well-kept highways reaching to 
every part of the valley, winding among the foot-hills, 
and extending over the mountains. Wherever pos- 
sible, these roads are watered during the summer 
months, thus not only making them comfortable to 
travel, but preserving the solid bed and smooth sur- 
face. Experience has taught that this is the best, as 
well as the most economical, system of keeping the 
roads in repair. 

Before the Americans came into possession, there 
were, practically, no roads. Travel was chiefly per- 
formed on horseback, and for this a narrow trail was 
sufficient. Where the ox-carts ran, there were tracks 
a little wider, but they had no legal existence as roads. 
There being no fences, and the country being used 
principally for grazing, there was no necessity for the 
warning to "keep off the grass," and in going from 
one point to the other, the route was generally an air 
line, e.xcept where intervening water courses com- 
pelled the traveler to seek an easy ford or crossing, or 
where opposing hills required a circuit to be made. 
Even when wagons first came into use, this system 
was kept up, and in the winter-time, when the ground 
was wet and soft, the wagon tracks ran parallel to 
each other to such an extent that it was a common 
saying that the road from San Jose to San Francisco 
was three miles wide! With the Americans, however, 
came a different system. About the first order made 
by the county government after its organization, was 
in reference to public roads. This order is of inter- 
est, as it establishes the first highways in the county. 
It was made by the Court of Sessions on the sixth day 
of July, 1850, and is as follows: — 



"This ordered by the court, that the following roads 
be, and they are hereby declared, public highways 
within and for the county of Santa Clara, to wit: 

''First — A road commencing at the city of San Jose 
and running where the present road now runs, by 
James Murphy's, and from thence to the right of 
Lucencia Higuera's ranch, through the Mission of San 
Jose to the county line, where the road crosses the 
Arroyo Delmaya at Suiiol's I'anch. 

"Seco7id — Also a road commencing at the city of 
San Jose, at First or Monterey Street, and running 
where the road now runs to San Juan, until it reaches 
the county line. (This is the present Monterey road.) 

"Third — Also a road commencing at the city of 
San Jose, at Santa Clara Street, and running where 
the present road now runs, to the Mission of Santa 
Clara, and from thence, by the left hand road, to the 
Old Indian Village, thence by Busard's to S. Roble's, 
and from thence where the present road runs to the 
county line. 

''Fourth — Also a road commencing at the city of 
San Jose, at Santa Clara Street, and to run where the 
present road now runs, to Santa Cruz, through Fer- 
nandez' ranch, by Jones' mill, to the county line." 

The Jones' mill here referred to is the present town 
of Los Gatos. 

The third specification in the order above set forth, 
refers to the road to San Francisco, S. Roble's ranch 
being the old town of Mt. View. This road includes 
the Alameda, famous in song and story. This ave- 
nue, as we have previously related, was laid out by 
the Fathers of the mission. The trees were planted 
by Father Maguin Catala, the work being performed 
by the Indians under his instruction. There were, 
originally, three rows of trees, one on each side and 
one in the center. The ground was moist and full of 
adobe, which, when wet, made traveling a severe pen- 
ance. Ditches were made for the purpose of drain- 
age, but imperfectly accomplished their object. The 
shade of the trees excluded the sunshine and pre- 

(119) 



120 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



vented evaporation. While during the summer 
months the Alameda was a most charming drive, for 
four or five months in the year it was almost impass- 
able for vehicles. Travelers passing between the town 
of Santa Clara and San Jose were compelled to seek 
the side of the road, and often to make a circuit of 
four or five miles. After dark it was not unusual for 
people to lose their way and be compelled to pass the 
night in the open air. 

To meet this trouble, the county government opened 
another road to Santa Clara by way of what is now 
known as Union Avenue, back of the fair grounds. 
This did not entirely obviate the difficulties, and in 
1862 a franchise was granted to a company called the 
"Alameda Turnpike Company," granting them the 
privilege of collecting toll on the Alameda, they to 
keep the road in good condition for travel. This 
company erected gates, but, owing to the nature of 
the soil, could never make a road good in all its parts, 
at all seasons. Many complaints were made, and 
finally, in 1868, the county purchased the franchise of 
the company and declared the road free. The price 
paid by the county was $17,737.50. In 1870 the re- 
port went abroad that the road occupied more ground 
than belonged to it, and that several feet on the 
south side was government land, and subject to pre- 
emption. Onenight a gang of squatters carried lumber 
out on the road and inclosed strips of land on the 
south side, and in the morning many of the residents 
found themselves shut off from the highway. The 
squatters, however, had nothing but their labor for 
their pains, as they were compelled to abandon their 
claims unconditionally. To prevent a recurrence of 
the dispute, an act of Congress was procured in 1871, 
granting to the county a right of way for the road, 
1 1 5 feet wide, and defining its location. Accurate 
official surveys were made and granite monuments 
placed so that the exact lines should be always pre- 
served. The final location was accomplished in 1873. 
After this date extraordinary efforts were made to 
keep the road in repair and maintain its beauty. These 
efforts were measurably successful. One of the great- 
est obstacles in the way of improvement was the 
shade cast by the center row of trees, and propositions 
for their removal were made from time to time, but 
each proposition was met with a remonstrance from 
the people, who looked upon the gnarled willows as a 
link connecting the past with the present, and, al- 
though many of the trees had died, and others were 
in advanced stages of decay, they were retained. 
Finally, in 1887, a proposition was made to construct 



an electric railroad along the center of the avenue. 
In view of this improvement, the people consented to 
part with the trees, and in the same year they were 
removed. In the meantime a portion of the road has 
been macadamized, and it will be paved throughout 
its entire length as rapidly as circumstances will permit. 

The "Santa Clara Avenue," or "Alum Rock" road, 
as it is more generally called, is the beautiful avenue 
from San Jose to the Alum Rock Springs, in the 
canon of the Penetencia, east of town. The original 
road was established by order of the Board of Super- 
visors in June, 1866. There had been a traveled 
road there previously, but not established by any 
competent authority. In 1872 an act was passed by 
the Legislature, authorizing the city of San Jose to 
survey and improve a road, to be known as the "Santa 
Clara Avenue," running from the eastern limits of the 
city to the city reservation in the eastern foot-hills. 

The act provided for a Board of Commissioners to 
be appointed by the Governor, who should superin- 
tend the work of construction of the road, and should 
select a tract of four hundred acres in the caiion, for 
a public park. To construct and improve the road 
and park, a tax was provided on all property in the 
city and all property lying within three-quarters of a 
mile on each side of the proposed avenue. This tax 
was to be ten cents on the hundred dollars for the 
first year and five cents per year on the hundred dol- 
lars for the next three years, to be levied by the city 
and county as other taxes were levied and collected. 
With this money the road was constructed and trees 
planted. At the end of four years, when the special 
tax expired, the road was kept up from the road fund 
of the road districts, in which the avenue was situated, 
until 1878, when an act was passed by the Legisla- 
ture, authorizing the Board of Supervisors to pay 
these expenses from the current expense fund. 

The "Saratoga Avenue" was created at the same 
session of the Legislature, and in the same manner as 
the Santa Clara Avenue, except that the act provided 
that the road should be a hundred feet wide and that 
the special tax should be levied and collected by the 
town trustees of the town of Santa Clara. The com- 
missioners began work, laid out and opened the road, 
but some of the outside property owners protested 
against paying the tax. The objection was that it 
was an unconstitutional assessment, inasmuch as it 
was to be levied and collected by officers not elected, 
who were expected to pay it. The courts decided the 
objection to be valid, and the road went into the hands 
of the county government as a public higjiway, and all 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



121 



improvements were paid for from the road fund of the 
district. Not having a special revenue, it has not been 
improved as thoroughly as Santa Clara Avenue. 

In early days there seemed to be an impression that 
the most practical way to improve the county roads 
was to grant franchises for toll companies, who were 
to keep the roads in repair in consideration of the 
privilege of collecting tolls. The argument used was 
that the people who used the roads ought to pay the 
expense of maintaining them. Acting on this propo- 
sition, many such franchises were granted, some by 
the Board of Supervisors and some by the Legisla- 
ture. The toll-gate on the Alameda was the out- 
growth of this idea. 

In 1861 the San Jose and Alviso Turnpike Com- 
pany secured a franchise to erect gates and collect 
tolls on the road from San Jose to Alviso. In 1863 
it was purchased by the county for $5,000 and de- 
clared a public highway. In 1867 the Saratoga and 
Pescadero Turnpike received a franchise for a toll- 
road over the mountains from Saratoga. In 1880 
this road was purchased by the county for $5,000, and 
the name changed to the "Congress Springs" road. 

The Gilroy and Watsonville road was a toll-road in 
early days, but was declared a public highway in 
1874. 

The Santa Cruz road from Los Gatos over the 
mountains was a toll-road, under a franchise from the 
State, up to 1878, when it was declared a public high- 
way by the Board of Supervisors. The company re- 
sisted the action of the Board and attempted to main- 
tain its gates. This caused considerable excitement, 
and threatened serious trouble. The teamsters went 
in a body and tore the gate down. The company 
fought the matter in the courts, and the case is now 
pending on a motion by the company for a new trial. 
In the meantime the gates are down and the road 
free. 

The Pacheco Pass road was formerly a toll-road. 
This road is over the mountains east of Gilroy. In 
1879 it was purchased by the county for $6,000, and 
declared a public highway. 

The purchase of the Pacheco Pass road wiped out 
the last toll-road in Santa Clara County. 

The most prominent, if not the most important, 
highway in the county is the Mt. Hamilton road, 
or Lick Avenue. It has a world-wide fame, for the 
reason that it leads to the great Lick Observatory, 
and because it is the best mountain road on the con- 
tinent. In September, 1875, James Lick addressed 
the Board of Supervisors, saying that he would locate 
16 



his observatory on Mt. Hamilton if the county would 
construct a first-class wagon road to the summit; 
and, if the county had not sufficient funds on hand to 
accomplish the work, he would advance the money 
and take the county's bonds for the same. The 
proposition was accepted and a preliminary survey 
was ordered October 4, 1875. The Committee on 
Survey reported that the construction of the road, in- 
cluding bridges, would cost $43,385. Mr. Lick then 
deposited $25,000 in the Commercial and Savings 
Bank as a guaranty that he would stand by his propo- 
sition. 

There was some little delay caused by the adjust- 
ment of the route to suit the convenience of property 
owners, but before the end of the year the preliminary 
matters had all been arranged. A. T. Herrmann was 
appointed engineer of the work, and on the eighth 
day of February, 1876, the contract for construction 
was let to E. L. Derby, at the following price: — 

Grading, %6.gy}i per rod; rocking (where suitable 
rock is found in the cut), $1.53 per rod, and where 
suitable rock is not found in the cut, %1.77 per rod; 
bridge at Smith Creek, $1,797. It will be seen that 
up to this time the work had gone on with great 
expedition; but now, the people having had time to 
talk the matter over, considerable doubt was ex- 
pressed as to the advisability of the enterprise. It 
was argued that the county might go to great ex- 
pense in building the road, and that in the end Mr. 
Lick might change his mind in regard to the location 
of the observatory. In that event the county would 
have a very expensive road that would be of very 
little practical use. The majority of the Board had 
no doubt of Mr. Lick's good faith, but in order to 
satisfy the popular demand, they arranged matters 
so that Mr. Lick deposited a further sum of $25,000, 
subject to warrants drawn for the construction of the 
road, and agreed to take county bonds therefor, paya- 
ble when the observatory was completed on the mount- 
ain. When this point was settled, an opposition was 
developed from another source. Mr. Furlong, as chair- 
man of the Board, had been directed by the Board to 
sign the contract with Derby for the construction of 
the road. This he at first refused to do, but finally com- 
plied under protest, filing his written objections thereto. 

The protest claimed that there was no authority of 
law for the building of the road in this manner, as the 
statute required all money levied in any road district 
to be expended in the district paying the same; that 
there was no law for compelling the county at large 
to pay for a road, and that the county had no author- 



122 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



ity to enter into a contract with Mr. Liclc to advance 
the money. The Board, to satisfy the former objec- 
tion, passed a resolution that they would ask the 
Legislature to pass an act authorizing the county to 
issue bonds to the amount of $120,000, of which 
$50,000 should be applied to the indebtedness of the 
several road districts of the county, and the balance 
used to pay the warrants drawn for the construction 
of the proposed road. Thus this difficulty was dis- 
posed of. There were innumerable minor obstacles 
to contend with which caused much trouble and vexa- 
tion to the promoters of the enterprise, but they were 
finally disposed of Up to May 22, 1876, the sum of 
$45, 1 1 5.34 had been paid on Derby's contract. In the 
meantime there was great dissatisfaction with Derby's 
operations, and he had been compelled to assign his 
contract to his bondsmen, who established a trust for 
their protection, drawing the money on the contract 
and paying the contractor's verified bills. This dis- 
satisfaction caused the Board to appoint a committee 
to investigate the work. The report of the commit- 
tee showed grave misconduct by the contractor in the 
prosecution of the work. They found that the con- 
tractor had drawn $47,687, while the work he had 
done entitled him to only $42,687; that to complete 
the road according to specifications would require an 
expenditure of $16,819 more. 

The Board was importuned to pay Derby's debts, 
contracted for work and material used on the road. 
The contractor and his bondsmen contended that the 
work done by Derby had cost about $65,000 and that 
there was some $11,000 to $13,000 of claims out- 
standing against him. All propositions to relieve 
Derby's bondsmen or to pay his debts were rejected 
by the Board. The last effort made by Derby in this 
direction was a communication stating that the cost 
of the road to that date was $64,371, and that he had 
received $44,000; that if the county would pay 
$18,000 more he would make the road passable, or that 
he would finish the road according to specifications for 
$26,500. This proposition was also rejected. On 
the fourteenth day of July, the engineer estimated 
the work done by Derby, at contract prices, at $52,- 
184, including Smith Creek bridge. In September 
they declared his contract forfeited. The Board au- 
thorized its committee (October 5, 1876) to go on 
and complete the road. This the committee did, em- 
ploying Messrs. Drinkwater and Swall as superin- 
tendents. January 9, 1877, the Lick Board of Trus- 
tees and the supervisors made an official inspection 



of the road, the trustees officially declaring that the 
work had been done in a satisfactory manner, and 
that the road met all the requirements made by Mr. 
Lick. This inspection was a general holiday through- 
out the county, there being about five thousand vis- 
itors to the mountain on that day. January 13 the 
road was declared to be fully completed, the total 
cost being $73,458.81. Of this amount, $27,339.87 
was in outstanding warrants against the general road 
fund. An act was passed in the Legislature of 1878, 
authorizing the Board to issue bonds to pay these 
warrants and accrued interest, the bonds to bear no 
interest, and to be payable when the observatory was 
practically complete. 

This brief sketch of the work on this famous road 
gives but an imperfect idea of the thousand obstacles 
that were thrust in the path of the enterprise. There 
were a number of people in the community who could 
see no advantage in the improvement, and were con- 
stantly raising objections, and trying to thwart the 
work. The Board of Supervisors were by no means 
unanimous on the subject, and it required a great 
deal of diplomacy to secure the passage of the proper 
orders at the proper time. Probably the most ear- 
nest and untiring friend of the road was Supervisor 
J. M. Battee, chairman of the road committee. To 
his devotion to the cause is due, more than to any other 
one man, the successful termination of the great work 
that has attracted the attention of the scientific world 
to the summit of Mount Hamilton. The gentlemen 
composing the Board of Supervisors during the time 
the Mount Hamilton road was in course of construc- 
tion were: — 

1875, W. N. Furlong, chairman; J. M. Battee, J. W. 
Boulware, A. Chew, Abram King, H.M.Leonard, Wm. 
Paul. 1 876, H. M. Leonard, chairman ; S. F. Ayer, J. M. 
Battee, A. Chew, W. N. Furlong, Abram King, W. 
H. Rogers. 1S77-78, same as in 1876, with the ex- 
ception that J. M. Battee was chairman. 

As the county has developed its horticultural re- 
sources, and it has been ascertained that a very few 
acres of land is ample for the maintenance of a fam- 
ily, many of the ranches have been divided into small 
tracts, creating a demand for more roads. This de- 
mand has been met as promptly as possible by the 
Board of Supervisors, until, at the present time, there 
are four hundred and ninety-four public highways, 
laid out, improved, and named, exclusive of streets in 
incorporated cities and towns and roads in their sub- 
urbs. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1888 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



123 



there was expended for road purposes, by the super- 
visors, $76,516.45. The expenses were distributed as 

follows: — 

Labor $59,36860 

Lumber 6, 106 22 

Materials 3>790 23 

Bridgework 2,37340 

Repairing tools i,433 I5 

Land 2,699 25 

Surveying I>495 00 

Gravel and rock 336 95 

Implements 276 55 

Sprinkling 7,637 1° 

RAILROADS. 

Under Mexican rule, the transportation of passen- 
gers was almost exclusively on horseback. Women 
and children would occasionally take passage for 
short distances in the rude carts of that time, but jour- 
neys generally, whether long or short, were performed 
in the saddle; as the foreigners came in, they adopted 
the same custom, for the reason that there was no 
other means of conveyance. When affairs became 
settled after the Mexican War, and the country began 
to be settled up with immigrants from the States, 
other methods of transportation for passengers and 
freight were looked for. Boats were secured to ply 
between San Francisco and Alviso, and connection 
with them was made from San Jose by such wagons 
as could be procured. The cost for passengers for 
this trip was thirty-five dollars. 

In April, of 1850, Messrs. Ackley and Morrison 
put on a line of stages to run through to San Fran- 
cisco, and in the same spring, John W. Whisman put 
on a line to run to San Jose. Trips were made tri- 
weekly by each line, thus giving a daily stage each 
way. The fare was thirty-two dollars, and the sched- 
ule time was nine hours. In September of that year. 
Hall & Crandall purchased Whisman's route. The 
roads became so bad in the winter that the stages 
were withdrawn, and travel to San Francisco went by 
way of Alviso. 

Two steamboats, the fF/w. Robinson and New 
Star, furnished the water transportation. This was 
a great improvement over the old mustang route, but 
was not yet satisfactory to the people of the pueblo. 
Early in January, 1851, a meeting was called for the 
purpose of taking steps towards building a railroad to 
San Francisco. The meeting was largely attended, 
and very enthusiastic. At this time the road to 
Santa Clara along the Alameda was impassable, and 
to reach that town from San Jose necessitated a cir- 
cuit of about six miles, while passengers to San Fran- 
cisco were compelled to work their passage for about 



half the distance. Under these circumstances it is 
not surprising that the meeting should unanimously 
declare in favor of a railroad. Resolutions to this 
effect were adopted, and books opened for subscrip- 
tions to the capital stock. Some subscriptions were 
made, and W. J. Lewis was appointed to make the 
survey and estimate of the cost of the road. The 
survey was completed in December, and the estimate 
presented as follows: For construction of the road, 
$1,385,726.17; for buildings and fixtures, $49,000; 
rolling stock, etc., $104,400; total to put the road into 
operation, $1,539,126.17. These figures seem to have 
had a very depressing effect on the railroad enthusi- 
asm of the people, for we hear no more of the matter 
for several years. 

In July of this year the stage fare to San Francisco 
was reduced to ten dollars, and to Monterey, to twen- 
ty-five dollars. In March, 1852, Messrs. Reed and 
Kendall organized an express to run between San 
Jose and San Francisco by way of Alviso. On the 
eleventh of April, 1853, the boiler of ihe Jemiy Lind, 
a steamer on the Alviso route, exploded with dis- 
astrous effect. She had left Alviso with one hundred 
and fifty passengers, among them many prominent 
citizens of San Jose. When about opposite what is 
now Redwood City, the explosion occurred, killing 
many and wounding others. Among those killed 
were J. D. Hoppe, Charles White, and Bernard Mur- 
phy. This accident spread a gloom over the com- 
munity. A public meeting was called and resolutions 
expressing sympathy with the afflicted were adopted. 

In October of this year the first telegraph line was 
built connecting San Jose with San Francisco. It 
was a great mystery to the native population, some 
of whom thought the Americans had all turned Cath- 
olics and were erecting innumerable crosses as a tes- 
timony of their faith. It was cause of great rejoicing 
among the people. The establishment of telegraphic 
communication revived the desire for a railroad, 
and much talk was indulged in. No effective steps 
were taken, however, except an ordinance passed by 
the common council, granting St. James Park for 
depot grounds. The cost of building the road and 
the small amount of freight in sight did not promise 
very favorably as an investment for capital, and the 
enterprise again slumbered for a number of years. 

In 1856 an omnibus line was established between 
San Jose and Santa Clara by Crandall Brothers, and 
in 1857 a weekly express to Sonora was put on by 
Wm. H. Hoy. 

The growth of business in San Jose and the devel- 



124 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



opment of the surrounding country brought the rail- 
road question again to the front in 1859. There had 
been a large increase in wealth and population and 
this time the people determined that something 
should be accomplished. A meeting was held in 
February to discuss the question of building a short 
line of railroad to Alviso to connect with fast boats 
to Alviso. Estimates were presented showing that 
it would cost $10,000 per mile, or between $150,000 
and $200,000 to put the line in running condition. 
Books were opened and subscriptions solicited, but 
before enough money could be secured to warrant 
the commencement of the work, another proposition 
was made that caused a suspension of the effort in 
this direction. 

A company had been organized in San Francisco 
to build a railroad to San Jose by way of San Mateo 
and Redwood City. This company wanted Santa 
Clara County to take $200,000 worth of the stock of 
the enterprise. It was found impossible to raise this 
amount by individual subscription, and in 1861 an 
act was secured by the Legislature authorizing the 
county, through its Board of Supervisors, to subscribe 
for this amount of stock, provided that the people, at 
a regularly called election, should indorse the meas- 
ure. An election was held with the following result: 
In favor of subscribing for the stock, 1,497 votes; 
against the proposition, 725 votes; majority for tak- 
ing the stock, 722. No time was lost, and the Board 
of Supervisors on the twenty-fifth of May made the 
subscription and ordered bonds issued for the pay- 
ment of the same. These bonds bore interest at the 
rate of seven per cent per annum, and were payable 
in fifteen years. The work of building the road 
commenced immediately, and on the sixteenth day 
of January, 1864, the road was completed and form- 
ally opened with a grand excursion to San Jose. 
There was great rejoicing when the first train arrived. 
Flags were hoisted and everybody took a holiday. 

The county had a railroad, but it also had an in- 
debtedness of $200,000, on which it was paying a 
large interest. The question was soon mooted as to 
whether it would not be policy to sell the railroad 
stock owned by the county and apply the proceeds 
toward extinguishing this debt. As the stock was 
paying no dividends, an affirmative conclusion was 
soon reached. The Legislature was appealed to, and 
in April, 1864, an act was passed authorizing the 
county to sell the stock owned by it in the "San 
Francisco & San Jose Railroad," and to apply the 
proceeds to the redemption of county bonds. In 



November, 1864, B. G. Lathrop offered to buy the stock 
and pay $300,000 in currency. This would be equiv- 
alent to about $170,000 in gold. The proposal was 
accepted, but Lathrop neglected to make his offer 
good, and the transaction was canceled. In Febru- 
ary, 1865, Messrs. C. B. Polhemus, Peter Donahue, 
and H. M. Newhall, offered to buy the stock for $200,- 
000, either in currency or in the bonds of the county, 
which had been issued to pay for the stock when it 
was subscribed by the county. On March 4 an 
agreement was made with these parties as follows: 
the purchasers were to pay the sum of $200,000, 
either in currency or county bonds, as above stated, 
payment to be made in eighteen months from April 
4, 1865; the purchasers in the meantime were to 
have the right to represent and vote the stock at any 
meeting of the stockholders, and after the expiration 
of eight months were to pay to the county treasurer 
all interest that might accrue on the county bonds 
above referred to. Having the default of Mr. Lathrop 
in mind, the Board of Supervisors exacted from the 
purchasers a bond for the fulfillment of their contract. 
Notwithstanding this bond, the purchasers neglected to 
comply with the contract until the Board lost pa- 
tience, and in 1867 directed suit to be brought. This 
brought the purchasers to the front with propositions 
for a compromise, and the suit was discontinued 
pending these negotiations. This lasted for two 
years more, when, there being no prospect of an 
amicable settlement, suit was again instituted in 1869. 
In this interval Mr. Polhemus had disposed of his 
interest in the Railroad Company, and had been suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Mayne. The purchasers then made 
another proposition, to the effect that they would pay 
for the stock $100,000 in money and would build a 
line of railroad from San Jose to Gilroy. This prop- 
osition was accepted, and its terms complied with. 
In 1869 the railroad was extended to Gilroy. 

In 1863 the Western Pacific Railroad Company 
was constructing that portion of the transcontinental 
railroad between Sacramento and Oakland, and of- 
fered, if the county would subscribe $150,000 to its 
capital stock, to construct a branch from Niles to San 
Jose, thus placing this city on the through overland 
line. On the fourteenth of April, 1863, an act was 
passed authorizing the county to make this subscrip- 
tion, and the election held for this purpose resulted as 
follows: — 

For subscribing to the stock, 1,01 1 votes; against, 
479 votes; majority, 532 votes. With this authoriza- 
tion the Board subscribed for $150,000 of the stock, 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



125 



and directed the issue of seven per cent bonds payable 
in twenty years, in payment thereof. These bonds 
were issued as follows: — 

March 27, 1865, $45,000; August 19, 1865, $60,000; 
October 23, 1865, $45,000. In September, 1869, this 
road was completed, but it never met the expecta- 
tions of the people. It gave two routes to San Fran- 
cisco instead of one, but as there was no competition 
between them, it had no effect in reducing the rates of 
fare or freight. The stock paid no dividends, but in 
the manipulation of the road it became necessary that 
it should be got out of the hands of the county. Ac- 
cordingly, in 1 87 1 a movement was made for its 
purchase. Under the act of 1864, the supervisors had 
authority to sell, but they thought best to submit the 
matter to a vote of the people before acting. Ac- 
cordingly, a special election was held with the follow- 
ing result: — 

For selling the stock, 2,001 votes; against, 2,368 
votes; majority against, 367. Notwithstanding this 
result, the Board, at its session in October, 1871, re- 
solved that it was for the best interests of the county 
that the stock should be sold, and appointed agents 
to negotiate the sale, the agents to receive a com- 
mission of ten per cent on the amount received for 
the sale. In February, 1872, a sale was consummated, 
David Colton being the purchaser, for $120,000. The 
claim of the agents was compromised for $9,000, leav- 
ing a net loss to the county of $39,000. 

These two railroads are now part of the Northern 
Division of the Southern Pacific Company. 

As the country to the north of San Jose began to 
develop fruit culture, especially strawberries, black- 
berries, etc., necessity was found for a more con- 
venient and rapid means of transportation to San 
Francisco. The two railroads already constructed 
just skirted the border of this fruit district, and ship- 
pers were compelled to haul their fruit to San Jose, 
Santa Clara, or Milpitas to get it on the cars; arrived 
in San Francisco, it had to be hauled on trucks for a 
long distance from depot to market, and this, besides 
the delay, bruised and injured the fruit, to the great 



loss of the producer. In addition to these inconven- 
iences, the railroad company could not see the ne- 
cessity of adopting a time schedule to accommodate 
this traffic. This caused the question of a narrow- 
gauge railroad to connect with fast boats at Alviso 
to be revived. In 1870 a meeting was held and sub- 
scription books opened. Strenuous efforts were made 
to get the stock taken. Chief among the promoters 
of the scheme were John G. Bray, then president of 
the Bank of San Jose, S. A. Bishop, and Cary Peebels. 
Pending the floating of the stock, a fast boat was 
put on the line between Alviso and San Francisco, and 
the fruit-growers hauled to the Alviso wharf instead 
of shipping by rail. The narrow-gauge proposition 
made but little progress for several years, when a 
company was formed called the "Santa Clara Valley 
Railroad Company," but it accomplished nothing ex- 
cept to establish an office in San Jose and procure a 
few conditional rights of way. Finally, in 1876, a new 
company was formed, under the name of the "South 
Pacific Coast Railroad Company," with A. E. Davis 
as its president. This company asked no favors. 
It had money to buy everything it needed, including 
the right of way. It built the road, and in April, 
1878, the first train came into San Jose, and in May 
the road was opened for business. They immediately 
proceeded to extend the line south to Santa Cruz, and 
completed it after much time and labor spent in tun- 
neling the mountains. The road did a prosperous 
business from the first. In 1887 it sold out to a syn- 
dicate of stockholders of the Southern Pacific, and 
changed the name to the "South Pacific Coast Rail- 
way." In 1886 a branch was constructed to the 
Almaden mines, leaving the main line at Campbell. 
In the same year the Southern Pacific built a line to 
the same point, connecting with the trunk line at 
Hillsdale. 

In 1885 a railroad was projected from Murphy's, on 
the Southern Pacific Road, near Mountain View, to 
Saratoga. Several miles of this road were constructed, 
but, there not being money enough under control of 
the projectors, the enterprise was abandoned. 





iw~^ 



^^ ON MOUNT HAMILTON. ^ 



"*'~^i^ 



"'*^^^5C*J?^^^ 



THE history of the great observatory on Mt. Hamil- 
ton, containing the largest telescope in the world, 
and the biography of its founder must necessarily be 
both interesting and important. James Lick was of a 
quiet, uncommunicative disposition, and left but little 
from which to write his life history. The prominence 
which he achieved by his princely gift to science has 
caused people from all sections of the country to re- 
call incidents of his life, and these fragments have been 
gathered together and woven into a connected narra- 
tive by the San Jose Mercury, from which we compile 
the following: — 

James Lick was born at Fredericksburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, August 25, 1796. His ancestors were of Ger- 
man extraction and spelled the family name "Liik." 
His grandfather had come to America early in the 
century and had served in the army of Wasliington 
during the War of the Revolution. Nothing is known 
of the life of James Lick, until at the age of twenty- 
one years he entered himself as an apprentice to an 
organ-maker at Hanover, Pennsylvania. He worked 
here for a short time, and in 18 19 took a position in 
the employ of Joseph Hiskey, a prominent piano 
manufacturer of Baltimore, Maryland. An incident 
of his experience here has been recalled. 

One day a penniless youth, named Conrad Meyer, 
applied at the factory for employment. He attracted 
the fancy of young Lick, who took the stranger in 
charge, provided him with food and proper clothing, 
and secured him a place in the establishment. The 
friendship thus formed lasted through life. The pref- 
erence of James Lick for the youth was justified by 
his later life. In 1.854 the pianos of Conrad Meyer 
took the first prize in the London International Ex- 
hibition, their maker possessing an immense manufac- 
tory in Philadelphia and ranking as one of the most 
eminent piano-makers in the United "States. 

In 1820 James Lick left the employment of Joseph 
Hiskey and went to New York, expecting to start in 
business on his own account. This venture was re- 
(126) 



stricted by his want of capital, and, if attempted at 
all, was brief, for in the following year he left the 
United States for Buenos Ayres, South America, with 
the intention of devoting himself there to his trade. 
He found the Buenos Ayreans of that period a singu- 
larly handsome and refined race of almost purely 
Spanish extraction, and attaining, by their mode of 
life in the fine climate of that region, a remarkable 
physical and social development. By careful atten- 
tion to business he prospered among them, accumu- 
lating a considerable competence during his first ten 
years of South American experience. "In 1832," 
writes his friend Conrad Meyer, in the Philadelphia 
Btdletin, " I was in business on my own account on 
Fifth Street near Prune, Philadelphia, when I was 
suddenly surprised one day at seeing James Lick 
walk in. He had just arrived from South Amer- 
ica, and had brought with him hides and nutria skins 
to the amount of $40,000, which he was then dis- 
posing of Nutria skins are obtained from a species 
of otter found along the River La Plata. He stated 
that he intended settling in Philadelphia, and to 
this end he some days later rented a house on Eighth 
Street, near Arch, with the intention of manufact- 
uring pianos, paying $400 as rental for one year 
in advance. In a few days he left for New York and 
Boston, and, writing me from the latter city, an- 
nounced that he had given up the idea of remaining 
permanently in Philadelphia, and requested that I 
should call on the house agent and make the best set- 
tlement I could with him. I did so, and receiving 
from him $300 out of the $400, I returned the key." 
The sudden change of purpose which led James Lick 
to abandon his design of remaining in Philadelphia 
and return to South America seems to indicate a 
whimsical temper. It may be, however, that during 
his ten years' stay in Buenos Ayres he cherished, as 
many men do, an ideal of his youth, and dreamed out 
a business career in his native land which, when he 
returned to it, he saw to be impracticable. He went 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



127 



back to Buenos Ayres, filled certain piano orders he 
had taken, settled his affairs there, and sailed for Val- 
paraiso, Chili, where for four years he followed his 
vocation. Occasionally his friend, Conrad Meyer, 
heard from him, the correspondence being limited to 
orders for pianos to be shipped to him, with drafts 
for their payment; but outside of these indications 
that Mr. Lick was engaged in trade, little is known of 
his life in Valparaiso or the business ventures he en- 
gaged in outside of his trade. At the end of four 
years he quitted Valparaiso, and went to Callao, Peru. 

He lived in Peru for eleven years, occupying himself 
in manufacturing pianos, with occasional investments 
in commercial enterprises. That he was successful is 
shown by the statement, made by himself, that in 
1845 he was worth $59,000. At this time he began 
to think seriously of coming to California. His friend, 
Mr. Foster, of the house of Alsop & Co., of Lima, 
urged him to remain in Peru. He told Lick that the 
United States would not acquire California; that the 
inhabitants were a set of cut-throats who would mur- 
der him for his money, and that it would be folly for 
him to abandon a lucrative business to go to a new 
country that had so bad a reputation. To all these 
arguments Mr. Lick replied that he knew the charac- 
ter of the American Government; that it was not 
of a nature to let go of a country it had once acquired, 
and as for being assassinated, he had confidence in 
his own ability to protect himself He determined to 
go, but before he could go he had to fill orders for 
several pianos he had contracted for. This would not 
have been a difficult matter had it not been for the 
fact that, at this juncture, all his workmen left him to 
go to Mexico. As he could not replace them, he 
went to work himself, and after two years of hard labor 
finished the last of the pianos. He determined that 
there should be no further delay in his departure. 

His stock, which his inventory showed him was 
worth $59,000, he sacrificed for $30,000. This money, 
which was in Spanish doubloons, he secured in a large 
iron safe, which he brought with him to California. 
Among the odd articles which James Lick brought 
to California from Peru was the work-bench which 
he had there used in his trade. It was not an elab- 
orate affair, and the object of its deportation to 
this land of timber hardly appears, unless Mr. Lick 
had acquired an affection for this companion of 
his daily labors. He retained this bench through all 
his California experience, and it now stands in the 
hall of the Lick Observatory at Mt. Hamilton. 

Mr. Lick arrived in San Francisco late in 1847. At 



that time there was little to indicate the future pros- 
perity of the metropolis of the Pacific Coast. Cali- 
fornia Street was its southern boundary, while San- 
some Street was on the water front. Sand dunes 
stretched out to the southern and western horizon, 
with occasionally a rough shanty to break the mo- 
notony of the landscape. Mr. Lick quietly invested 
his money in these sand hills, paying dollars for lots 
that were not considered, by the inhabitants, as worth 
cents. He came to Santa Clara County and pur- 
chased the property north of San Jose, on the Guad- 
aloupe, which afterwards became famous as the Lick 
Mills property. He also bought the tract of land 
just inside the present southern city limits, and which 
was afterwards known as the Lick Homestead. All 
these lands were vacant and unimproved; at this time 
the agricultural lands were not considered of any 
value. Even as prominent and intelligent a man as 
John B. Weller said he "would not give six bits for 
all the agricultural lands in California." It is a ques- 
tion with some people as to whether these purchases 
by Mr. Lick were the result of luck or foresight. 
Although considered eccentric, Mr. Lick's business 
sagacity has never been doubted, and it is fair to sup- 
pose that he foresaw the commercial importance of 
San Francisco, and the future agricultural importance 
of the fields of the Santa Clara Valley. 

During seven years after his arrival Mr. Lick en- 
gaged in no particular business other than to invest his 
Spanish doubloons as above stated. The first improve- 
ment of his property made by Mr. Lick was done upon 
that portion of his Santa Clara County lands known 
as the "Lick Mill Tract." An old flour mill had stood 
upon the property when he purchased it in 1852, and 
this fact may have moved his mind toward the erec 
tion at that point of his own mill. In 1853 he began 
to lay the plans and gather the material he intended 
to employ in its construction. In 1855 work was be- 
gun, and to those who saw the structure rise, it was 
the wonder of the time. The wood of which its in- 
terior finish was composed, was of the finest mahog- 
any, finished and inlaid in the most solid, elegant, and 
expensive style. The machinery imported for its 
works was also of a quality never before sent to the 
Pacific Coast. The entire cost of the mill was esti- 
mated by Mr. Lick himself, at $200,000. It became 
known by the name of the "Mahogany Mill," or 
perhaps more commonly as "Lick's Folly." When 
put in operation it turned out the finest brand of 
flour on the Pacific Coast. It will always be a mat- 
ter of doubt whether this mill was erected by Mr. 



128 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



Lick as a whim of his eccentric nature or as a protest 
against the flimsy, cheap, and temporary style of 
building then common to the new State. 

There is a romantic legend preserved in the mem- 
ory of the old acquaintances of Mr. Lick which goes 
to explain the origin of the famous mill. The tale 
runs that when Lick was a boy he was apprenticed to a 
miller who, besides the possession of a competency 
and a flourishing business, had also an exceedingly 
pretty daughter. Strange as the assertion may seem 
to those who were acquainted only with the unlovely 
old age of this strange character, James Lick was a 
comely young man, and upon him the miller's daugh- 
ter cast approving ejes. Lick met her more than half- 
way, and a warm attachment sprang up between the 
apprentice and the heiress. The ancient miller, how- 
ever, soon saw the drift of matters, and interposed his 
parental authority to break the peaceful current of 
true love. Young Lick declared that he loved the 
girl and wished to marry her, with her father's con- 
sent. Thereupon Hans became indignant, and, point- 
ing to his mill, exclaimed: "Out, you beggar ! Dare 
you cast your eyes upon my daughter, who will in- 
herit my riches ? Have you a mill like this ? Have 
you a single penny in your purse?" To this tirade 
Lick replied that he had nothing as yet, but one day 
he would have a mill beside which this one would be 
a pig-sty ! 

Lick at once departed, and at length drifted to Cal- 
ifornia, seeking the fortune which in one minute he 
had determined to possess, and which determination 
never afterward for a moment left him. Nor did he 
forget his last words to the miller. When he was a 
rich man he built this mill, and when it was finished 
there had been nothing left undone which could have 
added to the perfection of its appointments. Its ma- 
chinery was perfect, and its walls and floors and ceil- 
ings of polished, costly woods. Not being able to 
bring the miller to view the realization of his boyish 
declaration. Lick caused the mill to be photographed 
within and without, and, although his old sweetheart 
had long since been married, he sent her father the 
pictures and recalled to him the day he boasted of his 
mill. 

Although the Mahogany Mill gratified Mr. Lick's 
pride in its construction and in the brand of its product, 
and although it may have satisfied the ancient grudge 
against the traditional miller, it was not a financial 
success. The periodical floods of the Guadaloupe 
River inundated the lands about it, destroyed his or- 
chards and roads, and interfered with the operation of 



the mill. In the year 1873 he surprised everybody 
with the gift of the whole property to the Thomas 
Paine Memorial Association of Boston. For some 
years he had been a close student and great admirer 
of the writings of Paine, and he took this means of 
proving the faith that was in him. On January 16, 
1873, he made a formal transfer of the property to 
certain named trustees of the association, imposing 
upon these the trust to sell the same and donate one- 
half ofthe proceeds to the building of a memorial hall 
in Boston, and so invest the other half that a lecture 
course could be maintained out of its increase. The 
association sent an agent out to California to look over 
the acquisition, with power to deal with it. Without 
consulting Mr. Lick, he sold the property for about 
$18,000, and returned home, at which proceeding the 
donor was so completely disgusted that he lost all his 
past interest in the advancement of the theories of 
Thomas Paine ! 

The next scheme of improvement to which Mr. 
Lick turned his attention after the completion of his 
mill was the erection of the Lick Hotel in San Fran- 
cisco. He had bought the property upon which it 
stands for an ounce of gold-dust, soon after his arrival 
in California, and until 1861 it had lain idle and un- 
improved. The lot originally extended the entire 
length of the block, on Montgomery Street, from 
Sutter to Post, and the hotel would have covered this 
space had not Mr. Lick sold the Post Street corner 
to the Masonic order. The story goes that Alexander 
G. Abell, on behalf of the Masons, approached Mr. 
Lick with an offer to buy the property. The owner, 
in accordance with his seldom violated custom, refused 
to part with the property, until Mr. Abell frankly ex- 
plained that the Masons had been all over the city 
looking for a site and could find none that answered 
their requirements like this, when Mr. Lick gave way 
and sold them the corner. The hotel is a familiar 
object to all who visit San Francisco. At the time 
of its construction it was the finest hostelry on the 
Pacific Coast, and it still ranks well up among first- 
class family hotels. Its internal finish was, in the 
main, designed by Mr. Lick himself, who took a 
special pride in the selection of fine materials and in 
their combination in artistic and effective forms. The 
dining-room floor of the hotel is a marvel of beauti- 
ful wood-work, made out of many thousand pieces of 
different wood, and all polished like a table. It was 
probably the early devotion of Mr. Lick to the trade 
of a piano-maker which caused him to take this keen 
delight in the use of fine woods, which manifested 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



129 



itself both in his Mahogany Mill and in the Lick Hotel. 

That part of the life history of James Lick which 
lies between the years 1861 and 1873 is full of inter- 
est to those who would form a correct estimate of the 
man. The course of affairs had amply justified his 
early judgment of the future values of California real 
estate. His sand-hill lots, bought for a song in 1848, 
grew to be golden islands of wealth amid the rising 
rivers of metropolitan trade. The investments made 
in Santa Clara County lands all proved profitable 
and yielded rich returns. By the very bull-dog tenac- 
ity with which he hung to his acquisitions, he became, 
during the '6o's,' one of the wealthiest men on 
the Pacific Coast. His reputation, too, was State- 
wide, made so not only by his wealth, but by the 
rumor of his eccentricities. He had already passed 
the age of sixty years, when most men begin to 
"glide into the lean and slippered pantaloon." He 
even attained and overstepped the prophetic boundary 
of three-score years and ten. Yet he still maintained 
the positive, energetic, self-possessed individuality of 
his earlier years. 

It is very probable that the advancing age of James 
Lick acted upon his nature in developing into active 
eccentricities the natural peculiarities of his disposi- 
tion. Most of the pioneers who 1 emember him during 
the first decade of his California career, describe him 
as a close, careful, self-contained man, cold and some- 
times crabbed of disposition, going his own lonely 
way in business and in life. Those who knew him 
between '61 and '73 intensify these characteristics and 
declare him to have been miserly, irascible, selfish, 
solitary, who cherished little affection for his race or 
kin, and whose chief delight appeared to lie in the 
indulgence of the vi^hims of a thorny and unfragrant 
old age. It is probable that this later estimate of Mr. 
Lick presents his character with too much of shadow, 
and that, as our narrative develops, and combines 
the incidents and traditions of this period of his life, 
and lays them alongside the grand conceptions of his 
closing years, his real self will be revealed in outlines 
less repulsive and more consistent with the achieve- 
ments of his completed career. In fact, from these 
few men who held the confidence and shared in all 
the plans of Mr. Lick, has ever gone out the denial 
that he was miserly or selfish or forgetful of his duties 
to mankind, and the claim that beneath the ice of his 
outward nature flowed the warm currents of a philan- 
thropic heart. 

The traditions of Mr. Lick's eccentric career during 
these years are numerous and amusing. Most of his 
17 



time after the completion of his hotel was spent in 
Santa Clara County. He lived upon his Lick Mill 
property and gave a great deal of attention to its im- 
provement. Upon it he began early to set out trees 
of various kinds, both for fruit and ornament. He 
held some curious theories of tree-planting and be- 
lieved in the efficiency of a bone deposit about the 
roots of every young tree. Many are the stories told 
by old residents of James Lick going along the high- 
way in an old rattle-trap, rope-tied wagon, with a 
bear-skin robe for a seat cushion, and stopping every 
now and then to gather in the bones of some dead 
beast. People used to think him crazy until they 
saw him among his beloved trees, planting some new 
and rare variety, and carefully mingling about its 
young roots the finest of loams with the bones he had 
gathered during his lonely rides. There is a story 
extant, and probably well founded, which illustrates 
the odd means he employed to secure hired help at 
once trustworthy and obedient. One day while he 
was planting his orchard a man applied to him for 
work. Mr. Lick directed him to take the trees he 
indicated to a certain part of the grounds and there 
to plant them with the tops in the earth and the roots 
in the air. The man obeyed the directions to the 
letter, and reported in the evening for further orders. 
Mr. Lick went out, viewed his work with apparent 
satisfaction, and then ordered him to plant the tree 
the proper way and thereafter to continue in his em- 
ploy 1 

Another story similar to this is handed down and 
is entirely authentic. Mr. Lick was at one time the 
owner of what is now the Knox Block corner, in San 
Jose. A fire having destroyed its buildings, much 
debris of burned brick remained scattered over the 
lot. One day, while Mr. Lick was walking about 
viewing his property, a young stranger applied to him 
for work, and was instructed to collect a certain quan- 
tity of these brick and pile them neatly in a corner. 
This he did and reported, when he was told to take 
the same brick and pile them neatly in another corner 
Without a word he executed the singular order, and 
was at once employed and long retained by the eccen- 
tric man, who had thus put his obedience to the test. 

Mr. Lick was as fond of flowers as of trees, and took 
great pains in the cultivation of rare and beautiful 
plants. He was very susceptible to praise of his 
garden, and equally sensitive to its criticism. One day 
a party of ladies visited his Mahogany Mill, and were 
invited to view his flowers. They were profuse in 
their compliments, and he was all-courteous until one 



130 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



of the party remarked that she had lately seen in San 
Francisco much finer specimens of some of his plants. 
His demeanor changed at once, and telling the com- 
pany he had yet another flower garden to show them, 
he led them by a tortuous trail out into the midst of 
a field of blossoming mustard, which grew like a rank 
forest upon part of his property, and then slipped 
away and left them to criticise his "other garden," and 
extricate themselves as best they could. 

After Mr. Lick had, with almost infinite exertion, 
improved his mill property, he found the invest- 
ment an unsatisfactory and unprofitable one. The 
annual floods of the Guadaloupe invaded his orchard, 
destroyed his garden, and covered his land with a de- 
posit of sediment and debris. And so he resolved at 
last to transfer his care to the tract of land lying just 
south of San Jose, and now known as the Lick Home- 
stead Addition. Presently the people of Santa Clara 
County witnessed a strange spectacle. Day after day 
long trains of carts and wagons passed slowly through 
San Jose, carrying tall trees and full-grown shrubbery, 
from the old to the new location. Winter and sum- 
mer alike the work went on, the old man superintend- 
ing it all in his rattle-trap wagon and bear-skin robe. 
His plans for this new improvement were made re- 
gardless of expense. Tradition tells that he had im- 
ported from Australia rare trees, and, in order to 
insure their growth, had brought with them whole 
ship-loads of their native earth. He conceived the 
idea of building conservatories superior to any on the 
Pacific Coast, and for that purpose had imported from 
England the materials for two large conservatories 
after the model of those in the Kew Gardens in 
London. His death occurred before he could have 
these constructed, and they remained on the hands of 
his trustees until a body of San Francisco gentlemen 
contributed funds for their purchase and donation to 
the use of the public in Golden Gate Park, where they 
now stand as the wonder and delight of all who visit 
that beautiful resort. 

It was in the year 1873, when James Lick was 
seventy-seven years old, that he began to make those 
donations, of the then vast estate he possessed, which 
culminated in his famous deeds of trust. How long 
he had given to secret thought upon the subject no 
one can tell, but that his gifts were the outcome of 
mature deliberation, seems beyond a doubt. For 
years preceding his bequests he had been a wide reader 
upon many subjects. He held a peculiar belief, or 
rather want of belief, regarding the future existence, 
and deemed an earthly immortality of remembrance 



all that there was of eternal life. He studied every- 
thing written about Thomas Paine, and made his 
works the text of his own opinions. It is related that, 
while he was engaged in the improvement of the Lick 
Homestead property, he became involved in an argu- 
ment one day with Adolph Pfister over some religious 
subject, when the latter suggested that he put to 
practical proof the merits of Paineism as contrasted 
with other moral agencies, by the erection of a grand 
college on his property for the education of young 
men in his favorite doctrine, and for their equipment 
as teachers and missionaries of Paine. The old man 
appeared attracted with the idea, and gave it consid- 
erable thought, and it is not improbable that it found 
form in his gift of the Lick Mill property to the Paine 
Memorial Association of Boston, which was the first 
in time of his donations. 

It was, as we have already noted, on January 16, 
1873, that Mr. Lick made his donation of the Lick 
Mill property to the Thomas Paine Association. On 
February 15, 1873, he executed two other gift deeds, 
one to the California Academy of Science, and the 
other to the Society of California Pioneers. To the 
former he granted a lot of forty feet frontage on 
Market Street near Fourth, San Francisco, and to the 
latter society a lot of like dimensions on Fourth Street 
near Market. These gifts he clogged with certain 
conditions as to the kind of buildings to be erected, 
etc., which were deemed irksome by the donees. Ne- 
gotiations began between Mr. Lick and the societies, 
which continued during most of the year 1873, when 
Mr. Lick finally offered to relieve his gift from all 
burdensome conditions. This purpose was yet un- 
accomplished at the time of his death, but after some 
little difficulty was arranged satisfactorily to all con- 
cerned by his trustees. Upon the valuable properties 
thus generously disposed of, now stand the beautiful 
buildings of the two societies which received his bene- 
factions. 

The first trust deed by which Mr. Lick gave all his 
immense estate to charitable and educational objects 
was dated June 2, 1874. Among the several provis- 
ions of this instrument was one giving to San Jose 
$25,000 for the purpose of establishing an orphan 
asylum, and one appropriating $700,000 for establish- 
ing an observatory on land belonging to Mr. Lick 
near Lake Tahoe, in Placer County. An investiga- 
tion of the appropriateness of this site was at once set 
on foot. It was soon ascertained that the severity of 
the climate about the chosen location would seriously 
interfere both with the effective operation of the tel- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



131 



escope and with the comfort of the visiting public. 
Mr. Lick then determined upon a change of site to 

some spot nearer civilization, and looked towards 
Mount St. Helena, in Napa County, as the proper 
point. He visited St. Helena and ascended part way 
to its summit, but before he had pursued his inquiries 
far enough to arrive at a conclusion, other circum- 
stances conspired to change his mind and direct his 
eyes to Santa Clara County in search of a favorable 
site for his observatory. 

Although, out of the large amount of property dis- 
tributed by Mr. Lick, San Jose received but $25,000, 
the people of that city were very grateful and ac- 
knowledged their gratitude in a well-worded series 
of resolutions prepared by Judge Belden, adopted 
by the mayor and common council, beautifully en- 
grossed and officially transmitted to Mr. Lick at San 
Francisco. Other recipients of Mr. Lick's benefac- 
tions had either responded coldly, or had made no 
response at all, and the action of the people at San 
Jose presented a strong contrast which attracted Mr. 
Lick's attention and caused him to think that per- 
haps he had not done as much as he should for the 
county which had so long been his home. The reso- 
lutions reached him at the time he was in doubt as 
to the location of his observatory, and he consulted 
his then confidential agent, Mr. Thos. E. Fraser, as to 
the availability of the mountain summits surround- 
ing the Santa Clara Valley for the home of the tele- 
scope. His attention was first called to Mount Bache, 
which rises to the height of ^bout four thousand feet 
on the southwest in the Santa Cruz Range; but it was 
found that frequent sea fogs would interfere with 
the vision on that elevation. Mr. Fraser then re- 
ferred Mr. Lick to Mount Hamilton, and was by him 
instructed to ascend to its top and investigate its 
qualifications for the purpose in hand. In August, 
1875, Mr. Fraser, accompanied by Hon. B. D. 
Murphy, then mayor of the city of San Jose, went 
upon the mountain, found it free from fog, equable of 
climate, easy of access, and generally suitable for the 
location of the great observatory. Mr. Lick then ad- 
dressed a communication to the Board of Supervisors 
of Santa Clara County, offering to locate the observ- 
atory on Mount Hamilton, if the county would con- 
struct a road to the summit. The matters relating to 
this branch of the subject will be found fully related 
in our chapter on " Roads and Highways." 

In the meantime Mr. Lick had found that his deed 
of trust did not express his intentions as he desired. 
He found, among other things, that the strict con- 



struction of its terms would postpone the carrying into 
effect of his benefactions until after his death. He 
wanted the work to be pushed forward during his 
life-time. After duly considering these matters he 
addressed a communication to his trustees, setting 
forth his conclusions and intentions, and revoking the 
deed and asking them to resign the trust. The 
trustees consulted a lawyer, and upon his advice de- 
clined to resign, for the alleged reason that they had 
already converted about a million of dollars of the 
real estate into money and could not be absolved 
from responsibility by Mr. Lick's will alone. This 
involved Mr. Lick in a controversy with his trustees 
which, at first, threatened disaster to the beneficiaries. 
Jno. B. Felton was Mr. Lick's attorney, and instead of 
precipitating his client into a lawsuit, he used the 
columns of the newspapers so vigorously that the 
trustees became disgusted and made up an agreed 
case, by which the courts relieved them of responsi- 
bility and annulled the deed. 

On September 21, 1875, a new and final deed was 
executed by Mr. Lick, with Richard S. Floyd, Ber- 
nard D. Murphy, Foxan D. Atherton, John H. Lick, 
and John Nightingale as trustees. The clause in the 
deed in reference to the observatory is as follows: — 

"Third — To expend the sum of seven hundred thou- 
sand dollars ($700,000) for the purpose of purchasing 
land, and constructing and putting up on such land 
as shall be designed by the party of the first part, 
a powerful telescope, superior to and more powerful 
than any telescope yet made, with all the machinery 
appertaining thereto and appropriately connected 
therewith, or that is necessary and convenient to the 
most powerful telescope now in use, or suited to one 
more powerful than any yet constructed; and also 
a suitable observatory connected therewith. The 
parties of the second part hereto, and their successors, 
shall, as soon as said telescope and observatory are 
constructed, convey the land whereupon the same 
may be situated, and the telescope and the observa- 
tory, and all the machinery and apparatus connected 
therewith, to the corporation known as the 'Regents 
of the University of California;' and if, after the con- 
struction of said telescope and observatory, there 
shall remain of said seven hundred thousand dollars 
in gold coin any surplus, the said parties of the sec- 
ond part shall turn over such surplus to said corpora- 
tion, to be invested by it in bonds of the United 
States, or of the city and county of San Francisco, or 
other good and safe interest-bearing bonds, and the 
income thereof shall be devoted to the maintenance 



132 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



of said telescope and the observatory connected there- 
with, and shall be made useful in promoting science; 
and the said telescope and observatory are to be 
known as the 'Lick Astronomical Department of the 
University of California-'" 

On making the new deed Mr. Lick selected Mount 
Hamilton as the site for the University, and the 
trustees, acting with the regents of the State Univer- 
sity, secured an act of Congress setting apart the 
public land at the summit for this purpose. This 
tract contains about five hundred acres, and is so sit- 
uated as to prevent settlement in the immediate 
vicinity of the observatory, or the inauguration of any 
enterprise in the immediate neighborhood that would 
be inimical to the interests of the institution. 

John B. Felton charged $100,000 for his services in 
annulling the first deed, and presented the bill to the 
new trustees. They refused to allow the claim unless 
Mr. Lick would sign a written authorization. Mr. 
Felton, with Mr. Murphy, one of the trustees, called 
on Mr. Lick for this purpose. 

"Mr. Felton," said the old philanthropist, "when we 
made the contract upon which that claim is based, we 
supposed that to cancel my first trust deed would be an 
exceedingly arduous matter, involving much expense, 
a long delay and years of the most elaborate and an- 
noymg litigation. The whole entanglement, however, 
has been adjusted in a few months without any diffi- 
culty, but little outlay, and with only a formal litigation; 
I think, under the changed circumstances, you ought 
to diminish the amount of your fee." 

"Your proposition, Mr. Lick," responded Felton, "re- 
minds me of a story I once heard about a countryman 
who had a bad toothache and went to a rustic den- 
tist to have the offender extracted. The dentist pro- 
duced a rusty set of instruments, seated him in a 
rickety chair, and went to work. After some hours of 
hard labor to himself, and the most extreme agony 
to the countryman, the tooth was extracted, and he 
charged him a dollar. A few months later the same 
countryman had another attack of toothache, and this 
time thought best to procure a metropolitan dentist. 
He went to the city, found the best dentist in it, and 
offered his swollen jaw for operation. The expert 
dentist passed his hand soothingly over his face, lo- 
cated the tooth with painless delicacy, produced a 
splendid set of instruments, and before the country- 
man knew it, had the tooth out. His charge was five 
dollars. 'Five dollars!' said the countryman, 'why, 
when Jones, down at the village, pulled my last tooth 
it took three hours, during whicla he broke his chair, 



broke my jaw, broke his tools, and mopped the whole 
floor with me several times, and he only charged me 
a dollar. You ought to diminish your bill!' " 

Mr. Lick signed the authorization and Mr. Felton 
received his money. 

In 1876 Mr. Lick had trouble with his trustees. 
One of the duties Mr. Lick wished first performed 
was the erection of his family monument in Freder- 
icksburg, Pennsylvania. It was during the arrange- 
ment for this work that the causes attending the re- 
tirement of the second Board arose, and in this wise. 
It will be noticed that among the members of this 
Board of Trustees was John H. Lick. Although 
James Lick is reputed to have never been married, this 
man was his son. He was born in Pennsylvania on 
June 30, 1818, just about the time, it will be noticed, 
of James Lick's somewhat hurried departure for New 
York, and thence to South America. Who was the 
mother of this boy does not appear, unless, perhaps, it 
was the miller's comely daughter. Long after Mr. 
Lick came to California he sent for his son, then 
grown to manhood, and kept him for some years at 
work in the Mahogany Mill. Here he remained until 
August, 1 87 1, when he returned to his Eastern home. 
When Mr. Lick made his first deed of trust, he 
directed the payment to his son of $3,000. With 
this pittance John H. Lick was naturally dissatisfied, 
and hence in the second deed he was given the sum 
of $150,000, and made one of the trustees of the rest. 
To him, as trustee, the power was delegated to con- 
tract for the Fredericksburg monument, but for some 
reason he failed or refused to sign the contract. 
When this fact was made known to James Lick, in the 
summer of 1876, he became very much incensed 
against John H. Lick, and began to suspect that he 
had still further designs upon his property, and in 
the weakness of his old age he included the whole 
Board in his ill-humor, and suddenly required the res- 
ignation of the whole body. In this the trustees, ex- 
cept John H. Lick, concurred, and a new Board was 
appointed by Mr. Lick. Captain Floyd having been 
in Europe during this last entanglement, was not in- 
cluded in the old man's wrath, but was re-appointed 
on the new Board. 

Mr. Lick died October i, 1876, and before the new 
Board was fully organized. He was eighty years of 
age. His body lay in state at Pioneer Hall, San 
Francisco, and was followed by an immense proces- 
sion to Lone Mountain Cemetery, there to rest until a 
more fitting resting-place might be ready for its re- 
ception. Some months before his death, in a conver- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



133 



sation with B. D. Murphy upon the subject of the 
probability of his death, Mr. Lick expressed the desire 
that he might be buried on Mount Hamilton, either 
within or to one side of the proposed observatory, 
after the manner of Sir Christopher Wren, the archi- 
tect of St. Paul's cathedral, who was buried in the 
crypt in 1723. 

Immediately on the death of his father, John H. 
Lick returned from the East and secured letters of ad- 
ministration upon the estate. This was understood 
to be the beginning of an attempt to nullify the trust 
deed; after testing several points in the courts, the 
trustees finally effected a compromise by which they 
were to pay Lick $535,000 in full of all claims against 
the estate. The Society of Pioneers and the Acad- 
emy of Sciences had been made residuary legatees by 
the deed, and they insisted that this payment to John 
Lick should be made pro rata from each of the be- 
quests. The Academy of Sciences was particularly 
active in the courts to compel the payment to be 
made in this manner. After nearly a year of litiga- 
tion, the courts decided that the special bequests 
could not be disturbed, and the compromise money 
must come from the share of the residuary legatees. 

As soon as possible after the completion of the road 
to the summit, work was commenced on the buildings. 
About two million six hundred thousand brick were 
used, all of which were manufactured in the immediate 
vicinity. Early in 1887, the work had progressed 
sufficiently to permit the request of Mr. Lick in re- 
gard to his burial-place to be complied with, and on 
the ninth day of January his remains were brought 
to San Jose, whence, followed by a large procession of 
officials and prominent citizens, they were conveyed 
to the mountain. A tomb had been prepared in the 
foundation of the pier, which was to support the great 
telescope, and in this, with imposing ceremonies, were 
the remains deposited. The following document, 
signed by the trustees and representatives of the State 
University, the Academy of Sciences, Pioneers, and 
the mayor of San Jose, was sealed up with the casket: 

"This is the body of James Lick, who was born in 
Fredericksburg, Pennsylvania, August 25, 1796, and 
who died in San Francisco, California, October i, 
1876. 



"It has been identified by us, and in our presence 
has been sealed up and deposited in this foundation 
pier of the great equatorial telescope, this ninth day 
of January, 1887. 

"In the year 1875 he executed a deed of trust of 
his entire estate, by which he provided for the comfort 
and culture of the citizens of California, for the ad- 
vancement of handcraft and rede-craft among the 
youth of San Francisco and of the State; for the de- 
velopment of scientific research and the diffusion of 
knowledge among men, and for founding in the State 
of California an astronomical observatory, to surpass 
all others existing in the world at this epoch. 

"This observatory has been erected by the trustees 
of his estate, and has been named the Lick Astronom- 
ical Department of the University of California, in 
memory of the founder. 

"This refracting telescope is the largest which has 
ever been constructed, and the astronomers who have 
tested it declare that its performance surpasses that 
of all other telescopes. 

"The two disks of glass for the objective were cast 
by Ch. Fell, of France, and were brought to a true 
figure by Alvan Clark & Sons, of Ma.ssachusetts. 

"Their diameter is thirty-six inches, and their focal 
length is fifty-six feet two inches. 

"Upon the completion of this structure the regents 
of the University of California became the trustees of 
this astronomical observatory." 

The contract for the great lens was made with 
Alvan Clark & Sons, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
for $5 1 ,000. They employed M. Fell & Sons, of Paris, 
to cast the glass. The contract was made in 1880. 
In 1882 the flint-glass was cast and sent to Messrs. 
Clark, but it was not until 1885 that a perfect crown- 
glass could be obtained. The Clarks succeeded in 
obtaining a true figure in 1886, and on the twenty- 
ninth of December, of that year, the great lens reached 
Mount Hamilton. The mounting of the instrument 
and other details of construction occupied eighteen 
months' more time, and in June, 1888, the whole work 
was completed. The transfer of the observatory from 
the trustees to the regents of the university took place 
June I, 1888, being fourteen years from the date of 
Mr. Lick's first deed. 




BUILDINGS. 

DURING the Spanish and American administra- 
tion in California, the architecture was of a very 
rude character. The walls of the best houses were of 
adobe, and the roofs generally of straw. Later, tiles 
were substituted for straw in the more pretentious 
structures. This style of building was in vogue for 
some time after the American occupation. Up to 
1850, the city of San Jose had more the appearance of 
a military camp on the frontier, than of a town. The 
rude houses with their thatched roofs were supple- 
mented by tents, and there was hardly a comfortable 
building in the district. The ordinance establishing 
the first fire limits, passed July 11, 1850, gives a pretty 
good idea of the character of the houses. These limits 
were described as commencing at the intersection of 
Second and St. James Streets, thence along Second 
to San Carlos, thence to the Acequia, thence along 
the Acequia northerly to a point which would inter- 
sect a prolongation of St. James Street, and thence 
easterly and along St. James Street to the place of 
beginning. Within these limits it was prohibited to 
erect any structures composed of canvas, willow, cot- 
ton cloth, tules, mustard, reeds, or other grassy sub- 
stances, under a penalty of not less than twenty-five 
or more than two hundred dollars. It also forbade 
the existence of any hay-stacks, unless inclosed or 
suitably guarded, and enjoined the removal of those 
then in existence, under the same penalty. There 
were, however, some better buildings in the city than 
this ordinance would seem to indicate. 

Three years prior to this, in 1847, Mr. William 
Campbell had commenced the erection of a saw-mill 
on Quito Creek, afterwards known as Campbell 
Creek, in the western part of the county. Owing to the 
scarcity of labor, everybody having gone to the mines, 
the mill was not completed until 1848, in which year 
Zachariah Jones also completed a mill. These mills 
furnished a supply of building material, but it was 
costly, the charge for hauling alone being a hundred 
(134J 



dollars per thousand feet, while the lumber cost any- 
where from two hundred and fifty to seven hundred 
dollars per thousand While these efforts were being 
made to secure building material from the foot-hills, 
other attempts were being made nearer home. In the 
latter part of 1848 Mr. Osborn succeeded in making 
brick, and he erected houses of this material the same 
year. The first was built at the corner of Fifth and 
St. John Streets, another on Fifth between St. John 
and St. James, and a third on St. John between Fourth 
and Fifth Streets. Brick -layers, carpenters, and, in 
fact, mechanics of all kinds, commanded sixteen dol- 
lars per day for their services, and this, with materials 
at a correspondingly high price, made the building of 
houses a pretty expensive operation. Nothing but 
the rich products of the newly discovered gold mines 
rendered it possible. 

The City Hotel, the principal hostelry of the 
pueblo, was built in 1849. It was located on the west 
side of First Street, about where the Martin Block 
now stands. The old-timers do not speak in glowing 
terms of its accommodations for guests. The price 
for board and lodging was $5.00 per day; single 
meals, $2.00. 

The Mansion House, on First Street, between Santa 
Clara and St. John, occupied the present site of the 
Music Hall building. It was commenced in 1849 and 
completed early in 1850. It was erected by Joseph 
S. Ruckle, and cost $100,000. This was the popular 
hotel for many years, and was headquarters for the 
members of the Legislature, members of the Bar, and 
business and professional men. In 1853 Mr. A. S. 
Beaty was installed as landlord, and his memory will 
always be kept green by those who were fortunate 
enough to have been his guests. The building was 
burned May 31, 1865. 

The United 'States Hotel was erected in 1850 on 
San Pedro Street. It was first called the Pavilion, 
but its name was changed as above. The frame of 
this building was made in Australia, and when com- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



135 



pleted the building cost over $50,000. It never paid 
interest on the investment, and, in 1879, it was moved 
upon Sixth Street and converted into a dwelling- 
house. In the same year A. Chattelle expended $50,- 
000 in erecting a two-story building on the west side of 
Market Street near El Dorado Street, which was called 
the French Hotel. The lower portion was used for 
gambling and became notorious. 

J. D. Hoppe, in 1850, with Levi Goodrich as archi- 
tect, put up what was called a fine adobe building on 
the northeast corner of Santa Clara and Market 
Streets, where T. W. Spring's store now is. The 
adobes were taken from the old juzgado, which was 
torn down this year. Frank Lightston built two 
adobe houses on Santa Clara Street opposite the 
Auzerais House. These buildings stood until 1871. 
O. L. Crosby built the house afterwards occupied 
by Mrs. Hensle}- in what was afterwards known as 
the Hensley grounds, on First Street between Julian 
and Empire. Wm. Van Voorhies, who was then Sec- 
retary of State, built a frame house on Second Street 
near William, in this year. The old Morgan House 
was built this year by Messrs. May, Lee, and McCune. 
It was on the corner of First and San Fernando 
Streets, and was run as a boarding-house at first, but 
was opened as a hotel in 185 1, by John R. Price. In 
1867 a portion was torn down and the corner built up 
with brick, and a few years afterwards all of the old 
wooden building was removed to make place for the 
Wilcox Block. During this year Governor Burnett 
occupied a house on Second Street, near San Carlos. 
It was considered a good building then, but would 
hardly meet popular opinion as a governor's mansion 
now. The State House we have spoken of elsewhere. 
It was built by Sansevain and Rochon, in 1849. 
In 1850 also was built the Bella Union. It stood 
on the present site of the Auzerais House, on Santa 
Clara Street. It was a two-story frame building with 
a sheet-iron roof. The frame was brought from the 
Eastern States via Cape Horn. It was opened as a 
drinking saloon about Christmas and played a con- 
spicuous part in the early history of the city. 

From 1850 there was not much building, nearly 
everybody being at the mines; but in 1853 nearly a 
hundred houses were erected. Many of these were of 
brick, it being estimated that i , 1 50,000 brick were used 
that year, all but 9,000 being manufactured in Santa 
Clara. Among the most prominent of these build- 
ings was one at the southeast corner of Santa Clara 
Street and Pacheco Alley, which was occupied by the 
Supreme Court, and one at the southeast corner of 



Market and Santa Clara Streets. Merritt Brothers 
built a two-story brick building on Fifth Street near 
St. John. This was considered an aristocratic struct- 
ure in those days. It is still standing. Auzerais 
Brothers built their brick store on Market Street be- 
tween El Dorado Street and the Catholic Church. 
A two-story frame house was brought from San Fran- 
cisco and put on the northwest corner of Santa Clara 
and First Streets, where Knox Block now stands. It 
was called the Railroad Hotel. The Sisters of Notre 
Dame commenced their brick college building this 
year, with Levi Goodrich as architect. The county 
jail on San Fernando Street, between Third and 
Fourth, was built at a cost of $15,000 in 1854. 

In 1855 the old City Hall on Market Street was 
built. It was of brick and adobe, 68x42 feet and 
two stories high. We speak of this in the past tense 
in view of the new City Hall, which is fast approach- 
ing completion. Some brick buildings were erected 
this year on the east side of Market Street between 
Santa Clara and El Dorado Streets. Peter Davidson 
built some brick stores near the northwest corner 
of Market and Santa Clara Streets. 

In 1856 Eli Jones & Co. erected a brick store on 
the east side of First Street between El Dorado and 
Santa Clara Streets. 

In 1857 Mr. Stock built a house on First Street. 

In 1858 Pfister & Co. built a two-story brick build- 
ing on the southeast corner of First and Santa Clara 
Streets, where Safe Deposit Block now stands. The 
Catholic Church was encased in brick. This building 
was afterward destroyed by fire. P. O. Minor put up 
the concrete building on the west side of First Street 
between El Dorado and San Fernando. 

In 1859 Auzerais Brothers built several buildings 
on Market Street south of their store. Martin Mur- 
phy built ninety feet of the brick stores on the east 
side of Market Street. Clemente Colombet built the 
brick block on the west side of Market Street, called 
then the San Jose Hotel, now the Cosmopohtan. 
Stark's Theater was built this year. It was on First 
Street nearly opposite the New York Exchange. It 
was opened with the play of " Richelieu." 

In 1863 the foundations of the Auzerais House, 
on Santa Clara Street, were laid. It was completed 
in 1865. Cost of building and furniture, about $160,- 
000. Patrick Welch erected his brick stable on First 
Street, north of Santa Clara. King and Knoche 
built the brick building on First Street, north of 
El Dorado. The old railroad depot on San Pedro 
Street was built this year. 



136 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



In 1864 the Hensley Block, at the northwest corner 
of Market and Santa Clara Streets, was erected. It 
was then called the Masonic and Odd Fellows' Hall 
Building. It was occupied below by James Hart's 
dry-goods store, when it was, early in the 70's, rented 
for the use of the post-office, and continued in that 
use until 1888. C. T. Ryland built a two-story brick 
building at the northeast corner of First and San 
Fernando Streets. He added to it in 1869. It is 
now used as the Lick House. In this year the first 
part of Knox Block was erected, at the northwest 
corner of Santa Clara and First Streets. Two stores 
were added on First Street in 1867. 

In 1866 the Court House, opposite St. James' 
Square, was commenced. It was not finished until 
1868. Haskell & Porter, Strauss & Brown, S. A. 
Clark and John Stock, erected brick buildings on the 
west side of First Street, between San Fernando and 
El Dorado Streets. 

In 1867 the Santa Clara Street School-house was 
built. The New York Exchange Building, on First 
(Street, was completed this year, and opened by 
Martin Corcoran. Levy Brothers built a brick build- 
ing at the southwest corner of First and Santa Clara 
Streets. It has been remodeled, and is now owned 
and occupied by the First National Bank. John 
Balbach put up his brick building on Santa Clara 
Street, between Market and First. Part of the old 
Morgan House, at the northwest corner of First and 
San Fernando Streets, was removed, and a brick 
building erected. The remainder of the house was 
afterwards taken away, and the block completed with 
a two-story brick structure. Part of this block is 
now occupied by the Garden City National Bank. 

In 1868 Martin Murphy built the brick building 
on the south side of Santa Clara Street, between 
Lightston Street and Market, now occupied by the 
City Stables. Adolph Pfister built the brick build- 
ing at the southeast corner of Santa Clara and Sec- 



ond Streets. Charles Otter built the brick building 
at the southwest corner of St. John and First Streets, 
forming a portion of the New York Exchange Block. 
H. M. Newhall erected the building at the northeast 
corner of Market and First Streets, since occupied 
by T. W. Springs' store. 

In 1870 Brohaska's Opera House was completed. 
It was situated on the north side of Santa Clara 
Street, between Second and Third. It was finished 
in modern style, and was considered, at that time, 
the best theater building in the interior of the State. 
It was opened with " London Assurance," with John 
T. Raymond as "Mark Meddle." The building was 
destroyed by fire in 1881. This year the Jewish 
Synagogue, corner of Third and San Antonio Streets, 
was built. The first normal school building was 
commenced this year. Music Hall Building, on 
P^irst Street, was erected. The new county jail was 
built. The first asphaltum sidewalk was constructed 
this year. It was on the north side of Santa Clara 
Street, from First to Market. It was built by a 
Frenchman, named Neuval, and was the best ever 
made in the city, lasting for many years. 

In 1 87 1 the Bank of San Jose Building was erected. 

In 1872 the Safe Deposit Block was built. Later 
it was extended south to Fountain Street. 

It is not intended in this chapter to give the dates 
of construction of all the buildings in the city, but to 
give some of the old landmarks, and to trace the 
march of improvements for the first twenty years of 
American occupation. During the Spanish and 
Mexican administration, which covered a period of 
more than half a century, not more than a dozen 
buildings were erected in the pueblo, and these were 
of the rudest character. Within twenty years after 
the Americans took possession, the pueblo had be- 
come a thriving city, with substantial business blocks 
and beautiful residences, and has already become 
known as the "Garden City." 




i^JiD 



^O^' 






iili WUm ifisli Is llf 






•T^nr' 



G^% 



DURING the War of the RebelHon, Santa Clara 
County evinced her willingness to stand by the 
Union, both with money and men. Of the former, 
many thousands of dollars were contributed and placed 
at the disposal of the Sanitary Commission. Of the 
latter, more volunteers were tendered than required, 
and many crossed the mountains in order to enlist 
under the old flag. Those who enlisted here were 
either retained in the State or sent to Arizona and 
New Mexico. There was no draft ever ordered in 
California to secure her proportion of troops, while 
there was always a reserve, in the volunteer companies 
organized under the State laws, more than sufficient 
for any emergency that might arise. California was 
far from the center of government, with a long line 
of exposed sea-coast, and, in case of foreign compli- 
cations, subject to attack. For these reasons it was 
necessary that her people should remain at home to 
protect their own territory. This was done to a great 
extent, although each regiment, as it was organized, 
understood that it was to be sent East to take position 
at the front. Many men from Santa Clara County, 
not being able to enlist at home, went to San Fran- 
cisco and other cities where the quota was not filled, 
in order to be enrolled. These were credited to other 
counties. Of those who enlisted from Santa Clara 
County we have record of the following: — 

COMPANY C, FIRST REGIMENT. — Infantry. 

Organized in San Jose, June, 1861. Re-organized 
as veterans at Las Cruces, New Mexico, Noveinber 
29, 1864. This company was on duty in New Mex- 
ico, operating in the heart of the Apache country. 
They had many desperate engagements with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Vestal, with his company, assisted 
in the capture of the notorious Showalter and his part}'. 
The company while in the desert marched a distance 
of over two thousand miles. 

SECOND REGIMENT. — Infantry. 

Organized November 29, 1861. Served against 
Indians in northern part of the State and in Arizona. 
iS 



The Santa Clara men in this regiment were generally 
credited to Mayfield. T. C. Winchell was Adjutant 
of this regiment; Montgomery Maze was Second 
Lieutenant of Company A; C. P. Fairfield was First 
Lieutenant of Company I. 

THIRD REGIMENT. — Infantry. 

Organized in 1861. Served in Utah and Colorado. 
J. C. Merrill was Captain of Company B of this reg- 
iment. There were Santa Clara County men in 
Companies D, E, and G. William J. Callahan, de- 
ceased, was in the latter company. 

EIGHTH REGIMENT.— Infantry. 

Company C was organized at San Jose in 1864. 
After being mustered in, the regiment was stationed 
at Fort Point, California. 

FIRST BATTALION OF MOUNTAINEERS. 

Organized in 1862. Served in the mountain cam- 
paigns against the hostile Indians in California and 
Nevada. Geo. W. Ousley was Captain of Company 
B of this battalion. 

FIRST CAVALRY REGIMENT. 

Company E organized August, 1861. Served in 
Arizona, New Mexico, and Te^as. Engaged against 
the Kiowa, Comanche, Navajo, and Apache Indians. 
There were Santa Clara men also in Companies I 
and L of this regiment. 

FIRST BATTALION OF NATIVE CAVALRY. 

Company A was organized in San Jose in 1883, by 
Captain J. R. Pico. Served in California and Arizona. 
The battalion was composed principally of native 
Californians. 

In addition to the foregoing troops mustered into 
the United States service, the following organizations 
were held in the State service: — 

FIRST REGIMENT.— Cavalry. 

H. M. Leonard, Major. 

Compaity E, Redtvood Cavalry. — H. M. Leonard, 
Captain; E. Vandyne, First Lieutenant; D. J. Bur- 

(137) 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



nett, Senior Second Lieutenant; H. C. Morrill, Junior 
Second Lieutenant. Sixty men in the company, all 
armed. 

Compmiy /, Burnett Light Horse Guard. — J. R. 
Hall, Captain; P. Henry, First Lieutenant; J. Chris- 
man, Senior Second Lieutenant; A. J. Fowler, Junior 
Second Lieutenant. Fifty men in the comp?.ny, all 
armed. 

Company K, New Alniaden Cavalry. — L. F. Parker, 
Captain; J. P. Dudley, First Lieutenant; H. H. Curtis, 
Senior Second Lieutenant; A. F. Foster, Junior Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. Forty men in the company, all 
armed. 

NATIONAL LIGHT ARTILLERY. 

S. O. Houghton, Captain; C. T. Henley, First Lieu- 
tenant; Jacob Weigent, Junior First Lieutenant; N. B. 
Edwards, Senior Second Lieutenant; Edward Ladd, 
Junior Second Lieutenant. 

FIFTH REGIMENT.— Infantry. 

A. Jones Jackson, Colonel; A. B. Rowley, Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel; J. Porter, Major; J. O. Wanzer, Adju- 
tant; Chas. N. Senter, R. Q. M.; A. J. Corey, Surgeon. 

Company A, Union Guard. — Chas. P. Crittenden, 
Captain; E.J. Morton, First Lieutenant; Geo. Evans, 
Senior Second Lientenant; N.Klein, Junior Second 
Lieutenant. Sixty men, armed with rifles. 



Company B, San Jose Zouaves. — A. W. White, 
Captain; M. Campbell, Fir.st Lieutenant; F. B. Fuller, 
Senior Second Lieutenant; W. T. Adel, Junior 
Second Lieutenant. Eighty men, armed with rifle 
muskets. 

Company C, Alviso Rifles. — Thatcher F. Barnes, 
Captain; John Root, First Lieutenant; Edward W. 
Williams, Senior Second Lieutenant; Chas. E. Morri- 
son, Junior Second Lieutenant. Sixty men, armed 
with rifle muskets. 

Company E, Gilroy Guards. — John H. Adams, Cap- 
tain ; William O. Barker, First Lieutenant ; W. N. 
Furlong, Senior Second Lieutenant; William Van 
Gundy, Junior Second Lieutenant. Forty men, armed 
with rifle muskets. 

Company H, Santa Clara Guard. — William H. 
Swope, First Lieutenant; W. H. Menton, Senior 
Second Lieutenant; A. F. Harlow, Junior Second 
Lieutenant. Sixty men, armed with rifle muskets. 

JOHNSON GUARD. — Unattached. 

John M. Murphy, Captain; N. B. Edwards, First 
Lieutenant; J. F. Faulkner, Senior Second Lieuten- 
ant; P. W. Riordan, Junior Second Lieutenant. Fifty 
men, armed with muskets. 





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COURT HOUSE. 

FOR a short time after the county was organized 
under the Government of the United States, the 
old juzgado was used as a court-house. It was ill 
adapted for this purpose, and, in addition to its incon- 
veniences, it belonged to the city, and was under 
control of that municipality. From the first day of 
the county's existence it felt the necessity of provid- 
ing suitable buildings for the accommodation of its 
courts and officers. The lack of money with which 
to either purchase or build was a serious obstacle to 
the settlement of the difficulty. In June, 1850, the 
Court of Sessions, then the legislative department of 
the county, gave notice that the county judge would 
receive proposals from parties 'owning property which 
they would either give or sell to the county for a site 
for county buildings. Among the responses to this 
notice was one from James F. Reed, who offered to 
donate eight lots in the block bounded by Third, 
Fourth, William, and Reed Streets, to be used as a 
site for the court-house, and two lots in the block im- 
mediately south, to be used as a site for the county 
jail. This offer the county accepted, but the build- 
ings were not placed there, and the negotiations came 
to nothing. 

The next month the court made another order, by 
which it authorized the county judge, J. W. Redmon, 
to select a proper site for county buildings, and di- 
recting "that he cause to be erected the necessary 
buildings and superintend the same, and that he draw 
from time to time his warrant on the county treasury 
for such sums as may be necessary for that purpose." 

This was an extraordinary power to grant to any 
one man, but it was never exercised to its full extent. 
In the meantime, the county government had moved 
from the old juzgado to the building on First Street, 
opposite Fountain Alley, and afterwards the Bella 



Union Building on Santa Clara Street, where the 
Auzerais House now stands. 

In 1851 Judge Redmon selected Market Plaza as 
the site for the court-house, and the same was pur- 
chased from the city. This included the old State 
House, which was fixed up for the use of the courts 
and county officers. This building seems to have 
been looked upon by the people as common property, 
and they were accustomed to hold all sorts of meet- 
ings and entertainments there. This was considered 
by the county government as an infringement of its 
dignity, and in July, 1852, the sheriff was ordered to 
"take charge of the court-house and allow no dances, 
balls, or shows to be held therein." This order elicited 
such a cry of indignation from the people that, within 
two days after its issuance, it was modified so as to 
allow the use of the building as an assembly hall and 
place of entertainment, but instructing the sheriff to 
collect, for such uses, a sufficient amount to pay the 
fees of a janitor and watchman. 

The old State House having burned, the court-house 
was removed to the adobe building on Lightstone 
Street, owned at that time by Frank Lightstone, and 
the officers again began to look about for permanent 
location. Levi Goodrich was appointed as architect, 
and directed to present plans and specifications, the 
idea being to rebuild on the old lot at Market Plaza. 
The plans were drawn, and the clerk directed to call 
for bids; but before anything further was done, A. S. 
Caldwell made a proposition to sell the county the lot 
and buildings at the southeast corner of San Fernando 
and Second Streets. A committee was appointed and 
reported that the building, with a little alteration, 
would be suitable for a court-house, and the purchase 
was made. The price paid was $4,000. In Decem- 
ber, 1853, this building was officially declared to be 
the county court-house, the same order setting apart 
(139) 



140 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



the south room on the lower floor as the district court- 
room. This building was afterwards known as the 
"What Cheer House," and is still standing. The 
county sold the State House lot to a Mr. Briggs for 
$500, reserving the right to use the jail thereon until a 
new jail could be built. The county occupied its new 
quarters for sixteen years, when it became necessary 
to have enlarged accommodations. An order was 
made offering a hundred dollars for the best plan for 
a new court-house. 

Pending this matter, the clerk was authorized to 
negotiate with the city council for the use of the sec- 
ond story of the City Hall on Market Street for a 
court-room. This resulted in a two years' lease of 
the upper portion of the City Hall, in return for which 
the county gave the city the use of a portion of the 
lot at the corner of San Fernando and Second Streets. 
This exchange was effected in August, i860. In the 
latter part of this year, Levi Goodrich presented plans 
for a new building, which were adopted, and he re- 
ceived the premium of $100 offered therefor. In 
March, of 1861, the Board of Supervisors asked Hon. 
A. L. Rhodes to procure the passage of an act by the 
Legislature, authorizing the county to issue bonds to 
pay for the building; they also directed Mr. Goodrich 
to prepare working drawings. 

The lease of the City Hall expired in 1862, and at 
that time Martin Murphy was finishing his brick 
block on Market Street. He offered to rent the up- 
per portion of these buildings to the county for $190 
per month, and finish them in a manner suitable for 
use as county offices, the large hall at the corner of 
Market and El Dorado Streets to be used as a court- 
room. The county accepted the offer and took a five 
years' lease, with the privilege of renewal. This was 
the last location of the court-house prior to the con- 
struction of the present building. 

Two years elapsed before anything more was done 
towards a new building. During this time there grew 
up a sentiment that the old lot at the corner of San 
Fernando and Second Streets was not a suitable lo- 
cation, and the supervisors were urged to purchase 
another lot. There was some opposition to this sug- 
gestion, and some heated debates were had over it at 
the Board meetings. Two of the supervisors, Messrs. 
Quimby and Yates, were opposed to buying another 
lot, and when the resolution was adopted to change 
the location, voted in the negative, as they also did at 
each subsequent stage of the proceedings. Among 
the sites offered the Board was the one now occupied 
by the court-house. It was owned by W. H. Hall, 



who offered to sell it to the county for $5,000. The 
committee appointed to examine the title reported 
that they had had it examined by the "best attorneys 
in the city," and that it had been pronounced valid 
The purchase was consummate^, Mr. Hall receiving 
from the county the sum of $7,353 in currency, in lieu 
of the $5,000 in gold, the extra $2,353 being the dif- 
ference between gold and greenbacks at that time. 
The original tract was one hundred and thirty-seven 
and a half feet front on First Street by two hundred 
and seventy-five feet deep; subsequently twelve and a 
half feet more frontage was secured from JosiahBelden, 
and in 1867 more frontage was purchased, the price of 
the latter being $40 per foot. Adjoining property is 
now rated at $275 per front foot. Work on the court- 
house was pushed as rapidly as possible, and on Jan- 
uary I, 1868, the county officers took possession. 
Originally there was but one court-room, the ceiling of 
which extended to the roof In 1879 a floor was laid 
cutting this apartment into the two rooms, as they now 
are. The cost of the building was about $200,000. 
COUNTY JAIL. 

The first county jail was located on the lot occupied 
by the old State House, and was erected when that 
building was used as a court-house. When that lot 
was sold to Briggs, the county reserved the right to 
use the jail until a new one could be built. In 1854 
a contract was awarded to Marcus Williams to erect 
a jail on the last part of the lot at the corner of Second 
and San Fernando Streets. The price was to be $15,- 
000, and R. B. Buckner was appointed a committee to 
superintend the construction. This jail was completed 
January 2, 1855. It was of brick, with iron cells, and 
was considered a remarkably secure place for confin- 
ing prisoners. It was used until 1871, and did good 
service. It was injured by the earthquake of 1864, 
but the walls were drawn back to their places with 
iron rods and the building pronounced as good as 
new. 

When the new court-house was built it was found 
necessary to have the county jail nearer to the court- 
rooms, and Levi Goodrich was directed to prepare 
plans for a new building. The plans were submitted 
and adopted, and the architect directed to proceed 
with the construction. This was in 1870, and during 
the next year the jail was completed and in use. 
The old jail was torn down and the brick used in the 
new building. The old jail lot was sold for $5,850. 
COUNTY irosriTAL. 

The first organized effort to care for the indigent 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



141 



sick was made in 1854, when a committee from the 
common council met a committee from the Board of 
Supervisors and agreed to act in concert in this mat- 
ter. By the terms of this agreement the county was 
to bear two-thirds of the expense and the city one- 
third. All affairs concerning indigent sick were to be 
managed by a joint committee, composed of two 
members of each Board. The council, however, re- 
fused to confirm the action of its committee, alleging 
that they were able to take care of their own indigent 
sick. On this the supervisors appointed George Peck, 
R. G. Moody, and William Daniels as a relief com- 
mittee, or Board of Health. During this year the 
county received $869.49 as its share of the State relief 
fund. 

The next year, 1855, a county physician was ap- 
pointed and the citj- agreed to pay $50 per month to- 
wards maintenance and medical attendance for indi- 
gent sick. About the same time the old Levy prop- 
erty was rented for a hospital, the county paying a 
monthly rent of $40 per month. In November of 
the same year the county advertised for propo.sals for 
a house and lot for hospital purposes. In response to 
this call the Merritt Brothers offered to sell the old 
Sutter House for $5,500. This house was situated to 
the northeast of the city, and to it was attached 
twenty-five acres of ground. The proposition was ac- 
cepted and the county occupied the premises until 
February, 1856, when, the owners failing to make a 
good deed to the property, the contract for the pur- 
chase was rescinded. The county then advertised for 
proposals for taking care of the indigent sick. The 
first contract was let to Dr. G. B. Crane, who agreed 
to maintain the patients and furnish medical and sur- 
gical attendance for $4,600 per year, the number of 
patients not to be more than seven per day, or, if in 
excess of that number, to be paid for at that rate. 
For several years the patients were farmed out in this 
manner, the county paying the contractor from $4,000 
to $5,000 per year for the service. 

In i860 the necessity for a hospital building be- 
came very apparent, and a committee was appointed 
to select a site. Many offers of property were made, 
but the proposal of Hiram Cahill was finally ac- 
cepted. This tract contained twelve acres of land, 
and was situated on the south side of South Street, 
just west of the Los Gatos Creek. The price paid 
was $4,000. The buildings were repaired and en- 
larged, and a pest-house built on the creek to the 
south. These premises were occupied until 1871. 
Before this time, however, in 1868, the hospital be- 
came too small to accommodate all the patients. 



The city had grown much larger, and there was con- 
siderable objection to the location of the institution 
so near to the city limits. An effort was made to 
secure another location, but it was three years before 
a new site was chosen. The Board finally purcha.sed, 
of John S. Conner, one hundred and fourteen acres 
of land where the infirmary is now situated. The 
price paid was $12,400. In 1875 the contract for the 
building was awarded to W. O. Breyfogle, for $14,- 
633.70. Messrs. Lenzen & Gash were the architects. 
Before this, however, the buildings from the old 
grounds had been removed to the new site, and the 
old premises cut up into lots and sold, netting the 
county $4,518.64. In 1884 eighty-one acres of the 
new tract were sold to different parties, leaving thirty- 
three acres in the present grounds. The money ac- 
cruing from these sales amounted to $14,727.71, being 
$2,327.71 more than the cost of the entire tract. 

Up to 1883 there was no almshouse in Santa Clara 
County. Invalids in destitute circumstances were 
cared for at the county hospital, while the indigent 
who were not invalids were cared for by allowances 
by the Board of Supervisors. These allowances were 
of money, provisions, clothing, fuel, etc., as each case 
might demand. For many years the destitute chil- 
dren were cared for by the Ladies' Benevolent So- 
ciety, this society receiving from the supervisors a 
monthly allowance of a certain amount per capita. 
Many children are still cared for in this manner. 
Each supervisor exercised a supervision over the 
destitute of his respective district, and all allowances 
were made on his recommendation. This was a 
vexatious duty for the Board, and whatever care was 
exercised, impositions were successfully perpetrated. 

The expense necessarily incurred by this system 
of affording relief began to be very burdensome, and 
in 1883 steps were taken to establish a county farm. 
In March of that year a committee was appointed 
to examine the matter, and this committee reported 
the advisability of organizing an almshouse. From 
this time to the latter part of 1S84 the Board occu- 
pied itself in examining different sites offered for the 
location. Finally the present site was adopted, and 
a hundred acres of land purchased of James Boyd, 
for $25,000. The tract contained the present main 
building, which had been erected some years pre- 
viously by John O'Toole, a former owner, at an ex- 
pense of $21,000, and which was intended as a resi- 
dence. Now all aid to destitute persons is extended 
through this institution. Persons not residents of the 
county are not aided at all, but are returned to the 
counties where they belong. 



THE first record that we have of the establishment 
of pubHc schools is a document which was found 
among the old archives of the pueblo, and purporting 
to be a contract, made in i8li, between the com- 
missioners of the pueblo, on behalf of the families 
thereof, and Rafael Villavicencio, for the instruction 
of all the children of the pueblo. Having been sent 
to the commander at Monterey, it was returned with 
additions and modifications, and the document thus 
amended constituted the first school law of the city 
of San Jose. As such, as well as on account of its 
peculiarity, it deserves a place in this work. Fol- 
lowing is the text: "I return to you, that the same 
may be placed in the archives, the obligation which 
the inhabitants of the neighborhood have made with 
the infirm corporal, Rafael Villavicencio, who trans- 
mitted it to me by official letter of the thirtieth of last 
September, in which he obligated himself to teach 
the children of this pueblo and vicinity to read, write, 
and the doctrine, and to be paid therefor at the rate 
of eighteen reals per annum, by every head of a 
family, in grain or flour. As in this obligation of 
both parties the conditions are not expressed, which 
I consider ought to be, I have thought proper to 
dictate them, that you may make it known to both 
parties in public, with their consent, and that it be 
signed by you, the Alcalde, Regidores, and the teacher, 
and registered in the archives. Firstly, the pay of 
eighteen reals annually, by each and every head of 
a family, I think is quite sufficient for the teacher, 
and as it is all they can give, in virtue of which the 
commissioner will be obliged to collect the same at 
the proper time, in order to deliver it to the teacher. 
The teacher, in virtue of the pay which is to be made 
to him, will also be obliged to perform his obligation 
with the greatest vigilance and strictness, without 
giving his attention to anything else but the teaching. 
As the hours are not expressed in which the attend- 
ance of the children ought to be at school, they will 
be these: six in a day, — three in the morning and 
(142) 



three in the afternoon ; in the morning from eight 
o'clock until eleven, and in the afternoon from two 
until five, it being the duty of the commissioner to 
compel the fathers to make their children attend, and 
to see that the teacher in no instance fails. Every 
Thursday and Saturday afternoon the children will 
not write or read, but explanations will be given them, 
these two afternoons, of the doctrine (faith), at which 
times the commissioner will attend, and advise the 
teacher that he must answer for the much or little 
explanation which he may make. When the teacher 
observes the absence of any of the scholars at the 
school, he will notify their fathers, who will give some 
satisfactory reason why they were absent on that 
morning or afternoon; and if they should be absent 
a second time, then he will notify the commissioner, 
who will compel the fathers to send their children, 
without receiving any excuse or pretexts, particularly 
from the mothers, because they will all be frivolous, 
since the children have sufficient time to do all that 
they are required to do. Lastly, during the time in 
which the children are at school, their fathers will be 
exempt from being responsible to God for them, and 
the teacher will be the one who is thus responsible; 
as he will, also, in consideration of his pay, be re- 
sponsible for the education and teaching of the holy 
dogmas of the religion; and the teacher is he who 
must be responsible to God, the parish priest, and to 
their authority. 

"It is also understood that the fathers are obliged to 
examine their children at home, as to the advance- 
ment which they may make, and to complain to the 
commissioner when they see no advancement, in order 
that he may remedy the matter, if necessary. As the 
teacher is responsible in the divine presence for the 
education and good examples of his scholars, and as 
he must answer to the State for the fulfillment of his 
obligations, he has the right to correct and punish 
his scholars, with advice, warning, and lashes, in case 
of necessity; and particularly he ought to do it for 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



143 



any failure to learn the doctrine, for which he ought 
not to accept any excuse, nor to pardon anyone from 
punishment who fails to learn it, or who does not 
commit to memory the lesson which may be given 
him." 

We have no informaJ:ion as to how long the " infirm 
corporal " conducted this school, but it was a fair type 
of the educational system of the country up to the 
time when the parish schools were organized under 
the immediate supervision of the church, and taught 
by the priests. These teachers were men of high 
education, and the curriculum consisted of consid- 
erably more than the " reading and writing " bar- 
gained for with Raphael Villavicencio, and we may 
logically infer that the spiritual instruction of the 
pupils was on a correspondingly high plane. At the 
present day we see these parish schools developed 
into such institutions as the St. Joseph's day school, 
and the Academy of Notre Dame, presided over by 
men and women who have abandoned the world for 
the purpose of devoting their lives to this noble work. 

The first Protestant school of which we have any 
record was opened by Rev. E. Bannister in 185 1, and 
was called the San Jose Academy. In it were 
taught not only the English branches, but the classics. 
At first it was a private enterprise, but in the same 
year it was incorporated, having a Board of nine 
trustees. 

In 1853 a school for young ladies, called the Bas- 
com Institute, was opened. It was under the aus- 
pices of the Pacific Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and was managed by nine trustees. 
Mrs. R. C. Hammond was the first principal. She 
was succeeded by Samuel Lea as principal, with Orrin 
Hinds as assistant, and the institution continued pros- 
perously until October, 1859. 

The first common school was organized by a com- 
mittee of citizens in March, 1853, and was taught by 
Rev. Horace Richardson. In June of the same year 
the committee opened another school in the Baptist 
Church and employed Orrin Hinds as teacher. 

Of those whom the discovery of gold brought to 
this coast, a large proportion were men of liberal edu- 
cation, many of them collegians and fitted to take 
the highest rank in the various professions. By rea- 
son of their intelligence and mental culture, these 
men were put to the front in public affairs. They 
determined that the new State should have every 
facility for popular education that could be afforded. 
Legislation on this subject commenced early and 
was characterized by a spirit of liberality, which was 



met with enthusiasm by the people at large. As a 
result of this legislation this county was, in 1855, di- 
vided into sixteen school districts. Having a large 
number of educnted men to draw on for a supply of 
teachers, the schools became wonderfully efficient 
from the start. The liberal salaries paid teachers at- 
tracted the best educational talent from the older 
States, and, almost from the very beginning, the com- 
mon schools of California took rank with the very best 
in the Union. Especially was this the case in Santa 
Clara County, where the liberal appropriations of the 
State were supplemented by equally liberal ones from 
the county funds, which enabled these schools to be 
at once placed in a most effective condition. The 
school statistics for 1888 show that Santa Clara 
County has seventy-three school districts, with one 
hundred and seventy-four teachers; that there are 
eleven thousand two hundred and fifty-nine school 
children between the ages of five and seventeen years, 
and that there are eighty public school buildings, 
erected at an average cost of about $5,000 each. The 
public school property is estimated at $436,072; the 
school libraries contain seventeen thousand one hun- 
dred and seventeen volumes, valued at $25,178. The 
schools are graded from primary departments to the 
High School, and the course of study includes all 
branches necessary to enable the pupil to matriculate 
at the State University. 

The city now owns the following principal school 
buildings: — 

Santa Clara Street School, containing eight rooms 
and assembly hall; built in 1867, at a cost of $22,000. 

Reed Street, or Third Ward School, eight rooms 
and assembly hall; built 1870; cost $16,000. 

Fourth Ward School, eight rooms and assembly 
hall; built 1874; cost $18,000. 

First Ward School, eight rooms and assembly hall; 
built 1875; cost $20,000. 

Second Ward, or Empire Street School, eight rooms 
and assembly hall; built 1877; cost $19,000. 

There are several smaller buildings at convenient 
points in the city, while another large house to cost 
$20,000 is about to be erected. 

THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Was established by an act of the Legislature, May 2, 
1862. It opened its doors with thirty-one pupils. It 
was located in San Francisco, where it occupied rooms 
in the public-school buildings of that city, first of the 
San Francisco High School, then rented rooms on 
Post Street, and afterwards at the Lii.coln Grammar 



144 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



School. Its usefulness in providing efficient teachers 
for the public schools of the State was soon recognized, 
and in 1870 an appropriation was made for the erec- 
tion of suitable buildings. One of the most memo- 
rable battles ever witnessed in the legislation of the 
State, occurred on the question of selecting a location 
for this institution. Nearly every county in the State 
offered a site, and some of them large subsidies in 
money. San Jose offered to give Washington Square, 
containing twenty-eight acres, for the use of the 
State, and this offer was accepted. A large and mag- 
nificent wooden building was erected under the super- 
vision of the architect, Mr. Theo. Lenzen. This build- 
ing, with all of its contents, including furniture, maps, 
charts, library, apparatus, and museum, was burned to 
the ground, February 11, 1880. The Legislature was 
then in session and a bill was immediately introduced 
into that body for an appropriation to rebuild, the 
school in the meantime occupying rooms in the High 
School building. 

An effort was made to change the location of the 
institution, and the fight of 1870 again came on with 
renewed vigor. But San Jose was again successful, 
and an appropriation was made with which the pres- 
ent magnificent building was erected. The number 
of students for the year 1887-88 was five hundred 
and ninety-seven; there were sixty-one in the gradu- 
ating class. 

SANTA CLARA COLLEGE. 

This institution is in the town of Santa Clara, 
near the old Mission Church, which is included in the 
grounds. It is a Catholic school, established by the 
Jesuits, through Father Nobili, in 1851, but was not 
incorporated and empowered to confer degrees until 
1855. Since that time its career has been one of prog- 
ress in all the branches of a liberal Christian educa- 
tion. Many of the most prominent men of the State 
claim her as tr///ia iiiatcr. The best educators of the 
famous Society of Jesus have occupied chairs in the 
faculty and have administered the affairs of the in- 
stitution in a manner that has given the Santa Clara 
College a world-wide reputation. Its curriculum does 
not stop with the ordinary college course, but em- 
braces the learned professions as well. When the hills 
and gulches of California were full of prospectors for 
the precious metals, the opinions of the Department 
of Metallurgy were sought for as absolute authority, 
while in the Departments of Agriculture and Horti- 
culture it has rendered equally valuable service to 
the State. Students from the Old World seek its 
academic shades to perfect themselves in specialties, 



while its halls are filled with young men of all classes 
and creeds. It stands on a historic spot, surrounded 
with the traditions of the days when the little band 
of devoted priests planted the banners of the church 
in this lovely valley, and laid the foundation of our 
present greatness. The original cross, erected in 1 877, 
still stands before its portals. 

COLLEGE OF NOTRE DAME. 
The massive buildings and beautiful grounds of the 
College of Notre Dame, standing in the heart of the 
populous city of San Jose, in no way indicate the 
small beginning from which they sprung. In 1844 
a band of devoted Sisters established a mission 
school in the Willamette Valley, in Oregon. In 185 1 
other Sisters of the Order started from Cincinnati to 
join in the work on the Willamette. They were to 
come by way of the Isthmus, and Sister Loyola of 
Nouvain, and Sister Mary of Nismes, came down 
from Oregon to San Francisco to meet them. Finding 
that they would be compelled to wait some time for 
the arrival of the vessel from Panama, these Sisters 
accepted the hospitality of Mr. Martin Murphy, and 
became his guests at his ranch near Mountain View. 
They looked through the valley and were charmed 
with its natural beauties and advantages. At this 
time Father Nobili was laying the foundations of 
Santa Clara College. He suggested that the Sisters 
should establish an educational institution here, and 
these suggestions were supplemented by the urgent 
entreaties of Mr. Murphy and other citizens. The 
Sisters were easily persuaded. They chose the 
present site for their buildings, purchasing at first a 
tract of ground 10134X137I feet. There was no 
Santa Clara Street then, and no improvements near 
them. San Jose had but twenty-six houses, and they 
were nearly all on Market Street, or further east. 
The ground was grown up with mustard and weeds, 
through which an acequia, or water-ditch, flowed slug- 
gishly. The only improvements were three adobe 
walls with a tile roof Whether or not the Sisters 
knew it at the time, they made a very shrewd selec- 
tion, the old mustard patch having become immensely 
valuable. Having made their choice of location, 
they did not delay their work. Mr. Goodrich, the 
architect, was employed, and by August their school 
was in operation. From this small beginning has 
risen one of the grandest educational institutions in 
the Union. The foundations of the present main 
building were laid in 1854, and the Sisters have added 
buildings from year to year, until they have reached 
their present dimensions. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



145 



UNIVERSITY OF THE PACIFIC. 
This institution was established in 1851, under the 
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church. For 
the first few years of its existence it had a hard strug- 
gle for life. It occupied buildings in the town of 
Santa Clara, working, watching, and waiting for a re- 
ward for its labors. In 1S66 the tract of land on the 
Alameda, known as the University tract, was subdi- 
vided into lots, with a site for the University reserved 
in the center. In 1871 the first building was com- 
pleted and the University established in its perma- 
nent home. The expense of the building absorbed 
all the funds, and the question of meeting current ex- 
penses and maintaining the efficiency of the institu- 
tion was a nightmare that continually haunted the 
trustees. In 1872, at the General Conference held in 
San Jose, a desperate effort was made for salvation. 
Eloquent appeals were made to the members of the 
Conference, and to the lay brethren, and to the friends 
of education generally. The result was that different 
sums were pledged by individuals, sufficient in the 
aggregate to make up a respectable endowment. 
With this the institution took a new lease of life and 
has prospered ever since. A new building, to be used 
as a boarding-house, was soon erected, and this was 
followed with other and more pretentious improve- 
ments. The first college class graduated from a 
classical course in the State of California was sent 
out from this institution in 1858. Hon. Thomas H. 
Laine, of San Jose, was a member of this class. The 
college course is open to males and females alike. 
The curriculum is complete, and the high position in 
the various walks of life taken by its alumni fully 
demonstrates the thoroughness of its discipline. 

GARDEN crry business college and academy. 

Prof H. B. Worcester, proprietor of the Garden 
City Business College and Academy, came to San 
Jose in the fall of 1876, and took charge of the Busi- 
ness College Department of the San Jose Institute 
for one term; and in January, 1877, opened a school 
for instruction in book-keeping, and for business train- 
ing, in his own private parlors. Eight years before, in 
1869, Prof James Vinsouhaler established a commer- 
cial college in San Jose, which he conducted success- 
fully until his death, in the spring of 1876. The 
business college was then connected with the Insti- 
tute, changing the name to Institute Business Col- 
lege. But the combination proved unsuccessful, and 
the school soon went down. After the collapse of the 
institute, Professor Worcester leased its building on 
19 



First and Devine Streets, in which he carried on his 
young and growing school till near the close of 1878. 
He then leased the hall in the Farmers' Union Build- 
ing, corner of Santa Clara and San Pedro Streets, 
and removed his school to it. There was at first con- 
siderable unoccupied room in the large hall, forty by 
eighty feet in area, but under the professor's able man- 
agement it .soon grew to the full capacity of the hall. 
Still thinking to improve and enlarge the facilities of 
the college. Professor Worcester leased the still more 
commodious quarters the college now occupies, known 
as Commercial Hall, at 59 South Market Street. 
The room is one hundred feet square, and is divided 
into a lecture-room, school-room, recitation-rooms and 
office. It is admirably lighted and in every way well 
adapted for the purpose, and is fitted up and fur- 
nished with all the furniture and appliances of a first- 
class commercial college, including desks and sittings 
for a hundred students. The attendance during the 
school year numbers from one hundred and fifty to 
two hundred. The business course embraces book- 
keeping, penmanship, arithmetic, business paper, com- 
mercial law, business correspondence, business prac- 
tice, lectures, and reading. The academic course in- 
cludes such studies and instruction as will fit the 
pupils to enter any of the literary colleges or universi- 
ties. Many of the graduates from the Garden City 
Business College are filling prominent positions in 
banks and other large business establishments. 

After obtaining his early education, Professor Wor- 
cester enlisted in the U S. Army, from which he was 
discharged at the end of two years' service on account 
of ill health. He took a course in Bryant & Strat- 
tan's Business College, and entered upon a career of 
twelve years of practical business life, at the end of 
which he was tendered the principalship of the Aurora 
Business College, in Aurora, Illinois. He filled this 
position from 1873 till 1875, when he resigned to come 
to California, to recover his wife's failing health. As 
an instructor in the school-room Professor Worcester 
has few equals. His methods are original, and his 
power to present facts and impart knowledge to the 
receptive mind, is peculiarly striking and impressive. 

LELAND STANFORD, JR., UNIVERSITY. 

In 1884 Senator Leland Stanford announced his 
intention of founding an institution of learning, as a 
monument to the memory of his deceased son, and to 
endow it with property valued, at that time, at $10,- 
000,000. The location selected for this great univer- 
sity was the famous Palo Alto Rancho, in tlic northern 



146 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



part of Santa Clara County. It was to be as com- 
plete in its scope as any of the noted universities of 
the Old World, with the modern idea of a thorough 
technical education in all the departments of art, me- 
chanics, agriculture, and horticulture. This idea was 
elaborated by consultation with eminent men, and on 
the twenty-first day of May, 1887, the corner-stone of 
the great institution was laid in the presence of the 
prominent men of the State. In the meantime the 
value of the property, constituting the endowment. 



had increased to nearly double the first estimate, and, 
with the rapid growth of the State, will be worth over 
$20,000,000 by the time the university is ready to re- 
ceive students. With this magnificent fund there will 
be no limit to the usefulness of the institution. It is 
not the province of this work to describe the buildings, 
which are of the most substantial character, and will 
endure when this book is forgotten. The work is being 
pushed rapidly forward by skilled workmen. 




^^^^^ 



CITY GOVEHMMENT. 



h^^^^^^ 




CITY OF SAN JOSE. 

IT was two years after the close of the war with 
Mexico and the cession of Alta California, before 
the city of San Jose had a government under the 
American system. Up to that time the Alcalde had 
been the chief executive officer, and the Ayuntamiento, 
or Town Council, had been the legislative body for the 
pueblo. This was the Spanish method, and had been 
continued by the Americans, who retained the system, 
but selected their own countrymen for Alcalde and 
members of the Ayuntamiento. 

An act to incorporate the city of San Jose was 
passed by the Legislature March 27, 1850, by which 
it was directed that the city government should con- 
sist of a mayor and seven councilmen, who were 
designated a " body politic and corporate," under 
the name of "The Mayor and Common Council of 
the City of San Jose." This name is still retained, 
notwithstanding all the changes that have been made 
in the charter since that time. By this act the city 
limits were fixed as follows: " Beginning on the east 
bank of the Coyote River, two miles south of the 
center of Washington Square, in the pueblo of San 
Jose, and running due west to the west bank of the 
San Jose River (Guadaloupe); thence following down 
the bank of said river to a point four miles distant 
in a straight line; thence due east to the east bank of 
the Coyote River; thence up the bank of said river 
to the place of beginning." The act also provided 
that an election for city officers should be held 
on the second Monday of April, and in each year 
thereafter. The election resulted in the choice of 
Josiah Belden as mayor, and F. B. Clement, Benj. 
Cory, James D. Curl, John H. Garrison, Peter 
Shereback, Julian Hanks, and William Foster, as 
councilmen. 

The first building used as a City Hall was the old 
juzgado, but in 1S50 this building was torn down and 
the seat of city government was located in an adobe 



building on what is now Lightston Alley, where it 
remained until the City Hall on Market Street was 
completed, in 1855. 

The first city tax was levied July 1 1, 1850, and was 
one per cent on the assessed value of all property. 

The first council voted themselves pay at the rate 
of sixteen dollars per day, against the protest of Benj. 
Cory. This pay ordinance was repealed in December 
of the same year. Dr. Cory presenting the motion for 
repeal, in which he was sustained by the almost unan- 
imous sentiment of the people, and a bare majority 
of the common council. 

The first order looking to the improvement of 
streets was on December 2, 1850, which provided for 
sidewalks on First Street, from the north end of the 
City Hotel to San Fernando Street; on Santa Clara 
Street, from First to Market; on Market, from Santa 
Clara to San Fernando; on the south side of San 
Fernando, from Market to First; on San Jose Street, 
from south end of the legislative hall to San Fernando 
Street. These sidewalks were to be of "the best inch- 
and-quarter pine, red or fir wood, with well-made 
gravel crossings, and of five feet in width;" one-half 
the expense to be borne by the property owners. 

The income of the city for the first year of its in- 
corporation was $37,359.30, and its expenditures 
amounted to $37,106.04. The expenses included a 
debt of $7,500 handed down to it from the Ayunta- 
miento of the previous year. 

There was considerable difficulty in straightening 
out the complications arising from the purchase of the 
property known as the State House, as related in a 
previous chapter. The city, having purchased it from 
the trustees, Aram, Belden, and Reed, had it on hands 
when the capital was removed from San Jose. Soon 
after that event, the city sold it to the county for the 
location of county buildings. The trustees, not hav- 
ing been paid, asserted a claim, and there were also 
filed on the building mechanics' liens to a large 

(147) 



148 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



amount. The title was sought to be clouded in all 
directions, and was so tangled up that it was not until 
1853 that the sale to the county was fully completed. 
There seemed to have been an understanding that the 
money received from the county should be paid to the 
trustees, Messrs. Aram, Belden, and Reed, but this 
was not done; hence the litigation related in our 
chapter on land titles. 

The city was divided into four wards in April, 1853, 
and a fire warden appointed for each ward. An ap- 
propriation of $2,000 for fire apparatus was also 
made. 

In 1855 the office of captain of police was created, 
and delegates to the Fire Department were also pro- 
vided for. 

April 16, 1855, the mayor and common council 
held its first session in the new City Hall, on Market 
Street. 

In the earlier years of the city's existence it was 
compelled to struggle with a large debt, which, be- 
ginning with the burden imposed by the preparations 
for the first Legislature (a legacy from the old Ayun- 
tamiento), increased from year to year. The high 
prices of materials and labor rendered any kind of 
public improvements a costly undertaking, while the 
small amount of taxable property gave an income 
much too small for the necessities of the young mu- 
nicipality. Warrants on the city treasury were not 
paid, for want of funds, and as each year's tax was col- 
lected disputes arose as to whether it should be ap- 
plied to the whole floating debt pro rata, or each 
warrant paid in full in order of its issuance. How- 
ever this question might be decided, it was sure to 
give dissatisfaction to a large number of citizens. 
Added to this was the more serious trouble of provid- 
ing for the absolute wants of the city. People would 
neither furnish materials nor perform labor for city 
warrants without adding to the current prices a sum 
sufficient to cover interest for an indefinite time. As 
the usual rate of interest in tho.e days was three per 
cent per month, the debt increased with race-horse 
speed, while the income came in halting at a snail's 
pace. Finally, in 1856, the Legislature passed an act 
authorizing the city to fund its floating debt by the 
issuance of bonds to the amount of $40,000, to bear 
interest at the rate of twelve per cent per annum. 
To perform this work the mayor, president of the 
council, and city treasurer were constituted a "Board 
of Commissioners of the Funded Debt of the City of 
San Jose." The existence of Ihis Board was limited 
to the following July. They issued a portion of the 



bonds provided for, which gavea temporary relief; but 
in 1858 the city was again in financial straits, and the 
Legislature again came to its aid. By an act passed 
in that year it revived the Board of Fund Commis- 
sioners, appointing on the Board Wm. Daniels, Thos. 
Fallon, and James C. Cobb, vacancies to be filled by 
appointment by the city trustees. The new Board 
was authorized to issue bonds enough to cover the 
full amount of $40,000 provided by the former act, 
and, to assist in the payment of these bonds, the city 
trustees were authorized to convey to these commis- 
sioners all the city's right and title to the pueblo lands 
and other property. The bonds were to be paid by 
1866. It was under this act that the proceedings were 
had which are related in our chapter on land titles, and 
which resulted in the confirmation to the city of the 
large body of pueblo lands, and which enabled the 
commissioners to extinguish the entire indebtedness 
of the city. This latter event was accomplished in 
1865. This financial experience of the city was the 
cause of incorporating in one of the early charters a 
provision to the eff"ect that the common council should 
create no debt upon the credit of the city. For more 
than twenty-two years this proposition was adhered 
to, and San Jose was the only city of its class in the 
Union that had no debt of any kind whatever. 

A public meeting of citiz .'ns was held January 24, 
1857, to take measures towards reconstructing the 
city charter. It was declared the opinion of the meet- 
ing that the old charter should be abolished. A com- 
mittee was appointed to draft a new charter. At a 
subsequent meeting Wm. Matthews presented amend- 
ments to the old charter, which were adopted. An 
act embodying these amendments was passed by the 
Legislature, but vetoed by the Governor; but, March 
27, another act was passed, which the Governor 
signed, and the new charter was accomplished. Un- 
der the new system, the government of the city was 
vested in five trustees, a treasurer, a clerk and asses- 
sors, and a collector. 

An ordinance authorizing Geo. Wheeler and John 
Ashley to lay gas-pipes in the streets was passed 
January 11, 1858. Nothing ever came of this enter- 
prise. 

In July, i860, James Hagan secured a franchise 
from the city for this purpose. On the twenty-first 
day of January, i86i,the first lights were given. This 
is the origin of the present San Jose Gas Company. 
There were then only ei:_;hty-four consumers and 
seven street lights. The consumption of gas for the 
first year was one hundred and sixty-five thousand 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



149 



cubic feet, which consumed three thousand six hun- 
dred and fifty tons of coal in its manufacture. 

Oak Hill Cemetery has been the burying-ground for 
the city since its incorporation, as it had been for the 
pueblo for some years prior to that time. In 1858 
an ordinance was passed fixing rates at which the 
burial lots should be sold, and prescribing rules for 
the government of the cemetery. Adjacent property 
has been acquired from time to time. 

Jasper D. Gunn, who had for five years been city 
marshal, absconded, having embezzled $2,700 of the 
city's money. Gunn was tried and acquitted of the 
criminal charge, but his bondsmen were sued by the 
cit)' and judgment obtained against them. 

In Burton's apportionment of pueblo lands, certain 
lots had been reserved for school purposes. These 
lots had been assessed for taxation, and had been 
sold, for non-payment of taxes, to private persons. 
In 1863 the common council concluded that all these 
sales were illegal, and sought to recover the lots. To 
this end it employed W. T. Wallace to bring suits 
in ejectment against those in possession, the fee to 
be $8,000. Immediately after this contract was made, 
the regular city election came on, and a new council 
was elected. The mayor in his message said: "The 
tenure by which these lots and land are held is known 
to you all. It is known that the city did adopt pre- 
liminary measures to set apart this land for school 
purposes; but it is further known that all the acts of 
our city government, from that time up to the action 
of our late council, have been of such a character as 
to afford the most undoubted evidence that it did 
not consider that 'setting apart' of said lots and 
land as legal or morally binding upon itself; hence 
they had taxed them, and caused them to be sold for 
the payment of taxes. The common council and 
the commissioners of the Funded Debt have sold, 
and by deed vested individuals with full ownership 
of, a large part of this land, and, so far as plighted 
faith and the sacredness of moral obligations can be 
binding upon a municipality like ours, the individual 
rights to this land and these lots thus derived, vested, 
and secured, ought to be held forever undoubted and 
inviolate." The council was of the same opinion, and 
canceled the contract with Wallace. He brought 
suit against the city to recover his fee. He secured 
a judgment in the Third District Court, but the city 
appealed to the Supreme Court, which reversed this 
judgment, and the plaintiff recovered nothing. 

Donald McKenzie was granted permission, in May, 
1864, to lay water-pipes in the streets of the city. 



This was the beginning of the San Jose Water Com- 
pany. 

In 1866 Washington and St. James' Squares were 
fenced, and Market Plaza graded. The latter square 
was afterward finely improved, but the location of 
Chinatown, on San Jose Street, prevented its being 
a popular resort. 

In 1879 an act was passed by the Legislature 
authorizing the city to open Market Street through 
the plaza, and close San Jose and Guadaloupe Streets, 
and sell the vacant lands adjoining Market Street 
as opened. There was so much opposition to this 
that the street commis ioner saw fit to accomplish 
his work in the dark. The people awoke one morn- 
ing to find the trees and shrubbery in the line of the 
street cut down and destroyed. The square reinained 
in a dilapidated condition for several years. Finally 
the street was improved, but none of the adjoining 
lots were sold. It was selected, after the burning of 
Chinatown, in 1887, as the site for the new City Hall. 
The heirs of Antonio Maria Pico have, from time to 
time, claimed this property on the ground that it was 
granted to the pueblo by their ancestor to be used 
as a plaza, and was forfeited when that use ceased. 
The claim of the Pico heirs has never caused any 
uneasiness in regard to the title to the square. 

Some spasmodic attempts were made toward the 
improvement of Washington Square, but, besides 
inclosing it with a wooden fence, in 1866, planting a 
few trees and making a circular drive in 1869, nothing 
of moment was accomplished. In 1871 it was granted 
to the State as a site for the Normal School, and has 
been under that jurisdiction ever since. 

The improvement of St. James' Square was more 
vigorously pressed. In 1869, some of the trees hav- 
ing been planted two years previously, a systematic 
system was adopted. The grounds were laid out 
into walks, grass was planted, and a superintendent 
was employed. This system was modified and im- 
proved in the winter of 1887-88, when it was brought 
to its present beautiful condition. 

In a work of this character it would be neither 
profitable nor interesting to record, in detail, all the 
work of the city government during its existence. 
The city records are sufficiently full and explicit to 
afford all necessary information in this regard. While 
it was considered a remarkably good thing to be able 
to say that the city owed no one a penny, the clause 
in the charter forbidding the council to create any 
debt often became a cause of embarrassment to the 
city government. The rapid growth of the city 



150 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



created a demand for extraordinary expenses, which 
could not be made without a large increase in the 
rate of taxation. The channels of the streams needed 
to be improved, so as to prevent overflow. A system 
of sewerage was necessary, and there was a rapidly 
growing demand for increased school facilities. A 
tax sufficient to meet these requirements would have 
been a burden against which the people would have 
protested. An attempt was made in 1874 to break 
over the rule prescribed in the charter. A resolution 
was adopted by the council, directing the drafting of 
a bill to be presented to the Legislature, authorizing 
the city to issue bonds to the amount of $40,000, the 
proceeds to be used for the building of school-houses. 
The bonds were to run twenty years, and bear eight 
per cent interest. Nothing further was done in the 
matter, however, and it rested until 1880. At the 
city election held that year the matter of issuing 
bonds was submitted to the people, in connection 
with other propositions. These propositions and the 
result of the vote are as follows: To incur a debt to 
build the new City Hall — for, 842; against, 1,096. 
To open Second Street through St. James' Square — 
for, 192; against, 1,649. To establish a free public 
library — for, 1,232; against, 605. 

This disposed of the question of a city debt for 
another six years. In 1886 a proposition was sub- 
mitted to the people at a special election, asking for 
the issuance of bonds for the following purposes: — 

Public sewers $150,000 

A new city hall 100,000 

Iron bridges 25,000 

Improvement of squares 7>500 

Improvement of streets I7i50° 

Total $300,000 

It required a two-thirds vote to carry any of these 
propositions, and they were all lost. Within twelve 
months, however, the people experienced a change of 
heart. The great tide of immigration that was flow- 
ng into the southern country had attracted the at- 
tention of the San Jose Board of Trade, which was 
making strenuous efforts to turn the stream in this 
direction. Another effort was made to bring up the 
improvements of the city. Public meetings were 
held, and the common council petitioned to call an 
election, asking the people to vote for or against the 
issuance of bonds for the following purposes: — 

Completing the mam sewer $150,000 

Branch sewers 13S.000 

Building new city hall 150,000 

Cross walks and parks 50,000 

Wooden bridges 1 5,000 

Total $500,000 



The vote was in the affirmative on all these propo- 
sitions. The bonds were issued payable in twenty 
years, and bearing interest at five per cent. The bonds 
were sold to Mr. A. Sutro, who paid one-eighth of 
one per cent premium. 

Early in 1888 it was discovered that the election 
which authorized the issuance of these bonds was not 
held strictly in accordance with the statute. The 
irregularity claimed was that the notice was one day 
short of the time required by law. There was some 
difference of opinion as to whether or not this was a 
fatal error, but the purchaser of the bonds did not de- 
sire to leave the matter undecided, and asked that it 
be settled. There was a proposition to make up an 
agreed case, and submit it to the courts for adjudica- 
tion, and another proposition to call a new election, 
issue new bonds, and cancel the old ones. The latter 
method was considered to be somewhat hazardous. 
The people had three times rejected the proposal to 
create a debt against the city, and there was a chance 
t at a two-thirds vote might not be again obtained. 
A result of this kind would have been most disastrous, 
inasmuch as it would not only stop all the improve- 
ments that had been commenced, but would have been 
a breach of faith that would have destroyed the repu- 
tation of the municipality. This latter consideration, 
however, was not seriously entertained by many of the 
citizens, the majority holding to the opinion that al- 
though the people might be opposed to incurring a 
debt, they were not only willing but anxious to pay 
any obligation honestly incurred, and would not take 
refuge behind any legal technicality to avoid a just re- 
sponsibility. This opinion was fully confirmed. A 
new election was called, and the proposition to issue 
new bonds carried by a practically unanimous vote. 
The new bonds were issued, and the old ones burned 
in the presence of the mayor and common council and 
a large concourse of citizens. 

During the last few years, preceding 1888, much in- 
convenience was experienced from the fact that the ex- 
isting charter was not broad enough for the city. San 
Jose had grown rapidly, and was developing necessi- 
ties that were not provided for in the old municipal 
constitution. The new constitution of the State, which 
prohibited local legislation, and the statutes enacted 
under it, prevented amendments after the old manner. 
Pursuant to the new order of things, at the regular 
city election held in April, 1888, a board of fifteen 
freeholders were elected, who were authorized to frame 
a new charter for the city. The following-named cit- 
izens constituted the Board: L. Archer, C. W. Brey- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



151 



fogle, J. H. Campbell, A. W. Crandall, G. E. Graves, 

A. Greeninger, V. Koch, L. Lion, B. D. Murphy, D. 

B. Moody, H. Messing, C. L. Metzger, John Reynolds, 
John W. Ryland, D. C. Vestal. These gentlemen 
prepared a charter and submitted it July 6, 1888. It 
will be voted on by the people at the next general 
election, or at such other time as the council may 
dictate. 

. The city limits have not been materially changed 
since the first incorporation. Following is their de- 
scription as they now exist: Beginning on the center 
line of Second Street, at a point one mile and 
a half southeasterly from its intersection with the 
center line of San Fernando Street; thence running 
in a straight line parallel with San Fernando Street to 
the center of the Coyote Creek; thence down follow- 
ing the center of said creek to its intersection with a 
line drawn through the center of Rosa Street; thence 
along said line through the center of Rosa Street in a 
straight course to a point forty rods southwesterly 
from the west bank of the river Guadaloupe; thence 
in a straight line to a point in the center line of San 
Fernando Street, produced forty rods southwesterly 
from the said west bank of the river Guadaloupe; 
thence in a straight line parallel with Second Street 
to a point that a line drawn from it to the place of 
beginning will be parallel with San Fernando Street; 
thence along said line to the place of beginning. 

The division of the city into wards has never been 
changed since the order of the council in 1853, which 
created four fire wards, as follows: First Ward, north 
of Santa Clara Street and west of First Street; Sec- 
ond Ward, north of Santa Clara Street and east of 
First Street; Third Ward, South of Santa Clara Street 
and east of First Street; Fourth Ward, south of Santa 
Clara Street and west of First Street. 

In 1884 the system of street numbering was changed 
to the present method, which is as follows: Santa 
Clara Street is the starting-point, being number one; 
thence north and south in regular order, in each di- 
rection, with one hundred numbers to each block. 
Each number is designated as being either north or 
south. 

Following is a list of all the city officers from the 
first election in 1850 to the present time: — 
1850. 

Josiah Belden, mayor; Thos. B. Gadden, clerk. 
Councilmen — F. B. Clement, Benjamin Cory, James D. 
Curl, John H. Garrison, Peter Sherback, Julian Hanks, 
William Foster. 



1851. 

Thos. W. White, mayor; Joseph Simpson, clerk; F. 
Lightston, tieasurer; John H. Watson, attorney; C. 
E. Allen, assessor; G. N. Whitman, city marshal. 
Councilmen — Joseph Aram, J. B. Devoe, Benjamin 
Cory, H. C. Melone, Josiah Belden, J. D. Hoppe, J. 
M. Murphy. 

1852. 

Thos. W. White, mayor; E. P. Reed, clerk; A. J. 
Yates, treasurer; F. S. Mclvinncy, attorney; J. M. 
Williams, assessor; Geo. Hale, marshal. Council- 
men — Joseph Aram, J, B. Devoe, Benj. Cory, H. C. 
Melone, Josiah Belden, J. D. Hoppe, J. M. Murphy. 

1853- 

Thos. W. White, mayor; E. P. Reed, clerk; Thos. 
Vermeule, treasurer; F. S. McKinney, attorney; E. P. 
Reed, assessor; Geo. Hale, marshal. Councilmen — 
J. C. Emerson, P. O. Minor, Benj. Cory, J. H. Watson, 
Levi Goodrich, M. W. Packard, J. M. Williams. 

1854. 
■ Thos. W. White, mayor; E. P. Reed, clerk and as- 
sessor; Thos. Vermeule, treasurer; A. C. Campbell, 
attorney; Geo. Hale, marshal. Councilmen — Jos. 
Aram, W. M. Stafford, F. Lightston, J. M. Murphj-, 
Chas. Moody, J. McGill, S. O. Houghton 
1855. 

S. O. Houghton, mayor; E. P. Reed, clerk and 
assessor; J. H. Moore, treasurer; T. E. Soublette, 
marshal. Councilmen — Wm. Daniels, A. S. Beaty, 
S. M. Cutler, J. M. Murphy, P. O. Minor, C. Martin, 
R. G. Moody. 

1856. 

Lawrence Archer, mayor; E. P. Reed, clerk and 
assessor; j. H. Moore, treasurer; F. S. McKinney, at- 
torney; T. E. Soublette, marshal; Eli Corwin, super- 
intendent of schools. Councilmen — Thos. Fallon, 
C. W. Pomeroy, S. M. Cutler, John B. Price, Levi 
Goodrich, J. M. Murphy, Givens George. 
1857. 

In this year the city government was organized as 
a Board of Trustees, the president of the Board being 
ex-officio mayor. 

R. G. Moody, mayor; Chapman Yates, clerk and 
assessor; T. H. Moore, treasurer; T. E. Soublette, 
marshal; Eli Corwin, superintendent of schools. Trus- 
tees — Thomas Fallon, Wm. Daniels, T. C. Cobb, 
Marcus Williams. 

1858. 

P. O. Minor, mayor; Chapman Yates, clerk; J. H. 
Moore, treasurer; Wm. R. Davis, assessor; T. E. 



152 



PEN PICTURES FRO 31 THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



Soublette, marshal; Eli Corvvin, superintendent of 
schools. Trustees — C. W. Pomeroy, A. Pfister, T. 
P. Martin, N. B. Edwards. 

1859. 

City government organized again as mayor and 
common council. Thos. Fallon, mayor; Wm. R. 
Davis, clerk and assessor; Frank Grant, treasurer; J. 
D. Gunn, city marshal; Eli Corwin, superintendent of 
schools. Councilmen — C. W. Pomeroy, A. Pfister, 
J. M. Williams, James Morrison, R. G. Moody. 
i860. 

R. B. Buckner, mayor; J. V. Tisdall, clerk; L. P. 
Peck, treasurer, W. R. Davis, assessor; J. D. Gunn, 
marshal ; Robert Thomson, superintendent of schools. 
Councilmen — J. R. Lowe, J. R.Wilson, Arthur Shearer, 
Adam Holloway, S. D. Gavitt. 
1861. 

J. W. Johnson, mayor; J. R. Lowe, Jr., clerk; L. 
P. Peck, treasurer; A. M. Younger, assessor; J. D. 
Gunn, marshal; R. P. Thomson, superintendent of 
schools. Councilmen — J. R. Lowe, W. W. McCoy, 
C. T. Ryland, Adam Holloway, J. M. Williams. 
1862. 

J. W. Johnson, mayor; J. R. Lowe, clerk; L. P. 
Peck, treasurer ; A. Campbell, treasurer; S.W.Smith, 
assessor; W. S. Patterson, marshal; C. T. Healy, en- 
gineer; L. Hamilton, superintendent of schools. 
Councilmen— E. J. Wilcox, W. O'Donnell, C. D. 
Cheney, Adam Holloway, Thomas Bodley. 
1863. 

J. A. Quinby, mayor; J. T. Calahan, clerk and 
assessor; D. B. Moody, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, 
attorney; J. C. Potter, marshal; L. Hamilton, superin- 
tendent of schools. Councilmen — C. W. Pomeroy, 
Jesse Hobson, John Bonner, C. Yates, D. J. Porter, 
L. Magenheimer. 

1864. 

John Quinby, mayor; J. T. Calahan, clerk and 
assessor; D. B. Moody, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, 
attorney; J. C. Potter, marshal; L. Hamilton, super- 
intendent of schools. Councilmen — C. W. Pomeroy, 
Jes.se Hobson, John Bonner, J. M. Cory, D.J.Porter, 
L. Magenheimer. 

1865. 

John A. Quinby, mayor; J. T. Calahan, clerk and 
assessor; C. Yates, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attorney; 
J. C. Potter, marshal: D. S. Payne, superintendent of 
schools. Councilmen — C. W. Pomeroy, Jesse Hob- 
son, John Bonner, J. M. Cory, D. J. Porter, L. 
Magenheimer. 



1866, 

John A. Quinby, mayor; J. T. Calahan, clerk and 
assessor; C. Yates, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attorney ; 
A. B. Hamilton, marshal; W. C. Hart, superintendent 
of schools. Councilmen — C. W. Pomeroy, Abram 
King, J. A. Clayton, J. M. Cory, D. J. Porter, L. 
Magenheimer. 

1867. 

J. A. Quinby, mayor; J. T. Calahan, clerk and as- 
sessor; C. Yates, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attorney; 
A. B. Hamilton, marshal; J. H. Pieper, engineer; W. 

C. Hart, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — 
China Smith, Abram King, J. A. Clayton, J. M. Cory, 

D. J. Porter, J. A. Leighton. 

1868. 
M. Leavenworth, mayor; J. T. Calahan, clerk and 
assessor; C. Yates, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attorney; 
A. B. Hamilton, marshal; J. H. Pieper, engineer; J. 
M. Littlefield, superintendent of schools. Council- 
men — China Smith, John Balbach, J. R. Hall, Charles 
Otter, D. J. Porter, J. A. Leighton. 

1869. 
M. Leavenworth, mayor; J. T. C dahan, clerk and 
assessor; H. O. Weller, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, at- 
torney; Wm. Sexton, marshal; J. H. Pieper, engineer; 
Chas. Silent, superintendent of schools. Councilmen 
— D. C. Vestal, John Balbach, D. C. Bailey, Chas. 
Otter, D. J. Porter, D. T. A.lams. 

1 870. 
Adolph Pfister, mayor; John T. Calahan, clerk and 
assessor; H. O. Weller, trcasur -r; F. E. Spencer, at- 
torney; Wm. Sexton, marshal; J. H. Pieper, engineer; 
W. C. Hart, superintendent of schools. Councilmen 
— A. P. Hulsc, Frank Lewis, D. C. Bailey, J. J. Denny, 
D. J. Porter, D. T. Adams. 

1871. 
Adolph Pfister, mayijr; John T. Calaiian, clerk and 
assessor; C. Yates, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attorney; 
Wm. Sexton, marshal; J. H. Pieper, engineer; W. B. 
Hardy, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — A. 
P. Hulse, S. N. Johnson, Frank Lewis, Robt. Page, 
J. J. Denny, L. Krumb. 

1872. 
Adolph Pfister, mayor; J. T. Calahan, clerk and 
assessor; W. A. January, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, 
attorney; Wm. Sexton, marshal; J. H. Pieper, engi- 
neer; E. A. Clark, superintendent of schools. Coun- 
cilmen — D. C. Vestal, S. N. Johnston, Frank Levvi.s, 
Robert Page, J. J. Conmy, L. Krumb. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



153 



1873. 
B. D. Murphy, mayor; M. Maze, clerk and assessor; 
W. A. January, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attorney-; A. 

B. Hamilton, marshal; J. H. Pieper, engineer; E. A. 
Clark, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — D. 

C. Vestal, C. S. Crydenwise, Frank Lewis, John 
McCune, J. J. Conmy, A. Greeninger. 

1S74. 

B. D. Murphy, mayor; M. Maze, clerk and assessor; 
W. A. January, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attorney; J. 
V. Tisdall, chief of police; J. H. Pieper, engineer; J. 
O. Hawkins, superintendent of schools. Council- 
men — W. O. Barker, C. S. Crydenwise, Frank Lewis, 
John McCune, A. Lake, A. Greeninger, W. F. Ellis, 
J. Lenzen. 

1875- 

B. D. Murphy, mayor; Wm. Castle, clerk and as- 
sessor; W. A. January, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attor- 
ney; J. V. Tisdall, chief of police; J. H. Pieper, engi- 
neer; L. F. Chipman, superintendent of schools. 
Councilmen — G. W. Lowery, W. O. Barker, J. Swei- 
gert, Frank Lewis, D. Hellyer, A. Greeninger, W. F. 
Ellis, J. Lenzen. 

1S76. 

B. D. Murphy, mayor; Wm. Castle, clerk and as- 
sessor; J. A. Lotz, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attorney; 
J. V. Tisdall, chief of police; J. H. Pieper, engineer; 
L. F. Chipman, superintendent of schools. Council- 
men — A. L. Bascom, G. W. Lowery, J. Sweigert, M. 
Hale, Geo. B. McKee, A. Greeninger, D. C. Vestal, 

D. Hellyer. 

1877. 

B. D. Murphy, mayor; W. N. Castle, clerk and as- 
sessor; J. A. Lotz, treasurer; J. V. Tisdall, chief of 
police; J. H. Pieper, engineer; F. E. Spencer, attor- 
ney; L. F. Chipman, superintendent of schools. 
Councilmen — Sol. Easterday, J. Y. McMillan, Theo- 
dore Gebler, A. L. Bascom, A. Greeninger, M. Hale, 
G. B. McKee, D. C. Vestal. 
1878. 

Lawrence Archer, mayor; W. N. Castle, clerk and 
assessor; Jos. A. Lotz, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, at- 
torney; D. N. Haskell, chief of police; W. O. Brey- 
fogle, street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; 
Jas. G. Kennedy, superintendent of schools. Coun- 
cilmen — B. H. Cottle, Sol. Easterday, Theo. Gebler, A. 
Greeninger, H. C. Kaiser, C. L. Kennedy, C. J. Mar- 
tin, J. Y. McMillan. In this year the city clerk ab- 
sconded and Charles Keane was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. 
20 



1879. 

Lawrence Archer, mayor; W. F. Ellis, clerk and 
assessor; J. A. Lotz, treasurer; F. E. Spencer, attor- 
ney; D. N. Haskell, chief of police; W. O. Brcyfogle, 
street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; J. G. 
Kennedy, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — 
R. S. Carter, Denis Corkery, B. H. Cottle, S. Grozelier, 
H. C. Kaiser, C. L. Kennedy, C. J. Martin, J. Y. Mc- 
Millan. 

^ 1880. 

B. D. Murphy, mayor; W. F. Ellis, clerk and as- 
sessor; J. A. Lotz, treasurer; D. W. Herrington, attor- 
ney; D. N. Haskell, chief of police; W. O. Brey- 
fogle, street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; T. 
B. Finch, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — 
R. S. Carter, D. Corkery, S. Grozelier, H. C. Kaiser, 
A. King, C. J. Martin, J. Y. McMillan, C. T. Settle. 
1S81. 

B. D. Murphy, mayor; W. F. EUis, clerk and as- 
sessor; J. A Lotz, treasurer; D. W. Herrington, attor- 
ney; D. N. Haskell, chief of police; W. O. Breyfogle, 
street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; A. W. 
Oliver, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — H. 
H. Anderson, S. Grozelier, H. C. Kaiser, C. L. Ken- 
nedy, A. King, C. J. Martin, H. Messing, C. T. Settle. 

1882. 

C. J Martin, mayor; W. F. Ellis, clerk and assessor; 
A. C. Bane, treasurer; D. W. Herrington, attorney; 
W. B. Shoemaker, chief of police; D. H. Kelsey, 
street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; J. G. 
Kennedy, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — 
H. H. Anderson, A. De Long, S. Grozelier, V. Koch, 
H. Messing, Homer Prindle, A. Sauffrignon, C. L. 
Kennedy. 

18S3. 

C.J. Martin, mayor; W. F. Ellis, clerk and assessor; 
A. C. Bane, treasurer; D. W. Herrington, attorney; 
W. B. Shoemaker, chief of police; D. H. Kelsey, 
street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; J. G. 
Kennedy, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — C. 
L. Kennedy, W. H. McCarthy, P. O'Brien, VV. F. 
Hughes, V. Koch, H. Prindle, A. Sauffrignon, A. Ue 
Long. De Long resigned and F. E. Smith was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy. 

1 884. 

C. T. Settle, mayor; W. F. Ellis, clerk and assessor; 
John R. Wilson, treasurer; D. W. Herrington, attorney; 
W. D. Brown, chief of police; John Purccll, street 
commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; J. G. Kennedy 
superintendent of schools. Councilmen — A. G. Ben- 



154 



rEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



nett, C. S. Crydenwise, C. L. Kennedy, V. Koch, 
W. H. McCarthy, W. R. McKannay, P. O'Brien, W. 
F. Hughes. 

1885. 

C. T. Settle, mayor; Thos. Bodley, clerk and as- 
sessor; Ji o. R. Wilson, treasurer; D. W. Herrington, 
attorney; W. D. Brown, chief of police; John Purcell, 
street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; L. F. 
Curtis, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — A. 
G.Bennett, C. S. Crydenwise, (J. L. Kennedy, V. 
Koch, W. H. McCarthy, W. R. McKannay, G. W. 
Jame^, Fred Zung. 

1886. 

C. W. Breyfogle, mayor; Thos. Bodley. clerk and 
assessor; J no. R. Wilson, treasurer; D. W.Herrington, 
attorney; W. D. Brown, chief of police; John Purcell, 
street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; L. F. 
Curtis, superintendent of schools. Councilmen — R. 
B. Dunlap, S. Grozelier, G. W. James, F. Zung, W. H. 
McCarthy, D. McGinley, C. L. Kennedy, Homer 
Prindle. Kennedy resigned and Geo. Evans was 
appointed to fill the vacancy. 
1887. 

C. W. Breyfogle, mayor; Thos. Bodley, clerk and 
assessor; J no. R. Wilson, treasurer; D. W. Herring- 
ton, attorney; W. D. Brown, chief of police; John 
Purcell, street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; 
F. P. Russell, superintendent of schools. Council- 
men— R. B. Dunlap, S. Grozelier, O. A. Hale, D. Mc- 
Ginley, Homer Prindle, J. D. Roberts, F. Stern, P. 
Warkentin. Prindle resigned and G. W. James, was 
appointed to fill the vacancy. 
1888. 

S. W. Boring, mayor; Thos. Bodley, clerk and as- 
sessor; Jos. F. Columbet, treasurer; D. W. Herring- 
ton, attorney; W. D. Brown, chief of police; John 
Purcell, street commissioner; J. H. Pieper, engineer; 
F. P. Russell, superintendent of schools. Council- 
men— P. Warkentin, C. M. Schiele, F. M. Stern, A. B. 
Hunter, O. A. Hale, Geo. B. Dittus, John D. Roberts, 
Wm. Petry. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

The first official action, of which we have record, 
looking toward the protection of property from 
fire, was taken by the mayor and common council 
July 1 1, 1850, when it established the first fire limits as 
follows: Commencing at the center of Second and St. 
James Streets; thence along Second to San Carlos; 
thence along San Carlos to the Acequia; thence along 
the Acequia to a point that would intersect the pro- 
longation of St. James Street; thence along St. James 



Street to the place of beginning. At the same time 
it was ordered that within these limits there should be 
erected no edifice composed of canvas, willow, cotton 
cloth, tules, mustard, reeds or other grassy substances, 
under a penalty of not less than twenty-five nor more 
than two hundred dollars; also forbade the mainte- 
nance of hay-stacks, unless suitably guarded, under a 
like penalty. The word "edifice," used in the order 
of the mayor and common council, seems a little out 
of place when applied to tents and huts, such as are 
here described. 

About this time a volunteer fire company was 
formed, called "Fire Engine Company No. i." This 
was a misnomer, as there was no engine or other 
apparatus in the county. The company seems to 
have realized this, as in the same year it changed its 
name to " Eureka Fire Company No. i." The mem- 
bers made application to the common council for an 
engine. But as there was no fire machinery to be 
had on the coast, and the city had no money to pur- 
chase with t ven if the machine had been procurable, 
the company was compelled to work with buckets 
and such rude appliances as they could reach. What 
it lacked in apparatus, however, it made up in en- 
thusiasm, and accomplished much good. The inflam- 
mable nature of the materials of which the buildings 
weie constructed rendered it almost an impossibility 
to extinguish a fire, but this same frailty of construc- 
tion enabled the firemen to destroy connections and 
prevent the spread of conflagrations. The most 
notable fires during the existence of this company 
were the burning of the house of Samuel C. Young, 
on Third Street, supposed to have been caused by 
rats igniting matches, and the destruction of the old 
State House. The latter event occurred in March, 
1853, and demonstrated the imperative necessity of 
more adequate protection. Prior to this time the 
city government seemed to think that private enter- 
prise would take this responsibility from the council- 
This opinion is based on a clause of Mayor White's 
message of 185 1, in which he says: " I would respect- 
fully urge that a fire department be immediately 
organized, and, if necessary, that an engine and other 
apparatus be procured; but there is reason to believe 
that the public spirit of our citizens will render any 
outlay by the city in this matter unnecessary." 

Having thus relegated the matter to the " public 
spirit of the citizens," the matter rested until 1853, 
when the council passed an ordinance dividing the 
city into four fire wards, and appointed the following 
persons as fire wardens: For District No. i, M. W- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



155 



. Alvin C. Campbell; No. 3, A. S- 
4, Peter Davidson. At the same 



Packard ; No. : 
Woodford ; No, 
time an appropriation was made of $2,000 for the 
purchase of a fire engine, with hooks and ladders, 
the president of the council being authorized to 
draw warrants and orders in such sums as he should 
deem advisable and pay the same over to the com- 
mittee of citizens that should be selected by the 
people. 

As a result of this action, Hook and Ladder Com- 
pany No. I was organized in the latter part of 1853, 
and on January 6, 1854, it notified the council of its 
organization and asked for an appropriation for the 
purchase ol apparatus. The matter was referred to 
a committee, which was instructed to confer with the 
foreman and draw up an ordinance covering the 
matter contained in the memorial. The committee 
was also authorized to secure the lease of a suitable 
lot on which to erect a building for the accommoda- 
tion of the company. The committee reported that 
Frank Lightston had agreed to let a lot for the nom- 
inal rent of twenty-five cents per annum, if the com- 
mittee would erect suitable buildings within twelve 
months. The lease was effected and the old engine 
house on Lightston Street, for so many years a promi- 
nent landmark, was erected. 

At the meeting of the council held June 26, 1854, 
new fire wardens were elected, and a committee was 
appointed to ascertain if a fire engine could be pur- 
chased in San Francisco. At the next meeting this 
committee reported that an engine could be obtained 
for $1,800, and that hose would cost $1.50 per foot. 
The committee also reported that four cisterns would 
be required, and recommended that one be located 
at the center of the intersection of Market and Santa 
Clara Streets, one at the intersection of First and 
Santa Clara Streets, one in front of the Mariposa 
Store, on Market Street, and one in front of Jones' 
Store, on First Street. This latter location was about 
opposite Fountain Alley. All the recommendations 
of the committee were adopted, and the apparatus 
purchased, at a cost of $2,546.25. Of this amount 
the citizens contributed '$1,355, and the remainder 
was paid out of the city treasury. The cisterns were 
located as recommended by the committee, and for 
more than twenty years were maintained and used 
for fire purposes. 

The engine purchased at this time was historic. It 
had been used by the Volunteer Fire Department of 
New York as early as 1830, and was known as "Old 
41," its quarters being at the corner of Delaney and 



Livingston Streets. Levi Goodrich, the architect, and 
Abe Beatty, the first landlord of the Mansion House, 
used to run with the old machine in New York. In 
1850 it was sent to San Francisco, and sold to the 
engine company of which Senator Broderick was 
foreman. The city of San Jose purchased it from 
the Broderick Company. When brought to San Jose 
it was given into the hands of the Empire Company, 
and its name changed to "Empire No. i." It is now 
at the county almshouse. 

The city had now a very effective fire department 
of two companies, with what was considered in those 
days excellent apparatus, manned by the most prom- 
inent citizens of the city, full of that heroic enthusiasm 
for which the volunteer fire companies of America 
were noted. Hook and Ladder Company had a fine 
truck, manufactured by D. J. Porter and H. J. Has- 
kell, the woodwork being done by C. S. Crydenwise. 

A grand parade of the department took place on 
New Year's day of 1855. Both companies assembled 
at the new engine house on Lightston Street, which 
had just received its finishing coat of paint from the 
brush of James Gourlay, a veteran fireman, who still 
lives to recount his e.xperiences. A procession was 
formed, which marched through the principal streets 
of the city to the " brick church," at the northeast 
corner of Second and San Fernando Streets. Here 
Rev. Eli Corwin delivered a prayer, and Miss Mary 
Crane, in behalf of the ladies of San Jose, presented 
Empire Company with a beautiful silk banner. The 
department then repaired to the City Hall, where 
they partook of a bountiful collation, and passed 
several hours in speech-making and social intercourse. 
This was the first public parade of the fire depart- 
ment. After this they occurred annually on the 
Fourth of July. 

On the thirty-first of May, 1855, a disastrous fire 
occurred in the most populous portion of the city. 
The fire originated on a short, narrow alley east of 
Market and south of El Dorado Street. There were 
several other tenements on the same alley. Immedi- 
ately west of these, and fronting on Market Street, 
were the stores of Lazarus & Co., clothing and dry 
goods merchants, corner of Market and El Dorado 
Streets ; the fruit and grocery store of Giovani Mul- 
inari; the vegetable and groceiy store of Baptiste 
Soularis; the jewelry store of E. L. Veuve; the con- 
fectionery establishment of Madam Alviso, and the 
extensive saddlery emporium of August Schweeb. 
All of these suffered considerable lo s. The progress 
of the fire southward was somewhat checked by the 



156 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



brick walls of the Auzerais Building, and this ob- 
stacle, with the heroic efforts of the little fire depart- 
ment, prevented that portion of the city from entire 
destruction. After the fire had burned down, the 
half-consumed remains of a man were found in the 
ruins. 

This fire, and the rapid growth of the city, dem- 
onstrated the necessity of further additions to the fire 
department, but it was nearly a year before anything 
was accomplished. In 1856 Mr. James Gourley, who 
had been on a visit to New York, returned, bringing 
with him a hand engine, which he proposed to sell 
to the city. The council agreed to purchase it if a 
company could be formed to handle it. This was no 
difficult matter, and in a few days a company re- 
ported as ready for service. This company was 
called " Torrent No. 2," and went into the depart- 
ment May 12, 1856. The old "Torrent" engine did 
good service for many years, and is now in the coun- 
try doing duty with a threshing-machine. It has 
" paid for itself" many times. 

These three companies constituted the fire depart- 
ment of San Jose for many years, and this apparatus, 
with the addition of new hose and a hose cart or two, 
comprised all the apparatus until 1865, when the 
present steam engine used by Empire Company was 
purchased by the city. This of course caused the old 
engine used by Torrent Company to present a very 
insignificant appearance, and the boys cast about for 
a better machine. Mr. Gourley went to San Fran- 
cisco, where he found a beautiful Hunneman hand 
engine for sale very cheap. He spent some time in 
testing its capacity, and, being fully satisfied, came 
back and reported to the company. Application was 
made for its purchase. The price was $1,700 cash, and 
the city only had $1,250 available for this purpose. 
The council finally agreed that if the balance could 
be collected by subscription, they would buy the en- 
gine. A meeting of the company was called and the 
proposition presented. There was a good deal of dis- 
cussion, the tenor of which was that it was useless to 
attempt to raise so large an amount. Finally Gourley 
threw $50 on the table, saying that it was about the 
last dollar he had, but it should go towards purchasing 
the new machine. Immediately the coin began to be 
poured on the table, and in less than twenty minutes 
the whole amount was raised. The machine was pur- 
chased and remained with the company until 1873, 
when the city purchased a Clapp & Jones steamer for 
the Torrents, and the old Hunneman was turned over 
to Franklin Company, which had lately been organ- 



ized. A few years later it was sold to the town of 
Turlock, where it is still doing good service. 

In 1855 the department, with consent of the council, 
established a Board of Delegates, by which it was 
practically governed. This Board consisted of a num- 
ber of members selected from each company. The 
office of chief engineer had been created and soon be- 
came a position of great labor and responsibility. In 
1866 the department asked the council to provide a 
salary for the chief, but the application was denied on 
the ground that the city charter would not permit. 
The officers and members served from 1853 to 1876, 
a period of twenty-three years, with no compensation, 
giving their best service, and often risking their lives, 
for the benefit of the property owners of the city. In 
addition to this, much of the money required for their 
proper equipment was taken from their own pockets. 

In 1859 a fire occurred in the kitchen of W. T. 
Wallace's house, which then stood on First Street 
about where the John Stock Building now is. The 
Fire Department displayed such skill and energy that 
but a slight damage resulted. In recognition of their 
services on this occasion Judge Wallace presented the 
department with $1,000, which was placed in a fund 
for the relief of sick or disabled firemen. This was the 
beginning of the Firemen's Charitable Association, 
which was soon after organized, the members paying 
specified dues, and receiving benefits as they became 
entitled to them. In 1869 an act was passed by the 
Legislature incorporating the department, and pro- 
viding for exemption. By its terms a person who had 
served in the department for five years was entitled to 
a certificate which exempted him from military serv- 
ice or the paying of poll-tax. It also prescribed rules 
for the government of the Fireman's Charitable Fund. 
This fund continued in existence until the paid Fire 
Department was organized, when, most of the mem- 
bers having withdrawn, it was divided among the sur- 
vivors. There was very little left at the end to divide; 
but, during its existence, it accomplished a great deal 
of good, many thousand dollars having been disbursed 
for the relief of its members and their families. 

Early in 1876 the question of organizing a paid 
fire department began to be agitated. The city had 
been out of debt for many years, property had largely 
increased in value, and she felt herself financially stout 
enough to assume this burden. At this time the city 
had two steamers. Empire and Torrent; one hand en- 
gine, the Franklin's; two hose companies, the Alert's 
and the Eureka's, and Hook and Ladder Company 
No. I. Each of these machines were housed in build- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



lo 



ings owned by the city, except Hook and Ladden 
which occupied a rented room near the California 
Theater. The proposition of the city was to take 
possession of all this property, and allow the old de- 
partment to seek other quarters and apparatus or dis- 
band. The Volunteers naturally considered this 
method of procedure as savoring of ingratitude. They 
had given long years of hard service with no compen- 
sation, and objected to being summarily dismissed. 
The machinery which the cily proposed to take rep- 
resented many hundreds of dollars of their own money, 
which they had contributed for the general good, and, 
although the title was undoubtedly in the city, they 
thought they had some claim to consideration. They 
could not legally object to turning over the property 
and vacating their quarters, but they resolved to dis- 
band all the companies. The paid department was 
organized October 3, 1876, and just before midnight 
before the day the ordinance went into effect, all the 
companies paraded the streets, and when the last 
stroke of twelve o'clock sounded, left the machines in 
front of the City Hall and on Santa Clara Street. 
This was the last of the Volunteer Fire Department 
of San Jose, as intelligent, well-disciplined, and public- 
spirited a body of men as was ever organized in any 
city on the continent. 

We have omitted one or two links in the history of 
the Volunteers, which we will supply here. In the fall 
of 1870, Washington Hose Company was organized, 
and did good service, but, after a short time, being dis- 
satisfied with the failure of the city to provide either 
suitable quarters or apparatus, disbanded. In 1875 
the people in the northeastern part of the city, needing 
more adequate protection from fire, organized Eureka 
Hose Company, and a house was built for them on 
Ninth Street near St. John. In 1876 Alert Hose 
Company was organized. At first they used the old 
hose cart of the disbanded Washingtons, but soon 
afterwards purchased a handsome carriage, which they 
still use. This company is made up of young men 
about town and does excellent service when the alarm 
sounds. 

From an old and defaced chart we have been able 
to decipher a few of the names of the old members of 
Hook and Ladder Co. No. i. They are Joseph Mc- 
Gill, Jo.s. H. Munn, Calvin C. Martin, Isidro Braun, 
John B. Hewson, Wm. McGill, Joh ; C. Emerson, 
Geo. Hall, William Cummings, Elihu Allen, Jos. Y. 
Ayer, Geo. M. Yoell, S. H. Bohm, S. H. Covert, S. 
Waterman, Aug. Schweeb, P. H. Burgman, D. C. 
Chadwick, James Gourley, Joseph Basler, James D. 



Page, John Balbach, Geo. Lehr, Charles E. Allen, 
Chas. F. Wiley, Edward Woodnutt, Frank Lightston, 
Elliott Reed, E. P. Reed, Wm. A. Murphy, Levi 
Goodrich, D. J. Porter, Samuel Orr, Chas. Moody, 
Josiah Belden, Levi P. Peck, C. S. Crydenwise, John 
Q. Pearl, Henry J. Haskell, S. O. Houghton, J. .H. 
Fhckinger, John M. Murphy, J. O. McKee, R. G. 
Roberts, John Yontz, Hartley Lanham, Eli Jones, A. 
W. Bell, Geo. Allen, Thos. Soublette, A. J. Eddy, G. 
W. Warner, B. F. Davis, Wm. A. Munn, J. P. Cham- 
berlain, Frank McKee, Wm. Lowrey, John Mott, 
Sam Jacobs, John T. Calahan, Chas. Martin, L. F 
Redfield, Geo. Pennington, Julian Smart, Narciso 
Suiiol. 

We have also managed to gather the following 
names of old members of Empire No. i : — 

F. G. Appleton, A. S. Beaty, J. E. Brown, B. F. 
Brown, S. H. Brown, John Beaty, Thos. Brown, Geo. 
H. Bodfish, George Bego, M. P. Baker, A. C. Camp- 
bell, P. Carlos, Chas. A. Clayton, J. Cerinsky, C. Crit- 
tenden, C. D. Cheney, S. Dial, Wm. H. Dearing, 
Peter Davidson, N. B. Edwards, A. Eaton, R. Fisher, 
John Forney, M. Fisher, J. H. Gregory, Jasper D. 
Gunn, Levi Goodrich, Geo. Hale, D. Herrington, M. 
Hellman, Adam Holloway, S. J. Hensley, Geo. 
Hanna, James Hartwell, S. N. Johnson, J. W. Johnson, 
Geo. H. Jefferson, Richard Knowles, R. Langley, 
Frank Lewis, R. H. Leetch, C. W. Lander, Fred 
Malech, Herrick Martin, J. McKenzie, Philander 
Norton, B. G. Porter, Peter Pongoon, C. M. Putney, 
Peter Quivey, Wm. Runk, A. W. Stone, F. E. 
Spencer, M. Stern, J. M. Sherwood, F. Stock, M. R. 
Smith, F. B. Tompkins, Daniel Travis, Francis Thelig, 
William Travis, A. M. Thompson, T. Whaland, T. 
Williams, Wm. Whipple, George Whitman, F. Wood- 
ward, C. W. Wright, D. Yocham, C. T. Ryland, J. A. 
Moultrie. 

It is to be regretted that these lists cannot be made 
complete, and also that no records have been pre- 
served showing the membership of the other volunteer 
companies, but all books and papers seem to have 
been abandoned in the same manner as the machines 
were turned over to the city; but, as the city could 
not see the necessity of preserving the records, they 
have become scattered or destroyed. 

About the time the paid Fire Department was or- 
ganized the city also adopted an automatic fire alarm 
system, which has been improved from time lo time. 
At the present time the department consists of Empire 
and Torrent Companies, each with a steamer; Frank- 
lin, Alert, Eureka and Protection Hose Companies, 



158 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



and Hook and Ladder Company, with improved 
truck and elevating ladders. Negotiations are now 
in progress for the purchase of another steamer, which 
is much needed. 

The chiefs of the Fire Department under the vol- 
unteer system were, as near as can be now ascertained: 
C. E. Allen, John B. Hewson. Levi Peck, J. C. Potter, 
Dan Leddy, Adam Hollowa\-, James V. Tisdall, Wm. 
Petry, and J. C. Gerdes. The officers under the paid 
department have been: — 

From iStj to iSjg — J. C. Gerdes, chief; W. D. 
Brown, assistant; James Gourlay, hydrant inspector. 

Fro}n i8jg to 1881 — J. C. Gerdes, chief; James 
Brady, assistant; James Gourlay, hydrant inspector. 

From 1881 to 1887— ^. D. Brown.chicf ; R. Hoelbe, 
assistant; James Gourlay, hydrant inspector. 

From 1887 to present time — James Brady, chief; 
John T. Moore, assistant; James Gourlay, hydrant 
inspector. 

PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS. 

Among the most important of the public enter- 
prises accomplished by the city are the improve- 
ment of the channels of the streams and the system of 
sewerage. The history of these two great works will 
be found interesting and valuable. For this history 
we have drawn on the official report of Mr. J. H. 
Pieper, the engineer who had the work in charge from 
its commencement to its completion. 

The necessity of enlarging and otherwise improv- 
ing the channels of the streams passing through the 
territory of the city was felt at an early date. In- 
undations of extensive districts adjacent to both sides 
of the creeks and rivers within and outside of the city 
limits during the " rainy seasons" were of frequent 
occurrence, flooding a belt of land, at times, more 
than half a mile wide and in certain localities to a 
depth of five and more feet, causing distress and in 
some instances considerable loss of property to the 
people residing within the limits of the inundated 
district. It is worthy of remark, that the reports of 
the press of such occurrences, here and elsewhere, did 
not redound to the prosperity of the city of San Jose. 

The apparent, if not real, magnitude of the work 
contemplated, when considered in connection with the 
means that seemed available for the work, necessarily 
deferred its commencement. Moreover, there was no 
provision or authority of law existing under which 
the work could have been undertaken at that time. 

In the year 1870, however, a special act of the 
State Legislature was enacted which empowered the 
Board of Supervisors of Santa Clara County to im- 



prove the rivers and streams flowing through Santa 
Clara County, including those passing through the 
city. 

Under this act the Board of Supervisors appointed 
Edwin Raynor, a civil engineer (now deceased), to 
make the necessary surveys, plans, and estimates of 
the proposed work. The engineer made the surveys 
for the proposed improvements of a part of the Guad- 
aloupe River, and filed his report with the Board of 
Supervisors of said county, November 6, 1871. On 
December 14 of the same year, a protest, signed by a 
two-thirds majority of the interested property holders 
(who were authorized by law to object to the further 
prosecution of the proposed work), was filed with the 
Board of Supervisors, and all further proceedings in 
this matter were thereupon ordered to be stopped by 
said Board. 

The next step was taken by citizens and interested 
property holders, by the presentation of a petition, 
addressed to the mayor and common council of the 
city of San Jose, April 22, 1873, urging the work of 
"widening, straightening, and deepening of the chan- 
nel of the Guadaloupe River within the city limits, and 
to take such other action as will secure the protection 
of lands contiguous to said river or stream from over- 
flow." In compliance with this petition the mayor 
and common council passed an ordinance, approved 
by the mayor, the Hon. A. Pfister, August 6, 1872, 
directing J. H. Pieper, city engineer, to make a survey 
of this river and to report the same to the mayor and 
common council, accompanied by a diagram map of 
the location of said stream and the proposed alter- 
ations of its channel. This survey was approved 
November 3, 1873; but, in the absence of authority 
on the part of the city government to improve the 
channels of the streams as referred to above, nothing 
further could be done until after the enactment of a 
new city charter by the State Legislature in 1874. 

This charter enabled the mayor and common coun- 
cil to levy an annual tax not exceeding ten cents on 
the $100 of taxable property, and also authorized the 
city to cause improvements to be made on the streams 
at any place outside the corporate limits, whenever, 
in the opinion of the mayor and common council, the 
exigencies of the case might require them. Under 
this act the improvement of the channels of the 
streams flowing through the city has been gradually 
and successfully accomplished, until, at the present 
time, very little remains to be done. 

The work was commenced in May, 1875, at which 
time the mayor and common council adopted a reso- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



159 



lution authorizing the payment of ten cents per cubic 
yard of earth excavated and removed from the Guad- 
aloupe River, at such times and places as the mayor 
and common council should direct. 

This river enters the city at its western limits about 
two hundred and seventy-five feet north of Willow 
Street, and thence passes through the corporate limits 
of the city in a northwesterly direction a distance of 
about fifteen thousand and seventy-five feet. It re- 
ceives two tributary streams within the city; one of 
these is the Tulares de los Canoas, which joins the 
Guadaloupe at a point about two hundred and fifty 
feet south of San Salvador Street; the other the 
Los Gatos Creek, forming its confluence with the 
Guadaloupe about five hundred and forty feet north 
of Santa Clara Street. 

The channel of the Guadaloupe River was originally 
very irregular in width, varying from a minimum of 
about twenty-five feet in the southwestern part of the 
city to a width of seventy-five to one hundred and 
fifteen feet in other parts. In depth its channel varied 
from five to fifteen feet, its course being very erratic, 
turning abruptly from one side to the other. 

During freshets the river overflowed its banks, 
forming in various places side channels through ad- 
jacent lands, washing out the soil, which consists prin- 
cipally of a rich sedimentary sandy loam, to depths 
varying from one to six feet, and at one time, after a 
protracted rain-stoim, sweeping and destroying several 
tenement houses. The aggregate fall of the river 
channel from the point of its entrance into the city 
territory to its lower exit, was found to be forty-two 
feet. This fall, however, was irregular and varied 
from one inch per hundred feet in the central part of 
the city, to more than one foot per hundred feet in 
exceptional cases in the southern portion of the chan- 
nel ; while, in its lowest part, from the confluence of 
the Los Gatos Creek northerly to the northern city 
limits, it had a more uniform grade of three to three 
and one-half inches per one hundred feet. The bed 
of the river consisted principally of clay, or adobe, 
wet, and in many places spongy and difficult of ex- 
cavation. In the absence of any definite data as to 
the maximum of flood-waters to be provided for, the 
problem to be solved was rather perplexing. But, 
taking the sectional area of the high flood-waters ex- 
perienced during the winter of 1868 as they passed 
over and across the railroad track, and from Orchard 
Stre t along the middle of Santa Clara Street and 
over the Alameda road to Stockton Avenue, includ- 
ing the sectional areas of the old channels of both the 



Guadaloupe and Los Gatos Rivers, a cross section of 
the entire volume of flood-waters was thus obtained, 
from which conclusions were derived that a tolerably 
uniform channel of one hundred and fifteen to one 
hundred and twenty feet in width between the upper 
bank line, and having side slopes of one and one-half 
to one and an average depth of about thirteen and 
one-half feet, would afford the requisite capacity, and 
that these dimensions would be also fully sufficient 
for the channel from Santa Clara Street southerly to 
the junction with the Tulares de los Canoas, and up to 
the vicinity of the westerly terminus of Grant Street, 
in which section the grade of the river channel, as 
stated above, was much less than north of its junction 
with the Los Gatos. 

From Grant Street southerly to the western city 
limits, the existing conditions as to an increased 
gradient admitted of a gradual reduction of the di- 
mensions of the proposed channel to a width of about 
eighty-five feet at its upper bank lines, as well as of a 
somewhat lessened depth. 

With these conclusions arrived at, systematic sur- 
veys for the improvement of the channel of this river 
were then made from time to time, and from year to 
year, as the means were at hand to do the work ; the 
new bank and levee lines and grades were established, 
and the amount of the necessary excavations along 
the river-frontage of each of the respective owners of 
the adjacent lands determined by a proper system of 
cross-section levels. Many of the adjacent property 
owners gave the land necessary for this improvement, 
and did the work of excavation at the statutory price 
of ten cents per yard. Mr. Martin Murphy not only 
gave the land, but did the work along his line at his 
own expense. But nearly all the channel north of 
the bridge, at the crossing of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, had to be improved under the contract sys- 
tem, and cost from thirteen to sixteen cents per yard. 
The entire cost of the improvement was $30,503.94. 

The Los Gatos enters the city about two hundred 
and fifty feet southwest of Santa Clara Street, and after 
a short run in a northerly direction unites its waters 
with those of the Guadaloupe, entering said river at 
an angle of about forty degrees. The former channel 
of this creek was confined almost throughout its en- 
tire length within the city between redwood bulk- 
heads, and had a width of thirty to thirty-five feet 
only. Its course, moreover, was exceedingly crooked, 
having the form of the letter S in its meandering; 
it extended the length of one thousand one hundred 
feet, while a straight line drawn from the point of its 



160 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



entrance into the city to its junction with the Guada- 
loupe measured about eight hundred and fifty feet. 
However, it formed in this winding course, except in 
a single instance, the boundary between the lands of 
different owners, holding opposite sides of the creei<, 
and to this fact and attendant difficulties in adjusting 
these boundaries, it is to be regretted, must be traced 
the cause of the somewiiat unsatisfactory result of 
the improvement of this comparatively short creek 
channel as to its proper alignment. 

Under the^e conditions the work of improving this 
stream had to be done in a less systematic and de- 
sirable manner than contemplated at the outset ; yet 
the channel has been materially straightened as com- 
pared with its former course, and its width has been 
increased to about double what it was formerly, af- 
fording a capacity which will prove amply sulificient 
to hold within its banks flood-waters of the greatest 
freshets experienced during the last twenty years. 
The channel of tiris stream has also been widened 
outside of the city limits to a considerable extent, at 
the expense of the county of Santa Clara. Its depth 
within the city limits is about thirteen and one-half 
feet, and both banks have been secured by a wooden 
bulk-head, having a batler of four feet in this height, 
and leaving a water-way of about sixty-six feet, mean 
width. A length of one hundred and thirty .feet of 
the new bulk-head on the easterly side of the channel, 
at an unavoidable turn in its course where the full 
force of the rapid current of the stream strikes it, 
was destroyed some years ago by flood-waters. It 
has since been replaced by willow fascine work, which, 
at the present time, forms a solid facing of growing 
willows, not likely to be injured hereafter by the 
action of the stream. A part of the bulk-head along 
the easterly side of the stream was built by Mr. John 
Auzerais, now deceased, at his own expense. The 
entire cost of the improvement of the Los Gatos was 
$2,992.50. 

The Tulares De Los Canoas passes through the 
northwestern part of the city, and joins the Guada- 
loupe a short distance south of Auzerais Avenue. 
Its entire length within the city limits is about six 
thousand seven hundred feet. It is an irregular 
channel, and varies in width from ten to thirty feet, 
and in depth from four to seven feet. Since the im- 
provement of the Guadaloupe River this creek has not 
overflowed its banks, showing that former overflows, 
especially in its lower course, were due mainly to 
" back-water " from the Guadaloupe River. The 
only locality upon which improvements were made 



on the channel of this creek, was north and south 
of the Duane Street crossing, where it has been reg- 
ularly improved for a length of about three hundred 
and thirty-four feet, by straightening its course and 
by excavating it to a regular cross section, having a 
mean width of eighteen feet by a depth of seven and 
one-half feet. 

Coyote River forms the eastern boundary. It 
has a deep, very wide and irregular channel along 
the city line, and there is no danger of overflow 
at any place adjoining city territory. It has been 
found necessary, however, to protect its westerly bank, 
which reaches a height of twenty-two to twenty-five 
feet, and consists of a sandy loam, interstratified with 
sand and fine gravel from the action of the current. 
This work was done immediately north and south 
of the crossing of Santa Clara Street, during the years 
1875 and 1876, at which time the bank had to be 
sustained by willow fascine facings and wing-dams, 
which have ever since remained intact, the willows 
now forming a dense living barrier, as it were, to 
further encroachments of the river at these points. 
The expenditures incurred for this work amounted 
in the aggregate to thi. sum of $2,449.70. There 
was also expended for a somewhat extensive break- 
water embankment, built about one-half mile south of 
the city, during the year 1872, the sum of $3,866.86, 
this being one-half of its cost, the other half having 
been paid by the county of Santa Clara. The em- 
bankment was built to avert the danger of overflows 
from the river at this locality, where its strong current 
during times of freshets made rapid progress in the 
destruction of its westerly bank, which consists here 
also of a sedimentary sandy loam and yields very 
readily to the undermining and abrading action of 
flood-waters. The total cost of river improvement to 
date has been $44,087.41. The main channel of the 
Guadaloupe, below its junction with the Los Gatos, 
has a carrying rapacity of sixteen thousand cubic feet 
per second, which is ample for all purposes. 

The first attempt to furnish drainage for the city 
was made in 1867, when a wooden sewer three by 
four feet in size was built on Fourth Street, from 
San Fernando to Taylor Street, a distance of about 
six thousand two hundred and eighty feet. It was 
designed for the purpose of surface and storm-water 
drainage, and to replace an open ditch which then 
existed on Fourth and other streets, and was built at 
the comparatively shallow depths of three to eight 
feet. In 1872 temporary sewers, consisting princi- 
pally of redwood box drains, were built in several 




^= 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



161 



streets and connected with the branches from the 
Fourth Street sewer. 

This arrangement was of a very temporary charac- 
ter, and in 1S70 the city engineer, Mr. J. H. Pieper, 
was instructed to propose and submit a system of 
permanent sewerage for the city. This was done, and 
the present effective system was the result. Its cost 
was estimated at $200,000. The city had no money 
at that time available for this purpose, and the work 
was postponed from year to year. On several occa- 
sions it was proposed that the council ask for author- 
ity to make a loan, but the prevailing sentiment was 
against creating any debt. The levy of a tax sufficient 
to carry on the enterprise was as warmly opposed as 
the proposition to issue bonds. The matter stood 
thus for nearly ten years. In the meantime the city 
had grown rapidly, and the question of drainage could 
no longer be postponed. It was resolved to begin 
the work and carry it along as rapidly as money could 
be obtained to pay for it. 

In 1880 ground was broken and the work was con- 
tinued with more or less vigor, according to the con- 
dition of the sewerage fund, until 1887, when the 
loan of $285,000 was made, $150,000 for the main 
sewer and $135,000 for branch sewers. Up to this 
time, however, the sum of about $165,000 had been 
expended and the system was in fair working order. 
The reason why the cost has been so much in excess 
of the original estimate is found in the fact that it is 
intended to build a covered sewer to the bay instead 



of the open ditch now used as an outlet, and to extend 
the .system over much more territory than was at first 
intended. It may be said that the loan of $285,000 
was to cover new work not estimated on, or contem- 
plated in the original proposition. 

The main sewer is on Fifth Street, extending from 
San Fernando Street to the bay, a distance of nearly 
eight miles. From San Fernando to Taylor Streets 
it is built of brick, thirty-six by fifty-four inches in 
the clear, from twenty-one to thirteen feet below the 
surface. From Taylor Street to the outlet sewer, near 
C. Younger's line, a distance of six thousand and 
sixty-seven feet, it is of brick, sixty inches in diameter 
and from thirteen to ten feet below the surface 
Thence through lands of Younger, Maloney, and Col- 
lins, a distance of one thousand five hundred and five 
feet, it is of redwood, and from seven to three feet 
below the surface. Thence to the Guadaloupe River, 
about a mile from Alviso, it is an open ditch. The 
location of the open ditch is now being changed so that 
it will open directly into the bay, and will be covered 
along its entire length. 

The branch sewers, except on Taylor Street, from 
Fifth to Tenth, and on San Fernando Street, from 
Third to Eighth (which are of brick), are of vitrified 
stone pipe. They now comprise a distance of over 
thirt)' miles. 

The accompanying map will show the location, 
size, and direction of all the sewers constructed to the 
present time. 





* OF THE COUNTY. fe- 






M- 




'*^=?^^^=^ 



THE question of a public revenue became promi- 
nent immediately upon the organization of the 
county. There were no improvements or property to 
start with. Everything had to commence from the 
begmning. In this respect the county was in a worse 
condition than the city, which fell heir to all the 
property of the old pueblo, and which enabled it to 
not only pay all debts but left a very handsome sur- 
plus. The county had to create everything, with no 
material at hand for the purpose. Its necessary offi- 
cers were numerous and salaries were high. There 
were no public buildings and no highways, no schools, 
and, comparatively, a small property valuation on 
which to levy a tax. But with all these needs the 
new government did not propose to overburden the 
people with taxation. The first levy was twenty-five 
cents on the hundred dollars, with a poll-tax of two 
dollars and a half The next year the levy was fifty 
cents on the hundred dollars, with twenty-five cents 
added for building purposes. The year following, the 
levy was reduced to thirty cents, with five cents for 
buildings, and in 1853 it was again raised to fifty 
cents for general purposes, with twenty-five cents for 
buildings and five cents for schools. These levies 
were exclusive of the tax for State purposes. 

The revenue was far short of the requirements of 
the county. Warrants were issued that went to pro- 
test, and in 1856 a debt of over $60,000 had ac- 
cumulated. Then the aid of the Legislature was 
invoked, and an act was passed by that body and 
approved April 9 of that year, authorizing the 
county government to issue bonds to the amount of 
$67,500, payable in ten years and bearing twelve per 
cent interest. These bonds were issued and given to 
creditors in lieu of their claims, and thus the entire 
debt of the county was funded up to March i, 1856. 
These bonds were redeemed, as required by the act, 
in 1866. 

In 1 86 1 the county was struggling with the rail- 
road problem, and the people were willing to assume 
(162) 



almost any burden that might insure the building of 
a road to San Jose. Several efforts had been made 
to secure private subscriptions for the purpose of 
constructing a railroad to Alviso to connect with a 
line of boats, but all had been unsuccessful. At this 
time came the San Francisco & San Jose Railroad 
Company with the proposition that, if the county 
would subscribe for $200,000 of the stock of the 
company and issue bonds in payment of the same, 
the road would be built. The proposition was popu- 
lar, and on April 9, 1861, a law was enacted by the 
Legislature authorizing the county to make the sub- 
scription and to issue bonds payable in fifteen years, 
and bearing seven per cent interest. These bonds 
were redeemed as follows: The railroad stock was 
sold (as related in our chapter on railroads), to 
Messrs. Donahue, Newhall, and Mayne, and the pro- 
ceeds, $100,000, applied to redemption of the bonds. 
Five thousand dollars' worth were redeemed as pro- 
vided by the act creating the indebtedness. The re- 
mainder matured and were redeemed in 1876 by new 
bonds issued in that year. One bond of a thousand 
dollars was not presented for payment until 1880, 
having evidently been mislaid by the owner. 

In 1865 the Western Pacific Railroad Company 
asked the county to subscribe for $150,000 of its 
capital stock, under the provisions of an act of 1863. 
The people accepted the proposition, and bonds were 
issued payable in twenty years, with interest at seven 
per cent. Of these bonds $5,000 were paid, and the 
remainder, $145,000, refunded by the issue of what 
was called the "Redemption Bonds of 1885." These 
were issued in three series, to wit: — 

April 13, 1885— $45,000— 4 >^ per cent. 

Aug. 19, 1885— $55,000— 4 

Oct. 23, 1885 — $45,000—4 

In March, 1866, the I-egislature authorized the 
county to issue bonds to the amount of $130,000 for 
the purpose of erecting county buildings. These 
bonds were payable in fifteen years, with interest at 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



163 



twelve per cent, and were known as the " Court House 
Bonds;" $II2,000 of these bonds were redeemed in 
1872 with money received from sale of theW. P. R. R. 
stock, as noted in chapter on railroads. Four years 
later the Legislature authorized another issue of 
bonds by the county to the amount of $80,000, to 
pay for the construction of the jail. These bonds 
were payable in ten years and carried ten and one- 
half per cent interest. 

The "Court House Bonds" and the "Jail Bonds" 
were refunded in 1873 by the issuance of bonds to 
the amount of $130,000, payable in twelve years and 
bearing eight per cent interest. These new bonds were 
called the " Court House and Jail Bonds." At the 
time they became due there remained unpaid the sum 
of $56,000, which was refunded in January, 1885. 

In May, 1876, bonds known as "Redemption Bonds 
of 1876" were issued. The amount was $96,000, with 
seven per cent interest, and due 1890. The proceeds 
of the sale of these bonds were used to redeem the 
S. F. & S. J. R. R. bonds of 186 1. Of these bonds 
there is $48,000 now outstanding. 

In April, 1878, bonds to the amount of $31,065.60 
were issued for the purpose of funding the debt due 
the estate of James Lick, for moneys advanced for 
the construction of the Mount Hamilton road. These 
bonds were known as the " Lick Avenue Bonds," and 
bore no interest. They were all redeemed in 1888. 
The new constitution, which went into effect in 1880, 
and the laws enacted under it, permitted all counties 
to fund any floating debt that might be outstanding 
prior to the first of January, 1880. The same laws 
also provided that, after January i, 1880, the county 
should incur no indebtedness in any fiscal year in 
excess of the revenue of that year. When this law 
went into effect there was a floating debt of about 
$95,000, principally against the several road funds, 
which the supervisors did not fund. There was some 
misapprehension as to the full effect of the law, and 
while the expenses of the county were kept within 
the limit of the tax levy each year, the revenue was 
used to pay outstanding warrants in the order of their 
issuance. Thus, in 1883, the warrants issued prior to 
January, 1880, had been paid, while an equal amount 
of those issued in 1881 and 1882 were still outstand- 
ing. As the law was interpreted to mean that the 
revenue of 1883 could not be applied to payment of 
warrants of previous years, the Board was in a quan- 
dary. There was a debt of $95,000, with no means 
of payment under the law. Many meetings were 
held, and many suggestions made. It was finally 



resolved to treat the payment of the warrants issued 
prior to 1880 as an error of book-keeping, and to 
consider the current debt as being the debt existing 
at that time. This solved the difficulty, and bonds 
to that amount were issued, payable in twenty years, 
with interest at five per cent. Bonds to the amount 
of $56,000, payable in twenty years, and bearing six 
per cent interest, were issued in January, 1885, for 
the purpose of redeeming the Court House and Jail 
Bonds of 1872. 

The bonded indebtedness of the county, therefore, 
at this time, is as follows, after deducting the amount 
of bonds redeemed: — 



Bonds of 1876. . . .$ 48,000. , 

" 1883 77,000. 

" 1885 50,000. 

" 1885 45,000. 

" 1885 100,000. 



.Due, iSgo 7 percent. 

• " 1903 5 

. " 1905 6 " 

• " 1905 ■■■A'A '' 

• " 1905 4 



$320,000 

This is practically the total debt of the county at 
this time, the law prohibiting the creation of any debt 
that cannot be paid by the revenue of the current 
year. 

The following tables will show the increase in the 
value of property in the county from its organization 
Unfortunately the records for the first four years have 
been mislaid, but enough remains to show the won- 
derful increase in wealth, especially during the past 
six years : — 



1850 
1851. 
1S52. 
1853- 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
i860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1S63. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 



1S69. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1S73. 
1S74. 
1875- 
1876. 
1877. 
1S78. 
1879. 
18S0. 



1S83. 



Books missing 

Books missing 

T. S. Burnett — Books missing 

J . H . Morgan — Books missing 

.W.Gallimore $ 5.355. 

John Bland 5,122, 

John Bland 5,449, 

W. H. Patton 4.5o4, 

W. H. Patton 5,131. 

,W. R. Davis — Books missing 

W. R. Davis 5,677, 

D. IVI. Harwood 5,oi2: 

,D. M. Harwood 6,038, 

D. M. Harwood 6,129, 

,D. M. Harwood 6,883. 

.W. O. Barker 6,955, 

,W. O. Barker 8,165, 

.Henry Phelps 9.3o6, 

.Henry Phelps 10,674, 

.Henry Phelps Ii,459. 

, Henry Phelps 11,781, 

.T. M. Lilly l2,o8S, 

.T. M. Lilly 3>.322, 

.T. M. Lilly 27,528, 

.T.M.Lilly 3i,7°7, 

.Henry Phelps 29,362, 

.Henry Phelps 28,175, 

.Henry Phelps 27,990, 

. Henry Phelps 27,603, 

. Hiram Fairfield 24,604, 

.Hiram Fairfield 25,514 

.Hiram Fairfield 26,018 

.Hiram Fairfield 26,018 

.L. A. Spitzer (city property) 11,983, 

.L. A. .Spitzer (country property). . 20,554, 



.$1 40 



I 65 
I 90 



2 48 
2 40 
2 33 
2 60 
2 54 
2 47 



I 40 

1 30 
I 65 



I 50 
I 50 
I 50 
I 50 
I 13 
I 45 



1G4 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



Year. Assessor. Assessment. 

884. .L. A. Spitzer (city property) 12,506,646. 



Rate. 
92 



.L. A. Spitzer (country property) . . 24, 124,435 • 

885.. L. A. Spitzer (city property) 13,951,654 95 

885. .L. A. Spitzer (country property). . 26,344,537 i 20 

886. .L. A. Spitzer (city property) 13,420,716 90 

886. .L. A. Spitzer (country property). . 26,286,071 i 20 

887.. L. A. Spitzer (city property) 15,510,691 90 

887. .L. A. Spitzer (country property). . 28,002,830 i 20 

888.. L. A. Spitzer (city property) 20,971,544 

888.. L. A. Spitzer (country property).. 36,313,408 

This shows an increase, since 1882, of %l\,266,6y6, 
or more than a hundred per cent. 

The property of the county, consistint,^ of pubHc 
buildings, grounds, etc., is estimated at this time to 
be worth about half a miUion of dollars. Thus it 
will be seen that the county has a very handsome 
silrplus over and above its $320,000 of indebtedness. 
An item showing the rapid growth of the country is 
this: In 1887 the number of acres of land assessed 
was five hundred and eighty-nine thousand nine hun- 
dred and sixty-five; in 1888 the number was five 
hundred and eighty-eight thousand one hundred and 
thirty one. The difference, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and thirty-four acres, was subdivided into lots 
and blocks, and rated as city property. 

The number of fruit trees in the county, as near as 
can be estimated, is two million three hundred and 
fifty thousand six hundred and thirty-four. The 
value of the fruit crop was, in round numbers, two 
million and a half dollars. 

Acres ol grapes io,6i8 

" strawberries 509 

*' blaclvberries 127 

" raspberries 39 

" wheat 23,721 

" barley 26,997 

" corn 215 

" hay 49,265 

Gallons of brandy manufactured 60,125 

" wine " 703.475 

beer " 1,270,140 

PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS. 
Up to the present time the development of the pe- 
troleum resources of Santa Clara County, and, in fact, 
of California, has been entirely the work of one man 
— Mr. Robert C. McPherson. He was born in Buf- 
falo, New York, May 6, 1840, and was reared and 
educated there. His father, John McPherson, was a 
Scotchman and had settled in Buff"alo when it was a 
small village. His business was that of a beef and 
pork packer. In 1859, when the first oil excitement 
occurred in Pennsylvania, Robert, with his brother 
Angus, went there and operated until 1873, when he 
came to California. At that time there had been 
some desultory prospecting in the southern counties, 
particularly in what is known as the Pico District. 
Oil had been found by shallow wells but no intelligent 



and thorough effort had been made toward a complete 
development. The work had been done principally 
by the San Francisco Petroleum Company, the di- 
rectors of which dil not seem inclined to make ex- 
pensive experiments. When Mr. McPherson came 
upon the ground, his experienced eye at once saw 
that the prospecting had been of a very superficial 
character. Against the protests of the company and 
against the remonstrances of his friends, he com- 
menced sinking a well with the determination to reach 
the reservoir, which he calculated was at a depth of 
about thirteen hundred feet. After much expense 
and many discouragements he struck the oil-bearing 
sand at a depth of twelve hundred and ninety-five feet. 
The oil flowed over the top of the derrick, eighty feet 
high. This was the first deep well ever drilled in Cal- 
ifornia, and from it sprung the oil interests of Southern 
California. There was no lack of capital for the work 
after Mr. McPherson had shown the company how to 
employ it to advantage. He operated there until 1874, 
when he sold the controlling interest to Charles N. 
Felton, and came to Santa Clara County, where he had 
leased land in Moody's Gulch and vicinity. Here he 
commenced drilling in 1878, and up to the present 
time, has made ten wells. As a matter of history 
the operations at these wells are important, not only 
as to what has already been accomplished, but as a 
starting-point for future work. 

Moody's Gulch, which is a branch of the Los Gatos 
Canon, at wells Nos. i and 2 (which are about one 
hundred feet apart), runs about north twenty degrees 
east. Altitude at this point, eleven hundred feet. 
At the bridge a little above, fine-grained sandstones 
and shales strike about north sixty degrees west, and 
dip sixty-five southwest. Within two hundred feet 
east of this bridge and seventy-five feet or more above 
the bed, and still higher up the hill, is well No. 5. East 
of this and yet higher is well No. 8. On the opposite 
side of the gulch and about two hundred feet from it 
is Logan No. I. Altitude, about thirteen hundred and 
eighty feet above sea-level. About three hundred 
feet south, twenty degrees west, from Logan No. i, is 
Plyler No. i. All the oil obtained from these wells is 
a green oil, known as parafline oil, and has a specific 
gravity of forty-four degrees. It is piped a distance 
of about a mile to the mouth of the gulch, where it is 
received in a tank that stands on a side track of the 
South Pacific Coast Railway. The first well, named 
Moody No. i, struck oil at about eight hundred feet. 
Unfortunately the detailed record of operations has 
been lost, but that of subsequent wells is complete. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



165 



Moody No. 2 was drilled in October, 1879. It 
started in slate with streaks of rotten sandstone. At 
three hundred feet better sand was found, twenty-five 
feet thick. Then came slate and shale to the second 
sand, twenty feet thick, at a depth of six hundred and 
thirty feet. After this, sand very shelly with streaks 
of shale and slate. The third sand was struck at 
seven hundred and sixty feet. Here the well began 
to fill with oil. It was drilled to eight hundred feet, 
where it pumped thirty barrels a day. 

Moody No. 3 was a loss. It was sunk to a depth 
often hundred and eighty feet, and showed signs of 
oil and gas, but caved in and was lost. 

Moody No. 4 was drilled in August and September, 
1880, and was started in shale and soft sand. At two 
hundred and sixty feet struck first regular sand, thirty 
feet thick. Afterwards streaks of slate and shale until 
reaching second sand, forty feet thick, at a depth of 
six hundred and eighty-five feet. Then streaks of slate, 
shale, and shells. Struck gray sand, twenty feet thick^ 
dark gray in color, at a depth of nine hundred and 
eighty feet, carrying considerable oil, estimated at ten 
barrels per day. After this, hard shelly formation all 
the way until reaching third sand, at ten hundred and 
forty feet. This sand is first-class oil-bearing sand, 
carrying pebbles. On sinking five feet into this sand, 
the well began to fill up rapidly, and in twenty-four 
hours there were three hundred feet of oil in the hole. 
At ten hundred and fifty-five feet struck more oil, 
which seemed to be increasing very rapidly. At ten 
hundred and seventy-five feet, the well made its first 
flow. At ten hundred and eighty-five feet it flowed 
one hundred barrels per day, flowing nearly all the 
time. From here to ten hundred and ninety-five feet 
the sand grew finer and harder. Drilled to eleven 
hundred and three feet, still in the same sand. Here 
the well was stopped. 

Moody No. 5 was started in slate. Struck first 
sandrock, twenty feet thick, at depth of four hundred 
and sixty-five feet. After this ran in slate and shale 
until, at a depth of six hundred and thirty feet, struck 
second sand, ten feet thick. Then ran in shale to 
nine hundred and thirty feet, where the third sand 
was struck, fifteen feet thick. The well here made 
two flows. This well was pumped for a while, but be- 
ing a small well and yielding only about ten barrels 
per day it was determined to go deeper. They went 
through slate all the way to one thousand four hun- 
dred and twenty feet, but there was no change in the 
yield. It was then shut down and pumped at seven 
hundred and thirty feet, yielding ten barrels per day. 



Moody No. 6 showed a little oil at eleven hun- 
dred and twenty feet. Went fourteen hundred feet, 
but the well was never pumped. 

Moody No. 7 was drilled in 1880. Started in 
slate. First regular sand, twenty feet thick, at two 
hundred and seventy-five feet. Then ran in slate and 
shale until striking second sand, fifty feet thick at 
six hundred and twenty-five. Afterwards in slate, 
shale, and shells. At nine hundred and fifty feet 
struck a stray sand, fifteen feet thick, with a little oil. 
After this, very shelly with shale and streaks of slate. 
At ten hundred and fifty feet of hard shells run 
into twelve feet of slate. Afterwards shell and sand. 
More sand, with oil and gas. At ten hundred and 
ninety feet, better sand with more oil. At eleven 
hundred feet, well began to fill up with oil. At eleven 
hundred and twenty-five feet, pumped thirty barrels 
per day. Afterwards drilled to twelve hundred feet 
and increased the yield to forty barrels. 

Logan No. i is a twelve-inch hole, drilled in 18S0. 
Started in slate and sand. Struck first sand twenty 
feet thick, at two hundred and eighty feet. Then 
slate and shale to second sand, thirty feet thick, at six 
hundred and fifty feet. Then slate and shells mixed. 
At eight hundred and eighty-five feet, stray sand with 
some oil and gas. Afterwards more shells with 
streaks of sand. At nine hundred and fifty feet, 
more sand and better. At nine hundred and eighty 
feet, well filling with oil (two hundred feet of oil in the 
hole). At ten hundred feet, filled with oil. Put in 
tubing and pumped fifteen barrels per day. Drilled 
to eleven hundred feet, sand all the way, and increased 
the yield slightly. 

Moody No. 8 commenced drilling March 6, 1887. 
Started in rotten sand and shale. Had slate and sand 
to five hundred and ninety-five feet when struck first 
regular sand, twenty-three feet thick. At six hundred 
and eighteen feet got first show of gas. Slate from 
bottom of sand to six hundred and forty-five feet, 
then shale. At seven hundred and fifteen feet, shelly. 
At seven hundred and forty feet, second sand, gray, 
twenty feet thick. At eight hundred and thirty feet, 
shelly, with show of gas. At ten hundred and twenty 
feet, slate and shells mixed; a little show of oil with an 
increase of gas. To ten hundred and eighty-five feet, 
slate with a little shale. At eleven hundred and 
thirty feet, slight show of sand. At eleven hundred 
and eighty, slate. At thirteen hundred and eight feet, 
shale. At fourteen hundred and seventy-three, slate. 
At fifteen hundred and fifteen feet, very hard slate. 
At fifteen hundred and thirty-five feet, slate and shells 



166 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



mixed. At fifteen hundred and sixty-five feet, not so 
shelly and more slate. At sixteen hundred and five 
feet, shale and sand mixed. At sixteen hundred and 
fifteen feet, some shells with an increase of gas, with 
some sand. At this point it was concluded to dis- 
continue work temporarily. 

Plyler No. I, seventy-three feet of rotten rock 
and then through sandstone to one hundred and 
eighty feet; then two feet of slate; then soft sandstone 
to two hundred and twenty feet ; then two feet of slate ; 
then sandstone to three hundred and eighty feet, the 
last ten feet being very hard. Sand continues with 
a streak of coffee-rock to four hundred and eighty 
feet; then hard sand to five hundred feet; then gray 
sand to five hundred and twenty feet. Slate and sand 
mixed to five hundred and fifty feet; then sand and 
slate to seven hundred feet; then shale and sand with 
a little show of gas; at seven hundred and fifty feet, a 
small pocket of water; at seven hundred and fifty-four 
feet, shale; at nine hundred feet, hard, gray shells with 
shale mi.xed; at nine hundred and fifty feet, sand full 
of yellow pebbles; at ten hundred feet, slate; at ten 
hundred and thirty feet, increase of gas; at ten hun- 
dred and forty feet, shale and light-colored sand; at 
ti;n hundred and sixty feet, shells; at eleven hundred 
and ten feet, gray sand twenty-six feet thick; at eleven 
hundred and thirty-six feet, black slate, very soft; at 



twelve hundred and four feet, dark shale with some 
sand; at twelve hundred and sixty feet, slate; twelve 
hundred and ninety feet, slate a little lighter in color; 
thirteen hundred and thirty-five feet, shale; fourteen 
hundred and fifty feet, slate; fourteen hundred and 
sixty-five feet, black slate; fourteen hundred and 
seventy-five feet, black slate and sand; fourteen hun- 
dred and eighty-four feet, some gas, slate soft and 
cavey. The well is not yet finished. 

The output from these wells up to 1886 was eighty 
thousand barrels. At the present time the yield is 
three hundred barrels per month, all of which is taken 
by the San Jose Gas Works at $3.00 per barrel. The 
wells have been pumped regularly three times a day 
since they were drilled. The machinery is run by two 
twenty-horse-power engines, the only fuel used being 
natural gas. 

Mr. McPherson says that there is every indication 
that natural gas in large quantities can be found in 
many if not all parts of the Santa Clara Valley; 
the character of the formation in the surrounding 
hills and the dip of the strata leave no doubt in 
his mind that a thorough prospect will be richly re- 
warded. At this time an effort is being made to in- 
corporate a company with a capital stock sufficient 
to make exhaustive experiments. 





^^(QmigmwmmwmMm B##i^irm>g 




IN April, 1854, a number of the farmers and stock- 
raisers of the county determined to organize an 
agricultural society. A call for a meeting was made, 
and on May 6 of that year they came together at the 
City Hall. The call had been responded to with con- 
siderable enthusiasm, and the agricultural interests 
were well represented. H. C. Melone was chosen to 
preside, and H. Hamilton was appointed secretary. 
The object of the meeting was stated by Wm. M. 
Stafford, who was followed by others, all favorable to 
the proposition of establishing a county agricultural 
society. The prevailing sentiment having been thus 
ascertained, a committee, consisting of J. F. Kennedy, 
Joseph Aram, and O. P. Watson, was appointed to 
prepare a draft of a constitution, after which the meet- 
ing adjourned until the twentieth of the same month. 
The meeting assembled at the court-house at the 
date mentioned. The constitution presented by the 
committee was adopted. The following officers were 
elected: L. H. Bascom, President; J. F. Kennedy, 
Vice-President; E. P. Reed, Recording Secretary; W. 
S. Letcher, Corresponding Secretary; F. G. Apple- 
ton, Treasurer. Board of Managers — J. B. Allen, of 
Gilroy; Mr. Frost, of Fremont; James Houston, of Al- 
vi.so; Joseph Aram, Wm. R. Bassham, Dr. Langhorne, 
and Samuel Robinson, of San Jose. Committee on 
Agriculture — H. C. Melone, Oliver Cottle, Isaac Bird, 
J. R. Weller, G. W. Peck, O. P. Watson, and H. C. 
Skinner. Committee on Horticulture — Joseph Aram, 
J. V. Kenned)', William Daniels, Louis Prevost, and 
John Morse. 

There is no record of any fair having been held 
under the auspices of this .society; but, owing to its 
influence, the State Agricultural Fair was held in San 
Jo.se in 1856. This fair was largely attended, Santa 
Clara County carrying off the honors. The first 
thoroughbred cattle brought to the State were ex- 
hibited at this time by Robert Blaco. 

Prior to establishing the agricultural society, .1 hor- 
ticultural .society had been formed, and, after the State 
Fair, an effort was made to unite the two interests. 



On the thirteenth of December, 1856, a meeting was 
called for this purpose. William Daniels, H. C. Me- 
lone, and J. C. Cobb were appointed a committee to 
prepare a constitution. January i, 1857, the consti- 
tution was presented and adopted, and the society 
formed under the name of the "Santa Clara Valley 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society." On Feb- 
ruary 7 the following officers were elected: President, 
William Daniels; Vice-Presidents, Coleman Younger 
and Joseph Aram; Secretary, J. C. Cobb; Treasurer, 
R. G. Moody; Directors, L. A. Gould and Louis 
Prevost. The old agricultural society met on the 
same day and disorganized by the following resolu- 
tion: "That the treasurer be, and i- hereby, instructed 
to pay to each member of the society the amount 
subscribed by said member, provided he applies for 
the same before the first day of March next, and 
whatever remains in the treasury after said first day 
of March, to be paid to the treasurer of the Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society of the Valley of 
Santa Clara, subject to the disposition of the society 
last mentioned." After adopting this resolution the 
agricultural society adjourned sine die. 

At a meeting held July 2, 1857, it was resolved to 
hold a fair on the eighteenth and nineteenth of Sep- 
tember. A premium list was arranged and the fair 
held with great success. A fair was also held in 

1858, but the difficulties attending these exhibitions 
made it evident that they could not be continued 
under the then system of organization. The society 
had no funds, but was obliged to rely on voluntary 
contributions for its i^remium lists. After much dis- 
cussion of ways and means, it was determined to in- 
corporate the society. Pursuant to this determina- 
tion, the passage of .in act was procured in March, 

1859, incorporating the organization under the name 
of the " Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society," 
and from this date runs the legitimate history of 
the society. The first officers under the charter 
were: William Daniels, President; Gary Peebels and 
Coleman Younger, Vice-Presidents; C. B. Younger, 

(167) 



168 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



Secretary; R. G. Moody, Treasurer; Louis Prevost 
and H. H. Winchell, Directors. 

One of the greatest inconveniences experienced by 
the society, both before and after its incorporation^ 
was the lack of permanent grounds on which to hold 
the annual exhibitions. A committee had been ap- 
pointed, in 1857, ^° examine into the propriety and 
possibility of purchasing the necessary grounds. This 
committee accomplished nothing; neither did any re- 
sult flow from the appointment of a similar com- 
mittee in the following year. But in 1859, at the 
meeting at which the officers were elected under the 
act of incorporation, a committee was also appointed 
to solicit subscriptions with which to purchase fair 
grounds for the society. This committee consisted 
of Gary Peebels, Gol. Younger, H. H. Winchell, 
H. G. Melone, T. Bodley, H. Shartzer, and J. G. 
Gameron. Other members were added to this com- 
mittee from time to time. The struggles of the so- 
ciety up to this time are thus related by Goleman 
Younger, one of the pioneers of the society, and who 
always shouldered a large portion of the work, which 
resulted in its success: — 

"In the first place they had had no funds, no hall, 
no fair grounds; the Board would appoint their com- 
mittees to beg, and to sell annual memberships to 
form a basis for premiums; then they would have to 
cater for what we now call a hall, and for a piece of 
ground from some citizen for a stock fair ground; 
and, between the two, with other necessary expenses, 
they were in luck if they came out even. And thus 
it continued for years, until the old committees, or, in 
other words, the ' old war horses,' were ashamed to 
beg. Our first stock fair would beggar description; 
but our fruits, grain, vegetables, and flowers, on ac- 
count of the newness of the country, excited more 
interest then than now." 

The committee appointed to solicit subscriptions 
for the purchase of grounds, met with good success- 
In two weeks they had raised the sum of $14,464.55. 
There were one hundred and ninety-nine original con- 
tributors, as follows : The county of Santa Clara gave 
$500 ; William Daniels gave $300. 

Those who gave $200 were, Martin Murphy, Sr., 
James Lick, Samuel J. Hensley, Josiah Belden, Philip 
G. Vibbard, W. M. Williamson. 

Those who gave $150 were Adolph Pfister, E. 
Auzerais & Bro., Galvin Martin, Thos. Bodley, Naglee, 
Peach, and Billings. 

James Murphy gave $125, and J. F. Kennedy $120. 

Those who gave $100 were : Goleman Younger, 



H. G. Melone, Gary Peebels, Wm. B. Thomburge, 
Hiram Shortzer, Rowley & Adams, A. S. Beaty & 
Bro., William Reynolds, S. B. Emerson, William Mc- 
Glay, H. H. Winchell, G. W. Pomeroy & Go., W. W. 
McCoy, E. W. Grover, W. W. Hollister, W. M. Lent, 
John H. Gameron, John Young, R. K. Ham, Daniel 
Murphy, and S. P. Goburn. 

Peter Ouivey gave $70. 

Those who gave $50 were : G. Mengarini, S. J., 
J. R. Lowe, Sr., Isaac N. Thompson, Aus. M. Thomp- 
son, Delavan Hoag, Henry Lawrence, Isaac Y. 
Brooks, Antonio Sunol, F. and J. Stock, R G. Moody, 
V. D. Moody, Morris Wise, S. O. Broughton, E. J. 
Wilcox, Adam Holloway, L. Froment & Co., W. H. 
Hall, L. H. Bascom, John G. Bray, Santa Clara 
Brewery, B. S. Fox & Co., S. G. Young, J. R. Weller, 
Louis Prevost, William Aram, A. Lervies, John H. 
Moore, J. G. Cobb, J. B. Van Nest, Louis Pellier. 

John Trimble gave $40. 

Those who gave $25 were : H. D. McCobb, Morgan 
& Johnson, Victor Speckens, S. S. Johnson, A. G 
Erkson, John West, Horace Hawes, M. Jourdan, D. 
Gerdes, G Colombet, Isaac Branham, John M. Mur- 
phy, G. W. Frazier, S. A. Clark, P. H. Burnett, G T. 
Ryland, J. P. Springer, P. de Saisset, J. Gerensky, 
John Balbach, Williams & Winslow, A. Delmas, J. D. 
Gunn, Loewe & Bro., Levy & Bro., Leddy & Statsman, 
Haskell & Porter, Yocco & Bro., Pearl & Reen, Lilly 
& Bothwell, J. W. Sims, William Matthews, E. W. 
Case, J. R. Wilson, Lawrence Archer, F. G. Appleton, 
J. B. Bontemps, G. George & Co., William McClay, 
N. Hays, John W. Hardwick, G. Brabaska, William 
Travis, Patrick Fenton, D. Williams, H. H. Warbur- 
ton, James Scott, Mark Hardy, T. S. Bradley, John 
W. Leigh, J. A. Ouinby, Freeman Gates, John John- 
son. 

Those who gave $20 were: Wm. T. Wallace, Will- 
iam S. Letcher, Jackson Lewis, P. O. Minor, Henry 
Deatsman, James Houston, Madan & Fosgate, F. C. 
Franck, J. N. Appleton, Massey Thomas, C. D. 
Cheney. 

Those who gave $io were: H. & E. A. Van Dal- 
sem, Joseph Bassler, and George Bego. 

Edward McGowan gave $8.00. 

G. W. Lander, T. D. John.son, J. H. Scull, Matthew 
Mitchell, B. Bampard, James O'Brien, S. B. Mont- 
gomery, R. F. Herrickand Mr. Rich gave $5.00 each; 
J. L. Miller and Wesley Tonnar gave $2.00 each, and 
Juan Santa Ana gave $1.00. 

In addition to the above money subscriptions the 
following donations of materials and labor were made: 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



George H. Bodfish three thousand, six hundred and 
forty-one feet of lumber at the mill, $91 ; Green 
Hanna, hauling same, $37; J. P. Henning, two thou- 
sand and seven hundred feet of lumber at the mill, $54; 
W. K. Bethel, one thousand feet of lumber, $30 ; G. B. 
Blanchard, seven hundred feet of lumber, $21 ; Henry 
Jarboe, lumber, $25 ; F. A. Shepard, lumber, $1 5 ; F. S. 
McGirr, shingles, $23; Martin McCarthy, shingles, $10; 
Jeremiah Miller, flag-staff and sundries, $50; F. M. 
Fowler, one hundred and thirty posts, $20; Maffic, 
blacksmithing,$40; L. A. Gould, pumps, $75 ; J. Bass- 
ler, pump, $9; C. E. Campbell, lead pipe, $10; R. 
Fletcher, sashes, $1.50. 

The present fair grounds were purchased in 1859, 
of General Naglee, for $6,000, and the work of im- 
provement commenced. The tract contains seventy- 
six acres and is on the south side of the Alameda 
about a mile from the city. The trees were planted 
from 1872 to 1876, and the grand stand erected in 
1878. This stand was built with money loaned by 
different parties who are to be repaid from the 
moneys raised by sale of seats. When this is accom- 
plished it will be the property of the society, and, we 
understand, will be made free. 

The society has held its fairs, annually paid ex- 
penses, and is out of debt, except for the money bor- 
rowed to erect the grand stand. All the best stock 
are shown at these exhibitions, and the best horses on 
the coast annually compete on the track. Up to 
1880 the society drew an annual appropriation from 
the State of about $2,000 with which to pay premi- 
ums. In this year the Legislature passed an act di- 
viding the State into agricultural districts, Santa Clara 
and San Mateo Counties forming District No. 5. 
The act also prescribed the method by which District 
agricultural societies should be formed. When this 
law went into effect it stopped all State aid to the 
county society. This aid was absolutely necessary, 
as the proceeds of the fair would not be sufficient to 
pay good premiums and other necessary expenses. 

The society did not want to change its old organiza- 
tion to an organization under the State law, for fear it 
might in some way jeopardize the title to its real estate, 



which had then become very valuable. The only way 
out of the difficulty seemed to be to organize a new 
society under the State law and arrange with the old 
society for the use of the grounds. This was accord- 
ingly done, and the fairs have been held under the 
auspices of the San Mateo and Santa Clara County 
Agricultural Association, until the present year. The 
new society was formed from the members of the 
old one, and now have the same officers, with the excep- 
tion that the Board of Directors is divided. 

Following are the names of the presidents and 
secretaries of the Santa Clara Valley Agricultural 
Society since its incorporation in 1859: — 

DATE. PRESIDENTS. SECRETARIES. 

1859 William Daniels C. B. Younger 

i860 William Daniels C. B. Younger 

1S61 . . . .S. J. Ilensley William Daniels 

1862 William Daniels C. B. Younger 

1862.... Gary Peebels J. R. Lowe, Jr. 

1S63 James F. Kennedy J. R. Lowe, Jr. 

1864 James F. Kennedy Givens George 

1865 W. C. Wilson Givens George 

1866.... W. C. Wilson Givens George 

1867.... W. C. Wilson Givens George 

1868 W. C. Wilson Tyler Beach 

1 869.... W. C. Wilson Tyler Beach 

1870 W. C. Wilson Tyler Beach 

1871. . . .W. C. Wilson Tyler Beach 

1872. . . .W. C. Wilson Givens George 

1873.... W. C. Wilson D.J. Porter 

1874 ... . W. C. Wilson D. J . Porter 

1875 W. C. Wilson Givens George 

1876 J. P. Sargent D. J. Porter 

1877 . . . .Gary Peebels E. K. Campbell 

1878. ...W. C. Wilson A. P. Miirgotten 

1879 N. B. Edwards A. P. Murgotten 

1880 N. B. Edwards W. M. Williamson 

18S1 C. H. Maddox Givens George 

1882. . . .J. H. M. Townsend T. S. Montgomery 

1883. . . J. H. M. Townsend T. S. Montgomery 

1884 . . .]. H. M. Townsend T. S. Montgomery 

1885 N. B. Edwards T. S. Montgomery 

18S6....N. B. Edwards G. H. Bragg 

18S7 N. B. Edwards G. H. Bragg 

1888.... E. Topham G. H. Bragg 

The following are the names of the officers of the 
District Society since its organization: — 

DATE. PRESIDEN'iS. SECRETARIES. 

1S81 Abram King T. S. Montgomery 

1882 Aliram King T. S. Montgomery 

1883. . . .Abram King T. .S. Montgomery 

1884. ...W. T. Adel J. Hinman 

1885 J. R. Weller A. B. Ellis 

1886. . . .1. R, Weller Geo. B. Staniford 

1887. . . .'I. R. Weller W. C. Morrow 

18S8 E. Topham Geo. H. Bragg 



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THE adaptability of the climate and soil of Santa 
Clara County for horticultural purposes became 
apparent long before the first American visited the 
valley. The Fathers who planted the Missions planted 
orchards at the same time, and found a full return for 
all their labor. The fertility of the soil was supple- 
mented by a peculiarity of climate that enabled trees 
to grow many more weeks in the year than in other 
countries, while during their season of rest there was 
no freezing weather to chill the sap and delay their 
progress in the spring. It might be said that trees 
had a continuous growth throughout the year. The 
result was that a very few seasons brought orchards 
to a condition of fruitfulness. All this was demon- 
strated by the experience of the good fathers at the 
Mission; but, even with this experience before them, 
our early horticulturists were astonished by the re- 
sults of their efforts. They had been accustomed to 
sections where certain fruits would flourish and others 
fail, but here they found that nothing would fail. 
The peach, pear, apricot, apple, orange, and lemon, 
the olive and the tender varieties of grapes from Italy 
and Southern France, all flourished. It was neither 
too cold nor too warm for any, and the soil seemed to 
contain elements suited to the wants of each. 

What were the varieties of fruits planted by the 
Fathers at the Mission it is not now possible to ascer- 
tain in detail. Vancouver says that he saw, on his 
visit in 1792, peaches, apples, pears, apricots, figs, and 
vines, all of which, except the latter, promised to 
succeed well. He further says: "The failure of the 
vine here, as well as at San Francisco, is ascribed to 
a want of knowledge in their culture, the climate and 
soil being well adapted to some sorts of fruits." The 
failure of the vine, as related by Vancouver, might 
have been, as he said, the result of ignorance as to its 
culture; but if this was so, the Fathers soon learned 
the art of viticulture, for the old Mission vines are 
historic for their strong growth and abundant fruitage. 
As to their quality, so much cannot be said. They 
(170) 



are now a relic of the past, and although many of the 
old inhabitants contend that for a table grape they 
possess a flavor superior to that of any of the foreign 
varieties, the fact remains that they have been practi- 
cally discarded for wine-making, and that the reputa- 
tion of California wines has been built on varieties 
other than the Mission. This grape, however it may 
be despised now, accomplished a great object. It 
demonstrated the adaptability of our soil and climate 
for the growth of the vine, and, by giving confidence 
to our early viticulturists, induced them to expand 
their operations. 

The character of the Mission fruits, with few ex- 
ceptions, was about the same as the grapes. The 
olive bore a small fruit little prized for table use but 
rich in oil. It required a comparatively long time for 
it to come to profitable bearing, but never failed of a 
large crop when it reached that point. It is even 
now preferred, by many orchardists, to the finer 
varieties. The peaches and apricots were seedlings, 
and therefore of different kinds. At that time, when 
this was the only fruit to be had, it was all considered 
good. The only distinction made was that some ■ 
varieties were better than others. Whether or not 
the apples and pears a ere seedlings we have not been 
able to ascertain. It is more than likely they were, 
as they have been generally classed under the com- 
prehensive term, " Mission fruit," and are different 
from the varieties originated in America or imported 
from France or Spain. 

This Mission orchard was the only source of fruit 
supply to the valley for many years, and for some 
time after the American occupation it held a promi- 
nent position. It was claimed as part of the public 
domain when California was ceded to the United 
States, and was taken possession of by J. W. Redmon. 
It proved a bonanza, the fruit selling at fifty cents per 
pound, while the yield was enormous. Some of the 
old trees are yet vigorous, although neglected for 
years and a prey to all the pests that have been 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



171 



known to Santa Clara County orchards. The Mis- 
sion orchard and the Mission vineyard furnislicd 
stock for the few orchards that were planted in the 
early years of the American occupation. These 
plantings were few at first, owing to the gold excite- 
ment, but when the people began to return from the 
mines and give their attention to agriculture, the 
plantings became more numerous. 

The scarcity of fruit and consequent high prices 
gave a great stimulus to horticulture. Apples, im- 
ported into San Francisco, sold at retail for a dollar 
apiece, and other fruits in proportion. People thought 
that at half these prices there would be more money 
in a bearing orchard than in the richest gold mine yet 
discovered. This idea struck many people at the 
same time and many orchards were planted, princi- 
pally apples and pears. They seem to have over- 
looked the fact that there were comparatively few 
people in reach of their orchards at that time, and 
that there were no facilities for transportation to a 
distance; or, if they did realize this fact, they kept on 
planting all the same and trusted to luck. 

The first orchards planted after the American oc- 
cupation, with the exception of a few private trees, 
were by E. W. Case, William Daniels, and Joseph 
Aram. Case's orchard was of about 350 trees, and 
was on the property fronting on the Alviso road, 
owned by C. B. Polhemus. Aram's orchard was of 
twenty acres, and was situated about where the 
woolen mills now are. Daniels' orchard was about 
one acre, and was in the then northern part of town, 
on a tract lying between Julian and St. James and 
Market and First Streets. Part of the trees planted 
by these gentlemen were furnished by a man named 
Ganz, and were brought by him from Cincinnati, Ohio. 
They were principally apples. This was in 1852. In 
the succeeding year Case and Aram imported more 
trees from the nursery of Charles Hovey, at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. Some of these old trees are 
still flourishing and bearing large crops of fruit. 
Among them is an apricot tree on the Hobson place, 
formerly a part of Captain Aram's orchard, which is 
now thirty-four years old, a vigorous bearer, and a 
living contradiction to the statement that fruit trees 
in California are short-lived. 

In the spring of 1852, Commodore Stockton, who 
then owned the Potrero de Santa Clara Rancho, which 
lies between San Jose and Santa Clara, imported from 
Hovey's Massachusetts nursery, a large number of trees 
for the purpose of establishing a nursery. With these 
trees he also sent out a professional botanist named 



Sheldon, with B.S. Fox and Thomas Egan as assistants. 
Sheldon died on the Isthmus and Mr. Fox took charge 
ofthe enterprise, Mr. Egan assisting. With this party 
came also J. F. Kennedy as salesman and commercial 
agent. The nursery was established in April, 1853, 
and for some time was the depot for nursery supplies 
for this section. These trees consisted of apples, 
peaches, pears, plums, nectarines, and apricots. With 
this importation came also the first strawberries grown 
in this valley. 

In 1854-55 ^ Frenchman named Levalle imported 
fruit trees and planted them in both nursery and 
orchard form, on the property lying north of Julian 
and west of Market Street, now owned by Peter 
O. Minor. He planted about two acres, but after- 
wards removed the orchard to the west side of the 
Coyote, on the property now owned by Edward Mc- 
Laughlin. In 1855-56 he had a very large collection 
of trees in his nursery, which he afterwards sold to 
H. H. Winchell, China Smith, and William Smith, and 
they continued the nursery business for some years 
thereafter. L. A. Gould and B. F. Watkins planted 
their orchards and nurseries at Santa Clara about 
this time. Mr. Ballou, who was at that time employed 
in the Case orchard, says that from the three hundred 
trees planted then, mostly apples, a few specimens 
were had in 1855, and in 1856 about eight hundred 
pounds were produced. Up to this time the only 
apples to be had here were the "Parrons," grown at the 
Mission, and which were very inferior. The fruit 
from the new orchards above metitioned was very finei 
far exceeding anything the orchardists had seen in the 
East. 

During 1856 the State Horticultural Society held 
a fair in San Jose, and from this the reputation of 
the Santa Clara fruit spread, and people came hun- 
dreds of miles to see it. Some of the old pioneers 
believe to this day that the display of apples had at 
that fair was far superior to any that has been made 
since. This of course is a mistake. They have be- 
come accustomed to the wonderful fruit of the Santa 
Clara Valley, and the novelty has worn off. 

In 1853 a horticultural society was formed. The 
meeting for organization was held on the grounds of 
Louis Prevost, now known as Live Oak Park, under 
a live-oak tree. There were present William Daniels, 
Louis Prevost, Louis Pellier, J. R. Bontemps, B. S. 
Fox, and E. W. Case. The Pioneer Horticultural 
Society was organized, and nearly all the old-time 
horticulturists became members. The names of Jo.seph 
Aram, J. Q. A. Ballou, R. G. Moody, D. Devine. L. 



172 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD:' 



A. Gould, and John Llewelling appear prominent on 
the list of early members. In speaking of this organ- 
ization Colonel Younger says that, "during the balance 
of this year and the year 1854, they met once a month, 
brought in their fruits and flowers for exhibition, 
to compare and discuss their merits, and determine 
what fruits were best adapted to the valley. This was 
often most interesting and instructive. All were in- 
vited to attend, and many were enticed to these meet- 
ings to see the development of the fruit-growing ca- 
pacity of the valley. Many ladies attended and were 
richly rewarded; for, after witnessing tlie display of 
fruit and flowers, at the conclusion, these were divided 
among them." This Pioneer Horticultural Society 
afterwards united with the Agricultural Society, and 
in a short time 'lost its identity. 

In 1S56, as we have stated, nearly all these earl)' 
orchards had commenced to bear, and the quality of 
the fruit, and the promise of extraordinary production, 
gave these pioneer orchardists an idea of the resources 
of the climate and soil in this direction. Everything 
they had planted had prospered beyond their most 
sanguine expectations, and they wererapidlyapproach- 
ing the conviction that nothing could fail in Santa 
Clara Valley. Being in this frame of mind, they were 
ready to experiment in any direction. This year 
stands out prominent as the date of the introduction 
of the French prune (Petit Prune d'Agen) to this 
county, and, in fact, to this coast. This fruit has be- 
come a standard, and will probably always remain a 
favorite with our orchardists. The history of its first 
importation will be interesting. Louis Pellier, a vine 
and fruit grower of France, had come to California in 
the winter of 1848-49. After trying his fortune in the 
mines, he came to San Jose in 1850, and purchased 
the tract of land fronting on the west side of San 
Pedro Street, where the mills of the Independent Mill 
and Lumber Company now stand. This tract was 
formerly known as Pellier's Gardens; it is now the 
Pellier subdivision of the city of San Jose. Here he 
planted a nursery and orchard, and cultivated flowers 
and plants. His brother Pierre had come out a year 
behind, and was assisting him in his work. When 
Pierre came, he brought with him cuttings of some of 
the fine varieties of grapes, among which were the 
Black Burgundy, Chasselas Fontainebleau, Made- 
laine, and others. From that time to 1854, the 
experience of fruit-growing here had shown the great 
horticultural possibilities of the country, and all were 
reaching out for new varieties. Louis Pcllii r deter- 
mined to transplant the best fruits from his native 



land to his adopted county. In accordance with this 
determination he sent Pierre back to France in 1854, 
with instructions to go through Burgundy and other 
parts of the country, and secure cuttings and cions of 
the best varieties of fruit grown in each. This was 
done. Pierre, with another brother, John, who had not 
yet come to America, spent nearly two years traveling 
through France, gathering their stock. They returned 
to California, bringing with them a large variety of 
fruit cions. Among them were the petit prune, the 
gros prune, with many varieties of cherries, and pears, 
and plums. The petit prune was not at first very 
popular. The people preferred the gros prune on ac- 
count of its size and appearance. As the fruit-growers 
at that time knew nothing of drying or canning, but 
depended on selling their products green, anything 
which had an appearance of inferiority was at a dis- 
count. The cions were brought from France by the 
Pellier brothers, stuck in potatoes and packed in saw- 
dust. Immediately on their arrival they were grafted 
upon stocks prepared for them, and many lived. 
While, as we have said, the gros prune soon came into 
great demand, the little prune had no friends for many 
years. It was finally brought to the attention c f John 
Rock, who recognized its value and soon popularized 
it. There has been great dispute as to whether the 
French prune grown in California is the true French 
prune of commerce, There can be no doubt on this 
point as far as Santa Clara County is concerned. It 
was brought from its home in France directly to San 
Jose, by people who had been familiar with it from 
childhood, and there can be no mistake as to its 
identity. One of the parties who brought it is still 
living, and the box in which the cions were packed is 
still in existence, with all the marks yet legible. 

Mr. B. S. Fox, who, as we have stated, came out 
in 1852 with the nursery stock of Commodore Stock- 
ton, severed his connection with the commodore the 
next year, and established a nursery of his own on 
the Milpitas road. This is now known as the "Santa 
Clara Valley Nurseries and Botanical Gardens." He 
had with him Thomas Egan, and the nurseries were 
first known as B. S. Fox's Nurseries. At first there 
were one hundred and twenty-six acres, and it was the 
largest tract devoted to this business on the coast; 
the acreage was still further increased by the acquisi- 
tion of more land, until it contained over two hundred 
acres. Mr. Fox was an Irishman by birth, and a 
thorough botanist. When he first came to America 
he procured an engagement with Charles Hovey, the 
well-known nurseryman of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



173 



When Commodore Stockton was looking for a com- 
petent man to take charge of his California nursery, 
Mr. Fox was recommended to him, and was engaged 
for the position. This was a fortunate circumstance 
for Santa Clara County. He was not only a pioneer 
fruit man, but a man of great scientific knowledge, 
and an untiring student. To his experiments we owe 
three of the finest varieties of pears now cultivated, 
the P. Barry, the B. S. Fox, and the Colonel Wilder, 
which have been placed in the front rank by the 
opinions of the leading pomologists of An.erica. 
His magnificent orchard was developed from the 
nursery, and was not planted so much for growing 
fruit for profit as to test the varieties which he was 
offering for sale. To his enthusiasm Santa Clara 
County owes much of her early horticultural develop- 
ment. Mr. Fox died in July, 1881, at Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, while on his way to visit his early home. His 
nurseries were left to his nephew, R. D. Fox, a bio- 
graphical sketch of whom appears in this book, and 
who has since conducted the business with an intel- 
ligence that has maintained the reputation it attained 
under the administration of his uncle. 

In 1856 Captain Aram moved his nurseries from 
town to the place on the Milpitas road where he now 
lives. He had G. W. Tarleton with him for a time, 
but in a few years the latter gentleman purchased 
the tract where he now lives, and planted it to orchard. 

In 1854 came James R. Lowe. This gentleman 
was an Englishman by birth, and a professional bot- 
anist. He had been engaged in some of the most 
prominent landscape gardening operations of the 
English nobilit)', and had come to America to super- 
intend some work for New England nurserymen. He 
came to California at the request of Samuel J. Hens- 
ley. He laid out the famous Hensley grounds, which, 
up to the time they were subdivided into city lots, 
contained more rare plants than any similar area in 
California. Mr. Lowe was in constant communica- 
tion with the superintendent of the gardens of the 
Duke of Devonshire, who was an old-time friend, and 
hardly a mail was received at the post-office in San 
Jose that did not contain some rare plant, bulb, or 
cutting, from the Duke's gardens. These were propa- 
gated with care, and from this beginning sprang many 
of San Jose's most beautiful gardens. 

Mr. J. Q. A. Ballou, who was with Mr, Case in his 
early nursery operations, went into the fruit business 
on his own account in 1856. At that time he pur- 
chased the place on the Milpitas road now occupied 
by him as a homestead, and in February of 1857 he 



planted about five hundred trees, principally apples 
and pears. In 1858 he planted fifteen hundred trees 
additional. In 1861 he procured from Louis Pellier 
grafts for fifty French prune trees. From these grafts 
he made his first prunes in 1867. At that time they 
were not popular, and only small quantities could be 
sold. Pitted plums had the call in the market for 
several years. About the same time his plums came 
in and these sold readily at twenty-five cents per 
pound, green. They were of new varieties not before 
produced here, such as the Columbia, General Hand, 
Quackenbos, etc. In 1868 Mr. Ballou made eleven 
tons of dried fruit and shipped it to New York via 
Cape Horn. It arrived in good order in 1869, and 
was sold so as to net him from eighteen to twenty 
cents per pound. 

At this time the fruit interests of Santa Clara 
County received a heavy blow. As we have said, the 
plantings heretofore had been principally of apples 
and pears. In 1868 the yield from these orchards 
more than glutted the market. There was no sale 
for a large portion of the product, and it could hardly 
be given away. Part of it was sent to San Francisco, 
but the proceeds, except in some cases, hardly paid 
the large cost of transportation. Wagon loads were 
carted off to the mines, but with all this, tons of 
choice fruit rotted under the trees. This experience 
disgusted many orchardists and they neglected their 
trees or dug them out of the ground. They seemed 
to have no idea of drying their fruit, or that the over- 
land railroad would, in time, give them an Eastern 
market. The influence of this experience was long 
felt in the county. People generally lost confidence 
in the fruit business, and even now persons can be 
found who shake their heads when they contemplate 
the extensive orchards, and cite the seasons of 1867-68 
as proof of coming disaster. 

The plantings in the celebrated Willow Glen Dis- 
trict were commenced as early as 1858, when W. C. 
Geiger set out a portion of his cherry orchard on what 
is now Willow Street. In 1862 C. T. Settle planted 
an orchard of apples and pears on what is now the 
northeast corner of Lincoln and Minnesota Avenues. 
At that time this district was covered by a dense 
growth of willows, and the lower portion was subject 
to overflow from the Guadaloupe. The only road was 
the El Abra, since called Lincoln Avenue, and the 
main central portion of the district was owned by 
Settle, Cottle, and Zarilla Valencia. Settle was .soon 
after followed by Royal and Ira Cottle, who also 
planted apples and pears. Soon afterwards Miles 



174 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



Hills and a Mr. Sampson purchased the Zarilla tract, 
as it was called, and subdivided it into ten-acre lots. 
They planted cherries, peaches, apricots, etc., and from 
their subdivision started the real fruit interest in this 
section. The first experiment was on strawberries, 
the first vines being planted by Downs and Arne, on 
the tract now owned by Gribner. Their venture was 
so profitable that it created quite an excitement and 
nearly everybody in the Willows planted strawberries. 
At that time there were artesian wells in this district. 
They did not flow, but the water raised so near the 
surface that it could be easily pumped for irrigating 
purposes. This industry flourished for some years, 
and then came into competition with the strawberry 
growers in the lowlands near the bay. Here the 
artesian wells gave a great flow, and the Willow peo- 
ple could not pump water and compete with their 
neighbors. They converted their berry patches into 
orchards; but, with the experience of the apple and 
pear-growers fresh in their minds, they avoided these 
varieties and planted stone fruits almost exclusively. 
After the railroad was built and the market extended, 
they resumed the planting of apples and pears, but 
discontinued it after the codlin moth made its ap- 
pearance. This insect being now likely to be got un- 
der control, we can see signs of the revival of the apple 
and pear industry. 

One of the earliest orchards of the county was that 
of D. C. Vestal, on the Milpitas road, which was be- 
gun in 1854, and was principally apples and pears. 
This orchard is prominent as being the place where 
the Moorpark apricot was first propagated for market. 
Geo. Hobson, who had an orchard and nursery on the 
ground now occupied by L. F. Sanderson, had two of 
these trees, but held them in little estimation on ac- 
count of their irregularity in ripening. From these 
trees Mr. Vestal procured buds and worked them into 
a few trees on his place. When the fruit came, he 
was so pleased with its size and flavor that, in 1869, he 
planted three acres. Mr. Vestal's experiments at- 
tracted attention, and the Moorpark came into uni- 
versal favor. Mr. Vestal says that as this tree increases 
in age it produces regular crops and ripens its fruit 
evenly. As proof of this statement he cites one of 
the original trees now on his place, which is thirty- 
four years old and has failed in its crop onl)' three 
times since it came int'j bearing. Many seasons he 
has got $12 worth of fruit from it. In 1857 Mr. 
Vestal received a sack of walnuts from a friend in 
Chili. From these he has grown three trees, from 
which he harvests annually about $75 worth of nuts. 



These trees have attained great size and are very 
beautiful as well as very valuable. 

As the orchards of the valley increased in number 
and in bearing capacity, the fruit-growers began to 
fear that perhaps there might come a repetition of the 
experience of 1868, and the crops be wasted. Al- 
though the new orchards were of fruits suitable for 
canning and drying, no one had attempted thus to 
preserve them for market, and it seemed likely that 
when the supply exceeded the local demand, the busi- 
ness of fruit-growing would become unprofitable. 
Just before this contingency arrived, however, the 
danger was averted by the enterprise of a gentleman 
not theretofore identified with the fruit interests. 

Dr. James M. Dawson, the pioneer fruit-packer 
in the Santa Clara Valley, put up the first canned 
fruit for the market, in 1871. From observation of 
the superior quality of the fruits then grown in the 
valley, Dr. Dawson foresaw the marvelous possibilities 
of its climate and soils for fruit production as a factor 
of commerce on the Pacific Coast; and he also real- 
ized that, for the fruit industry to attain any con- 
siderable importance, it was a prime necessity that 
means should be provided to prepare and preserve 
the fruits for commerce in the immediate vicinity of 
where they were grown. Acting upon these con- 
victions, and stimulated by the wise counsel and 
hearty co-operation of his wife, Mr. Dawson resolved 
to make the experiment of starting a fruit cannery 
in this valley. An ordinary cooking range was pur- 
chased and placed in a 12x16 shed kitchen in the 
rear of their residence, on the Alameda; and on this 
the fruits were all heated before being placed in the 
cans. The fruits were obtained by Mr. and Mrs. 
Dawson driving about the neighborhood and pur- 
chasing them in small lots, and paying five to eight 
cents per pound for them. The season's pack, con- 
sisting of three hundred and fifty cases of fruits and 
tomatoes, was made in this modest manner. Dr. 
Dawson thought to demonstrate to Eastern people 
the superiority of California fruits to those of their 
own States; and in this respect the fine appearance 
and excellent flavor of his experimental effort proved 
entirely satisfactory. The next year the base of 
operations was changed to San Jose, the cannery 
being located on Sixteenth and Julian Streets, in an 
orchard, and a partnership formed with W. S. Stevens, 
a brother-in-law. The pack that season was double 
that of the first. 

The third year, 1873, another addition was made 
to the firm, including Lendrum, Burns & Co., grocers, 



1 



\-r^ 





'-/- 



77t^ ^- 



PEN FICTUBES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



175 



the firm name beings J. M. Dawson & Co. A large 
building was erected on the corner of Fifth and Julian 
Streets, in which the pack of that season was made, 
which reached eight thousand cases. A year or two 
later the business was incorporated under the title of 
San Jose Fruit Packing Co., Dr. Dawson being made 
president. The plant was enlarged, and the pack 
increased to twenty-five thousand cases a year. The 
business continued in this way till 1878, when, the 
cares and responsibilities proving too great for his 
failing health, Dr. Dawson disposed of his interest 
and retired. The trade had extended beyond the 
limits of California and across the mountains to the 
Eastern cities. 

In 1879 Dr. Dawson returned to his place on the 
Alameda, and resumed the business in a moderate 
way, in a building erected for the purpose in the rear 
of their residence, under his individual name, J. M. 
Dawson. The following year he took in his son, 
E. L. Dawson, as an equal partner, the firm title 
becoming "The J. PlI. Dawson Packing Company." 
The plant was enlarged from year to year, the front- 
age changed to Myrtle Street, and the pack corre- 
spondingly increased. 

In 1883 Dr. Dawson retired, placing the active 
management in the hands of his son, the junior 
partner, who has conducted the business ever since. 
The old gentleman's health steadily declined, and he 
passed away in March, 1885. His interest in the 
business passed into the hands of the widow, who is 
still a joint owner with her son, under whose enter- 
prising management it has prospered and grown. 
The pack and sale of canned goods by the firm in 
1887 was over one hundred and forty thousand cases, 
giving employment during the busy season to from 
three hundred to five hundred hands. The aim of 
the Dawson Packing Company has always been for 
the highest standard of excellence in the quality of 
their goods, and no brand of canned fruits ranks higher. 
Great strides of improvement have been made in the 
methods of fruit-packing during the past few years> 
as the result of much study and experimenting. The 
fruit is cooked by steam, after being put into the cans 
cold, and, wherever possible, machinery has taken the 
place of hand labor, and the process expedited and 
cheapened many fold, while the quality of the goods 
has been improved. This personal thought and study 
have developed methods somewhat independent of 
each other, which are, in a measure, the private and 
secret property of their respective discoverers; there- 



fore the fruit is handled in each establishment in a 
manner peculiarly its own. 

James M. Dawson was a native of Maryland, born 
in 1809. Came to Ohio a young man, where he 
studied and practiced medicine a few \ ears. He 
removed to Iowa in 185 1, and from there came to 
California, in 1870. While in Iowa he married Eloise 
Jones. The widow, two sons, and a daughter, survive 
him. Mrs. Dawson and the daughter reside in the 
pleasant homestead on the Alameda. E. L. Dawson 
was born in 1859, and was educated in the University 
of the Pacific. After leaving college he started in as 
an apprentice in the canning business, learning the 
details of every department, and thus is complete 
master of the situation. 

The history of the Golden Gate Packing Com- 
pany is related in the following biographical sketch : — 

George M. Bowman, vice-president of the Garden 
City National Bank of San Jose, is also superintend- 
ent and seen tary of the Golden Gate Packing Com- 
pany, and has had charge of the extensive busi- 
ness of this company in his present capacity for 
eleven years, during which time it has grown to 
be one of the largest fruit-packing establishments 
on the Pacific Coast. The company was incorpo- 
rated in 1877, some of the members composing 
it having started the fruit-canning business in a 
small way on the site of the present works, Third 
and Fourth Streets, between Julian and Hensley 
Avenue, two years previously. The company in- 
creased the facility for the business by erecting new 
buildings and other improvements the first year 
after its incorporation. In 1881 the entire plant was 
destroyed by fire. New and larger buildings im- 
mediately succeeded the old ones, which were fitted 
up with the best and most approved machinery, con- 
stituting a plant worth $50,000. They manufacture 
most of the cans used, and their pack, which 
averages one million, nine hundred and twenty-five 
thousand cans, includes vegetables and all the varie- 
ties of fruits grown in the Santa Clara Valley. Dur- 
ing the busy season, from four hundred to four 
hundred and fifty hands are employed. The con- 
stant aim of the management has been to attain 
the highest standard of excellence for their goods, 
and the " Golden Gate " brand is recognized by 
dealers and consumers, wherever introduced, as 
having no superior. The principal market for their 
product is the New England States, though their 
goods are shipped to all parts of the United States, 
and to Canada, England, India, and Australia. Their 



176 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



fruits are carefully selected, put up in heavy syrup 
made from the best white sugar, and are held in such 
high esteem that they have had an extensive sale in 
Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. Messrs. Cross 
& Blackwell, of London, England (the celebrated 
pickle firm), proposed to become the sole agents for 
Great Britain for the " Golden Gate " apricots, and 
to handle no others. Mr. Bowman, to whose careful 
and able management the present enviable reputation 
and success of this company is largely due, is a native 
of Iowa, born in Dubuque forty-four years ago ; was 
educated at Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa, 
and came to California in 1866. Previous to engaging 
in the canning business he was employed ten years by 
the Wells, Fargo Express Company. He married 
Miss A. C. Coldren, at Boone, Iowa, in 1866, who was 
educated at the same institution as himself The 
family consists of two sons and one daughter, and 
their home is one of the handsomest in the Garden 
City. 

The Los Gatos Fruit Packing Company was organ- 
ized in 1S82, with a capital stock of $10,000, which 
has since been increased to $25,000. It has only four- 
teen stockholders, and there is no stock to be bought. 
Its officers are Samuel Templeton, President; James E. 
Gordon, Secretary; J. W. Lyndon, Treasurer; Robert 
Walker and Michael Miller, Directors. The institution 
commenced work in a building 60x80 feet, with ma- 
chinery giving them a capacity of five thousand cases 
for the season. The product of this factory was sent 
to England, where it immediately attracted attention, 
and contracts were made with Liverpool dealers for 
the entire pack for the two following years. The 
favor with which their goods were met in the market 
necessitated enlarged facilities; new buildings were 
erected and new and improved machinery and ap- 
paratus were procured. Their plant has been steadily 
increased to meet the demands of the trade, until 
they now employ two hundred and fifty hands and 
require a sixty-horse-power boiler to do their cook- 
ing. The pack of 1887 was eight hundred and forty 
thousand cans, and will be much more this season. 



We have run ahead of our chronology in order to 
give the foregoing statements in regard to the growth 
of the fruit-packing industry. The canneries, when 
established, seemed able to take care of all the fruit 
suitable for that method of packing. But there were 
varieties which the canners could not utilize to ad- 
vantage in this manner. Notably among these were 
prunes and apples, and some varieties of plums. In 



July, 1874, a company was formed called the "Aldeii 
Fruit and Vegetable Preserving Company." The pro- 
jectors were W. H. Leeman, F. C. Leeman, C. T, 
Settle, Ira Cottle, M. R. Brown, Royal Cottle, Oliver 
Cottle, S. Newhall, W. W. Cozzens, R. C. Swan, 
K. D. Berre, A. D. Colton, Miles Hills, J. M. Batter, 
T. B. Keesling, M. Hale, and Pedro de Saisset. They 
purchased an Alden evaporator and placed it at the 
corner of San Salvador Street extension and Josefa 
Street. The machine was of no great capacity and 
did not work satisfactorily, but it turned out some 
good fruit, and in 1876 the company made a shipment 
of about fifteen tons of dried apricots. The returns 
from this shipment were so large that it satisfied the 
people that there was a great future for fruit-growing 
in this county. They knew that methods could and 
would be devised for putting their product into an 
imperishable shape for transportation, and they started 
in with vigor to plant their orchards. At this time 
the Willows was the principal orchard section of the 
county. The older orchards of Ballan Tarleton, Aram 
Vestal, and others that we have mentioned, were north 
of San Jose, and David Hobson had an orchard to- 
ward Berryessa. The orchards of Gould and Wat- 
kins were at Santa Clara, and there were others in 
other places, but the Willows was nearly all planted 
to fruit, and it came to be believed by some that this 
was the only section in the county where this industry 
could be successfully prosecuted. There is a record 
of one man who owned a fine place near Berryessa, 
and bought a tract of ground in the Willows in order 
to have an orchard. That same Berryessa farm is 
now one of the most promising orchards in the country. 
In 1856 Lyman J. Burrell planted an orchard and 
vineyard in the mountains near the Santa Cruz line. 
The trees and vines did well; some of the old peach 
trees that were planted at that time are still alive and 
are bearing full crops. This was the first planting in 
the mountains, or, in fact, outside the little circle 
around San Jose and Santa Clara, as we have before 
related, with the exception of an orchard planted by 
Benj. Casey in 1855 or 1S56, on the Los Gatos road 
near where the Cambrian school-house now stands. 
In 1873 the almond orchard now nearly covered by 
the town of Los Gatos was planted, and in 1874 the 
large orchard on the Los Gatos road now owned by 
Mrs. Gardner was set out, and also the almonds on 
the Kennedy place. Mr. J. F. Kennedy, whose bio- 
graphical sketch appears on another page, came to 
California in 1852 as salesman for the nursery of 
Commodore Stockton. In i860 he moved upon 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



177 



what is now known as the Kennedy ranch, near Los 
Gates, where he planted a small orchard for family use. 
There were some few small orchards in the Santa 
Cruz Mountains, chiefly of apples and pears, as early 
as 1874, but this region, with the foot-hills on this side, 
took no rank as a fruit country until about 1880. In 
1S76 W. D. Pollard planted twenty acres* two miles 
north of Saratoga, and the next year the planting of 
the famous O'Baniar & Kent Orchard (now owned by 
James E. Gordon) was commenced. William Rice 
also planted an orchard in the same neighborhood. 
These men were looked upon as possessed of a sort 
of lunacy. It was first predicted that the trees would 
not grow in such dry, thin soil. When the trees did 
grow it was prophesied that they would never have 
vigor enough to bear a paying crop. At six years 
old the trees yielded about $500 per acre, and then the 
prediction was that they would die out in a few years. 
But as time passed and the trees did not die, but con- 
tinued to bear good crops, the people accepted the 
revelation and commenced to plant for themselves. 
Land which had before been held at $30 per acre 
jumped to $100, and is still increasing in value. Land 
on the brushy hill-sides, considered worth about $10 
an acre, has been cleared and planted and now is 
covered with profitable orchards and vineyards. At 
the present time there is scarcely a ten-acre tract 
along the foot-hills from Los Gatos north that is not 
occupied with fruit. 

The orchard interests of the Berryessa District are 
practically of a recent date. David Hobson had an 
orchard in that vicinity planted sometime in the '6o's, 
and Isaiah Shaw had also a small orchard, but it 
was not until 1880, when Mr. Flickinger commenced 
the " Pacific Orchard," that the fruit development of 
this section really began. 



J. H. Flickinger, one of the leading exponents of 
the fruit industry of Santa Clara County, is the sub- 
ject of this sketch. Coming to this valley in 1849, 
observing the gradual unfolding of the resources of 
the section, and grasping, with a keenly intuitive in- 
stinct, its wonderful possibilities, he has always been 
foremost in advocating and illustrating these possi- 
bilities by personal exertion. Mr. Flickinger was 
born in Germany in 1830, but from a child reared in 
Erie, Pennsylvania. His parents, Adam and Katie 
(Hechtman) Flickinger, were long residents of Erie, 
and owned a farm near the place. He received his 
early education in the usual neighborhood schools, 
later attending for two years an academy in Erie. 

At the age of nineteen, attracted by the wonderful 



stories told of the then almost unknown California 
auii its treasures of gold, he went to New York and 
took passage for this State, around Cape Horn, on 
the bark Clyde., which left port on the twenty-fourth 
of April, 1849. On the trip, while off the Cape, 
they encountered a terrible snow-storm, which in- 
crusted the sails and cordage with ice, and froze the 
rudder, causing the ship to drift for twenty days 
toward the south pole, during which time of anxiety 
they were imperiled by floating icebergs, and so near 
exhausting their provisions that the passengers and 
crew were put on an allowance of one hard-tack 
cracker and a cup of water per day! Fortunately, 
the wind changed and they weathered the Cape, 
reaching Valparaiso on the first of August, where 
they remained three weeks to recruit, and provision 
the ship, arriving at last in San Francisco on the first 
of November, 1849. 

Mr. Flickinger came to San Jose in December, the 
"Legislature of a thousand drinks" being then in 
session. He at once opened a meat market, which 
he kept through the winter. When the Legislature 
adjourned he went to the mines, where he remained 
until September, 1850, when he returned to his San 
Jose meat market. In the spring of 1851 he extLnded 
his business to general merchandising, in which he 
continued two years, when he closed this and went 
into the wholesale cattle business, exclusively. He 
continued in this until April, 1886, when he went into 
the fruit-canning business. In 1880 he had purchased 
part of the land which he now has in orchard, adding 
to it at different times until he has now two hundred 
and fifty acres on Berryessa Avenue and Lundy's 
Lane, on which he has planted twenty-five thousand 
trees, — one thousand cherries, eight thousand apricots, 
ten thousand peaches, and six thousand prunes, of 
which, in 1887, about fifteen thousand were in bearing. 
When he purchased this land it was in pasture, 
grain, and mustard, and honeycombed by squirrels 
and gophers, and did not pay current expenses and 
taxes. He immediately inaugurated a revolution, — 
planted his orchard, fought squirrels and gophers, 
spent money lavishly, but judiciously, until, as a re- 
sult of his efforts, in 1887, in his cannery and drying 
establishment, he employed over four hundred persons, 
turning out of the orchard goods that sold for over 
$100,000. These are some of the results which can 
be obtained in Santa Clara County by well-directed 
effort combined with pluck and knowledge. The 
cost of his canning and drying plant has been about 
$20,000. 



178 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



In 1858 Mr. Flickinger was married to Miss 
Mary A. Smith, a native of New York, her parents 
being Dr. China and Parnell (Hall) Smith, who came 
to California, from Rochester, New York, in 1855. 
Dr. Smith died in 1885, aged eighty years, and his 
wife in 1880. Both died in and were buried at San 
Jose. There have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Flick- 
inger five children : Katie and Charles S. (twins), born 
in i860, the former now the wife of L. F. Graham, of 
San Luis Obispo, and the latter in business with his 
father; H. A., born in 1864, also in business with his 
father; Nellie, born in 1868, now the wife of J. R- 
Patton ; Sarah, born in 1870, attending, in 1888, the 
Normal School. Mr. Flickinger's father, who is now 
(1888) over eighty years of age, is still living on the 
old homestead in Erie, Pennsylvania; his mother died 
in 1862. He has been a member of the I. O. O. F. 
Lodge, No. 34, San Jose. In 1856 he joined the Re- 
publican party, helping to carry this county for Fre- 
mont and Dayton, and has worked in this harness 
ever since. He believes in the fullest protection of 
American industries. 



In 1856 Sylvester Newhall came to Santa Clara 
County and established a nursery on the banks of the 
Coyote, which, after a few years, he sold and removed 
to the Willows. He had an abiding faith in the hor- 
ticulture of Santa Clara County from the first, and 
has done his share toward making that faith a reality. 
He has not only constructed a large nursery, but he 
has also planted about a hundred acres of orchard, 
which is at this time coming into full fruition. 

In 1863 came John Rock, a German by birth, but 
with many years' experience in the nurseries at 
Rochester, New York, and other noted fruit-growing 
sections of the East. He established a small nursery 
on land near Alviso, rented from Malavos. He soon 
moved from there to Wm. Boots' place, and in 1865 
purchased forty-eight acres on the Milpitas road near 
San Jose, which he planted to a nursery of fruit and 
ornamental trees. In 1879 this place became too 
small for his operations, and he purchased his present 
location, of one hundred and thirty-eight acres, near 
Wayne Station. The rapid strides of the California 
fruit interests made such demands on the Santa Clara 
County nurseries that in 1884 Mr. Rock, with R. D. 
Fox and several other nurserymen, organized the 
California Nursery Company, and purchased four 
hundred and sixty-three acres of land near Niles, of 
which three hundred and thirty-three acres are now 
planted and furnishing stock,and the remainder will be 



planted during the season of 1888-89. Mr. Rock's ex- 
hibiton of Santa Clara County nursery product'^ at the 
New Orleans Expositon of 1884 received the award of 
all the principal premiums offered in that department. 
The capital stock of the California Nursery Company 
is $100,000, and John Rock is its President, and R. D. 
Fox, its Vice-President. Although these nurseries 
are just outside the county limits, we speak of them 
as belonging to Santa Clara County, for the reason 
that they are the result of Santa Clara County energy 
and Santa Clara County capital. 

As has been previously stated, there was a consid- 
erable period during which there was a prevailing 
opinion that the Willows was the true fruit section of 
the county. In reference to this opinion very little 
planting was done outside this district except for home 
use. It was especially held that west and south, 
toward the foot-hills, where the water was so far be- 
neath the surface, trees could not grow and produce 
profitable crops. One of the first to break over this 
popular superstition was Mr. T. W. Mitchell, the re- 
sult of whose efforts is here given. 



Thomas W. Mitchell is the proprietor of the San 
Tomas Orchard, the largest orchard in the San Tomas 
District. The property fronts the Quito road, and is 
situated about one mile southeast of Saratoga. Mr. 
Mitchell's residence, whichis approached from the road 
over an avenue eighty rods in length, stands near the 
center of his one hundred and eighteen acres, of which 
eighty-three acres are in orchard. He bought the place 
in 1 88 1. It was then in bad condition, having been 
devoted many years to grain culture, and sadly neg- 
lected. Years were spent in bringing the property 
into its present fine condition. Now (in 18S8) it is no 
disparagement to others to say that no property in 
the neighborhood shows better care and skill in man- 
agement, or produces better results than does this — 
in fact, 'tis not saying too much when it is stated 
that no better orchard can be found in the country. 

Fifteen acres are devoted to the culture of seventeen 
hundred cherry trees, principally of the Tartarian, 
Governor Wood, and Royal Ann varieties. No 
fruit of this kind in the county ranks higher than does 
Mr. Mitchell's in the San Francisco market. The crop 
of 1887 brought $2,500. Three hundred and fifty 
young peach trees comprise the peach orchard, and four 
thousand prune trees (chiefly PVench), the prune 
orchard. These, with six hundred almond trees, 
Oregon and Bulgarian prune trees, apple and pear 
trees, besides a vineyard covering twenty acres 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF TEE WORLD.' 



179 



(planted generally in rows alternating with peach 
and prune trees), make the grand total of product 
and revenue. The entire property of one hundred and 
eighteen acres is made excellent in improvement and 
grand in productive results. 

Mr. Mitchell was born in Fifeshire, Scotland, No- 
vember 29, 1825. He is the son of William and Eliza- 
beth Mitchell. The family came to the United States, 
and settled in Kenosha County, Wisconsin. There the 
subject of this sketch married Miss Martha Williams, 
in 1856. Later, they removed to Walworth County, 
and from Wisconsin came to California in 1861. They 
made Calaveras County their home for seven years, 
leaving it in 1868 to become residents of San Jose. 
There they lived until they took possession of their 
Santa Clara home (before described), in 1881. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell are the parents of three 
children, of whom two, Ada and Frank, are living. 
Carrie, the wife of Charles C. Worthington, died at 
the age of twenty-nine years. Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell 
have in their care her two children, Ada Louisa and 
Georgia May. Both Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell are con- 
sistent members of the Baptist Church. 

Mr. Mitchell has been a steadfast supporter of the 
Republican party ever since its organization. 



In 1880 G. W. Gardner purchased the tract on 
the Los Gatos road at the northwest corner of what 
is now called "Orchard Homes." It ran from the 
corner westerly to the narrow-gauge railroad. This 
he planted the same and the following years, about 
the same time. Henry Curtner, who had purchased 
what was known as the "Johnson Farm," situated to 
the south and east of Gardner's, sold it out in sub- 
divisions and it was planted in 1882 and 1S83. 

The Leigh tract was subdivided and sold in 1882 
and planted the following spring. 

Newhall's forty-acre prune orchard was planted in 
1883. Most of the other orchards on Hamilton Av- 
enue were planted the year before. About this time 
also were planted the orchards around Campbell's 
Station, along the Infirmary road and Gruwell road. 

Cozzen's large prune orchard on the Kirk tract was 
planted in 1882, and the one at the corner of the Stev- 
ens Creek and Infirmary road was planted in 1883. 

The Bradley prune orchard was planted in 1875, 
and it was the great yield of these trees that induced 
much of the planting of French prunes. The product 
of this orchard, which contains ten acres, has run from 
$2,500 to $4,000 each season since the trees were six 
years old. The large plantings north and west of 



Santa Clara date from 1880, and so with the Doyle, 
Cupertino, and other districts west. Although there are 
some older orchards around Mayfield and Mountain 
View, the real interest in fruit-growing is only about 
four 3'ears old. The same may be said of the Evergreen 
District, and the country to the south of San Jose, and 
along the Monterey road and in the vicinity of Gil- 
roy. Many years ago Mr. Hiram Pomeroy demon- 
strated the capacity of the Little Calaveras Valley as 
a fruit section, but as nearly all of that valley is 
owned by the Spring Valley Water Company, no 
extensive plantings have been made. The hill-sides 
and slopes to the east of Milpitas have long been 
noted for their peculiarly mild climate, the Portuguese 
gardeners growing peas, potatoes, and other vege- 
tables for the midwinter market. In the last six 
years many orchards have been planted in this region, 
as well as to the north towards the Warm Spring 
section. 

It would not be profitable, even if possible, to give 
the names of the owners and dates of planting of 
all the orchards in the county. Among the biograph- 
ical sketches in this book will be found the experiences 
of very many of the leading fruit-growers, and these 
sketches are intended to fill up the details of this gen- 
eral history. It has been our endeavor to give starting 
points from which those interested can trace the 
growth of this great industry, which is evidently to 
become the destiny of Santa Clara County. 

We have noted the transition of fruit culture from 
the apple and pear to the apricot, peach, prune, and 
other similar fruits, and we should here note the signs 
of another departure. The absorption of our grain 
and wheat fields and hill-sides by the horticultural in- 
terests has caused some people to predict that, in time, 
the pastures having been converted to other uses, 
meat will become as scarce as in Italy and the fruit 
and vine section-, of France. While the millions of 
acres of mountain land yet remaining may furnish 
range for cattle and goats for an indefinite period, 
they are sure that the days of the "American Hog" in 
California are numbered. Following the example of 
Eastern nations, they propose a substitute in the olive. 
Whatever may be the fate of our cattle and hog in- 
terest, it is a fact that the planting of olives has re- 
ceived a great impetus since 1886. The demands on 
the nurseries have been more than could be supplied, 
although their stocks have been greatly increased by 
large importations. These demands promise a large 
increase for future years, and point to a time when 
olive culture will be general throughout this countr>'. 



180 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD: 



In view of this fact it will be in place to relate what 
has been done in this direction to the present time. 
We have spoken of the olives cultivated at the mis- 
sions. Other trees were planted afterCalifornia became 
a part of the United States, principally for home use 
by persons of French, or Italian, or Spanish birth or 
parentage. The first attempt of any magnitude at the 
cultivation of olives in an orchard was at what is now 
known as 

THE QUITO OLIVE AND VINE FARM. 
This farm of eighty-one acres, distant eight miles 
from San Jose, is situated on the Quito road near its 
junction with Saratoga Avenue. This particular spot 
in his great rancho was chosen by Seilor Don Jose 
Ramon Arguello for his country homestead, and here, 
in 1865, he planted the first of the olives, a small vine- 
yard, and a fruit orchard. His death, in 1876, led to 
a division of the estate, and in December, 1882, the 
olive farm passed into the hands of the present pro- 
prietor. The development of the place has been car- 
ried forward slowly but steadily since that date. The 
olives had been planted at the extremely short dis- 
tance of sixteen and a half feet, and were suffering 
from insufficient soil and lack of air and sun, and in 
the month of March, 1883, twelve hundred and fifty 
of from ten to seventeen years of age were cut to the 
stock and transplanted, with but small loss. Some of 
these transplanted trees were in fruit the past season, 
while the remainder are in full bloom for a crop in 
the season to come. The trimmings of the trees were 
made into cuttings, and from the nurseries of 1883 and 
the two following years, nearly fifty thousand trees 
have been furnished to the farm itself, and to the new 
olive orchards of this and adjacent counties, and be- 
sides these many thousand cuttings have been sup- 
plied as such. The entire place is now planted in 
olives, and vines are planted between the rows of trees, 
as has been the custom for many centuries in Italy 
and Spain. There are twenty-five hundred trees of 
from fifteen to twenty-three years of age, and three 
thousand of five and six years' growth, from the cut- 
tings, and thirty-two thousand vines of standard wine 
varieties. During these years (i 882-1 888), everything 
has been made subservient to the development of the 
place, in the rc-making of the old orchard, the making 
of the new, and the planting of the vines; but, not- 
withstanding this, the oil of 1885 stood first in the 
tests at the New Orleans Exposition, and received a 
diploma there, as at various California fairs, and the 
pickled olives of that anel the following years met with 
a rapid sale. 



The wonderful growth of the olive in the excep- 
tionally favorable soil and climate of Santa Clara 
Valley makes it necessary to give it unusually large 
distances, and, although the removal of one-half 
the trees of the older orchard on alternate diagonal 
lines, left the remaining trees at twenty-three and one- 
third feet distance, their growth has been such as to 
demonstrate the need of still further removals. In this 
season, in March, a number of trees were transplanted, 
all or nearly all trees now of twenty-three years, and 
all trees which had been previously transplanted in 
1883. In the coming winter from six to eight hun- 
dred old trees will be transplanted from the oldest 
orchard. 

It will be readily seen that it is quite impossible 
to give estimates as to the production of olives, and 
the profits of olive culture, whether for oil or olives 
in pickle, based on the experience of the Quito, be- 
cause, up to 1883, the trees were entirely too crowded 
to be productive, and because, since that date, the 
older trees have been recovering from those years of 
insufficient space, of abuse and neglect, or re-making 
themselves from the stock, while the younger trees 
have not as yet reached the year of bearing. The 
grove does, however, prove beyond a question that 
the soil and climate of Santa Clara Valley are exceed- 
ingly well-suited to the olive, and that the variety 
known as the "Mission Olive" can produce oil of a 
high grade, and olives in pickle which find a ready 
sale in the home market. 

The buildings consist of an oil mill — in the upper' 
story of which the proprietor has fitted up a quaint 
apartment, with the crusher and press addition — 
winery, barn, and commodious houses for the force. 
A homestead lot between old oaks, olives, and peppers 
has been left for a residence; and an attractive feature 
of the place is the "Pergola," an arbor two hundred 
feet long by ten broad, made of heavy redwood posts 
and cross beams, on which climb choice varieties of 
table grapes, and to the south of which is a line of 
old olives and fruit trees alternated. In the coming 
year this will be so completely covered as to give a 
shady resort from summer heat. It was from vines 
of this arbor that astonished Eastern horticulturists 
gathered grapes still palatable, even after the extreme 
frosts of the season, on the day of their drive through 
the valley, January 27, 1888. Not far from this arbor 
are some old cherries which seem rather shade than 
fruit trees, in their extraordinary size. Seiior Arguello 
showed himself well acquainted with his great estate 
when he chose this spot for the family country home. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



ISl 



for its position, although on the plain, commands a 
view exceptionally extensive and beautiful, while its 
soil admits no rival for fruit culture. 

Whether considered as a place of residence, as an 
olive farm, or as a wine farm, the Quito is one of the 
choice properties of the valley, and one of the most 
beautiful. Its position is such, as related to the many 
vineyards in the locality, that its plant for wine pro- 
duction and storage will, almost of necessity, be in- 
creased this year or the following year. In such case 
the arrangement of machinery would be so adjusted 
that in the future, besides a large wine production, it 
will be able to deal not only with its own olives, but 
with the olives of a large district, as the newly-planted 
olive orchards come into bearing; for in olive culture 
it is inevitable that the system of manufacture will be 
the same as in the vine and fruit cultures, and as in the 
olive culture of Italy — the product of many farms will 
be brought to central mills for the process of manu- 
facture. This is a most desirable economy of ma- 
chinery, and of skilled and experienced labor as well- 
This is the Quito's natural and seemingly inevitable 
evolution. It is clear that the increase of the olive 
interest in the State, but especially in Santa Clara 
County, will be very great in the next few years. 

Besides the profit of the olive farm, this tree has cer- 
tain especial attractions. By its almost unlimited life 
an olive orchard is ever increasing in value. By its 
hardihood it can occupy much land unacceptable to 
other fruit trees, and almost valueless for general farm 
uses. The world's demand for olive-oil is so far in 
advance of the supply that few articles of consump- 
tion are equally adulterated or absolutely falsified, 
and the mere local demand of California for pure oil 
is to-day far in excess of the present supply, and 
increases more rapidly than the production. These 
facts seem to relegate the question of a possible over- 
production to a future so very distant that the olive 
farmer may safely leave it out of his calculation, even 
when thinking of his olives as his legacy to children 
and grandchildren. The olive-oil interest of Califor- 
nia is even safe from tariff juggling, which seems to 
threaten other fruit interests so dangerously at the 
present time, for it is competing only with adultera- 
tions and fabrications, and its patrons are such because 
it is what they demand — pure olive oil. 

There is another important consideration favorable 
to an increasing olive industry which is being slowly 
recognized. It seems as if this interest must be pushed 
to a great development as offering a solution, and at 
the present the only solution, of the labor question as 



related to the harvesting of the fruit crop. What 
other than a very extensive olive interest, with its 
winter harvest — namely, November 15 to May i — can 
take up the great mass of floating labor needed for 
the fruit and vine industries, as these set free in No- 
vember, and carry it on until they call for it again in 
May? Such there may be, but as yet it is unknown 
in California. If such a development should come, 
in but a few years the little Quito will be unnoticeable 
among the many and larger groves of the county; but 
it will always have its modest place in the history of 
the valley as the first (that of the American excepted), 
and that where the experiments, always necessary in a 
new industry, and often, for a time, disappointing and 
unsatisfactory to the beginner, have been tried out; 
and to those who read the history of their home, 
their long lines of somber green will stand for years, 
per aps for centuries, a pleasing memorial of the 
cultured Spanish gentleman who alone of his genera- 
tion foresaw the wonderful future of his beloved and 
beautiful valley; nor will they forget to bless the 
memory of the old Spanish Padres who brought the 
olive with them from their Iberian home across the 
sea. Lovers will bide tryst under the spreading 
branches, and brides, perhaps, meet their grooms at 
the altar, as did Beatrice the immortal Dante, in pur- 
gatory, "above the veil of dazzling white, bound with 
the olive wreath;" for through all the centuries it has 
come down to us as the emblem of wisdom, and has 
been borne by the herald ever as a sign of peace. 

The proprietor of the Quito Olive Farm, Mr. Ed- 
ward E. Goodrich, was born at Maiden, Massachusetts, 
August 12, 1 84s, but is of the New Haven branch of 
the Connecticut family of the name. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale College in the class of 1866, and at the 
Albany Law School in 1867. April 23, 1878, he was 
married to Miss Sara M. Shafter, daughter of the 
late Judge Oscar L. Shafter, of the Supreme Court of 
this State. Mr. and Mrs. Goodrich have four children 
— one boy and three girls. 

The citrus fruits have been cultivated in Santa 
Clara County for a period antedating tradition. Or- 
ange and lemon trees early found place in the mis- 
sion orchard, and many were brought here by the 
earlier immigrants from Mexico. They were com- 
mon in the door-yards and gardens of the old Span- 
ish homesteads, and bore abundant fruit, although not 
of the best quality. Orange and lemon trees of a 
better variety were, many years ago, planted on the 
grounds of W. H. Rogers and W. S. McMurtry at 
Los Gatos, and grew thriftily and bore well. Chris- 



182 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



tian Feldstadt, on the eastern foot-hills, had an or- 
chard of oranges and semi-tropical fruits, which was a 
source of considerable profit. 

In 1880 Mr. Harvey Wilcox planted sixteen acres 
to oranges in the hills overlooking Los Gatos, on the 
property now occupied by the Catholic fathers. At 
six years of age these trees brought a large harvest 
of beautiful fruit. As a rule citrus fruits were not 
planted for the market, but as an ornament, and to 
furnish a home supply. For this reason public atten- 
tion was not called to this branch of horticulture un- 
til the winter of 1886-87. At that time the San Jose 
Horticultural Society called a citrus fair, when or- 
anges and lemons were presented for exhibition from 
one hundred and sixty-three different localities in the 
county. Many of these exhibits were from orchards 
of considerable acreage, whose owners testified to 
healthy growth and satisfactory fruitage. This ex- 
hibition was made, not for the purpose of showing 
citrus culture as a leading industry of the valley, but 
to demonstrate to Eastern visitors that Santa Clara 
County possessed a soil and climate suitable to the 
growth of those fruits. 

It is very doubtful whether orange culture ever be- 
comes a very important branch of Santa Clara County 
horticulture. This will not be for lack of adaptability 
of soil and climate, but because it does not pay so 
well as other departments of fruit-growing, nor is it 
so sure or capable of being conducted with so little 
labor. Oranges must be marketed in a fresh state, 
and must be transported long distances at high freight 
rates, while the profit is not in proportion to the risk. 
In other fruits the producer can place his crop in an 
imperishable state, and hold it until the condition of 
the market suits him to offer it for sale. The profit 
on the stardard fruits grown in Santa Clara County, 
rui :s from $1 50 to $200 per acre, which is large enough 
to suit any reasonable disposition. 

We have spoken of the operations of the Alden 
Fruit and Vegetable Preserving Company, as giving 
a great impetus to the orchard business. The com- 
pany met with no success in its work, because the 
machine used was incompetent. It, however, dem- 
onstrated what could be done with proper apparatus. 
After the Alden Company retired, Mr. W. W. Coz- 
zens took up the business of fruit evaporating, erect- 
ing a drier at his place in the Willows, and conducted 
it successfully until his death, when it was taken in 
hand by his sons, who have made great improvement 
in machinery and methods, and are still carrying on 
the work. Geo. A. and C. F. Fleming, of the Wil- 



lows, soon went into the business with an evaporator 
of their own invention. In 1887 they erected exten- 
sive branch works at Campbell's Station, and in 1888, 
at Marysville, Yuba County. More particulars of 
these operations will be found in the personal histo- 
ries of these gentlemen, elsewhere recorded in this 
book. 

The rapid increase in the yield of the orchards led 
to apprehensions that the production would outrun 
the capacity of the canneries and evaporators. It had 
come to be a popular belief that an evaporator was 
necessary to the proper drying of fruit, and there was 
a great demand for this kind of machinery. Many 
inventions were presented, but they either lacked in 
ability to do good work, or in capacity to do enough 
of it, or were too expensive to be operated with profit. 
The idea that fruit must be machine-dried to secure 
the top market prices, was gathered from compara- 
tive quotations in Eastern prices current. It did not 
occur to the people that the Eastern sunshine was 
different from the sunshine in the Santa Clara Val- 
ley; that, in that country, they had frequent summer 
rains and heavy dews at night, while in this valley 
there was a high barometer, no summer rains, and no 
dew, and that here sun-drying was equivalent to evap- 
oration, with the only difference that it was a slightly 
longer operation. To offset the difference in time 
was the fact that all out-of-doors was available to the 
sun-drier, and that the amount of fruit that could be 
exposed at once more than made up for the time re- 
quired for its curing. 

But the people came to know these things in a 
natural way. The apricot crop of 1887 was unusu- 
ally large. Many new orchards came into bearing 
that year, while the older trees had more capacity. 
Every tree of three years of age or more was bend- 
ing beneath its load of fruit. The canneries and 
evaporators could not handle one-third of the crop, 
and the orchardists were compelled to resort to sun- 
drying or permit their crops to rot under the trees. 
They chose the latter, and the result was a revela- 
tion. By properly preparing the fruit it came from 
the drying trays bright and luscious in appearance, 
and, in the opinion of experts, fully equal, if not su- 
perior, in quality to that cured by machine. The 
experience of that j-ear settled the problem of pre- 
paring fruit for market, and settled it in a manner 
most satisfactory to the orchardist. 

The experience of 1887 also solved another problem 
that was causing considerable anxiety on the part of 
the fruit-grower. The thoughtful ones had for some 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



183 



time been working with the labor question. They 
foresaw the time when the fruit yield would be too 
large to be handled by the available workmen then 
in the valley. When the large crop of this year came 
on they concluded that the crisis had arrived. And 
so it had ; but it did not bring the disaster that had 
been* anticipated. The trustees of the different schools 
extended the summer vacation, and women and chil- 
dren went to the orchards. The crop was all har- 
vested in good shape, and the children earned a great 
deal of money. Girls twelve years old could earn 
$i.OO a day, and others older or more skillful earned 
from $i.oo to $2.00 per day. Boys learned habits 
of industry, and, as working in the orchards was 
popular, none were ashamed of the labor. Besides 
showing the fruit-growers where to secure their future 
help, the moral lesson of 1887 was invaluable. 

In 1886 the consumers of fruit in the East became 
convinced that the prunes grown in Santa Clara 
County were superior in quality to those grown in 
France, when similar grades were compared. This 
superiority is due to two causes: First, because the 
peculiar soil and climate of this section induces a 
thriftier growth and a more perfect ripening of the 
fruit, and complete development of the sugar; second, 
because of the method of curing practiced here. In 
France the process through which the prunes are 
carried results in cooking the fruit to a greater or less 
extent. This renders it soft and pleasant to eat in 
a raw state, but when made into sauce it loses much 
of its flavor. In the California process, where the 
fruit is cured by exposure to the sun, no cooking 
results, and the fruit retains its full flavor. 

In 1887 a gentleman from France visited San Jose, 
and represented himself as having been a superin- 
tendent of one of the large prune-curing establish- 
ments of Bordeaux. He desired to establish a similar 
business here, and offered to guaranty that the Cali- 
fornia-dried prunes, treated by the French process, 
would recover seventy-five per cent of the weight lost 
in drying. While the secret of his process was not 
divulged, it must necessarily be inferred that the 
weight thus restored would be in the nature of 
moisture, and while it would add to the specific 
gravity of the fruit, w uld not increase the quantity 
of nutritious elements. This indicates that while the 
weight of California-cured prunes is made up en- 
tirely of the fruit elements, that by the French process 
is, to a considerable extent, of water. 

We have seen that the planting of strawberries in 
this county was first undertaken as an industry in the 



Willows District, but was abandoned when planting 
began in the artesian belt. The first strawberry plants 
brought to this county came with Commodore Stock- 
ton's nursery tree-, in 1S52. They were grown for 
fruit to a limited extent on the Stockton ranch, but 
were not planted for market purposes until Downs 
and Orne set out their three-acre tract in the Willows. 
The present strawberry section lies north of San Jose 
and Santa Clara, towards Milpitas and Alviso. The 
first person to go into this business in this district 
was Mr. Cary Peebels, who planted a few acres, in 
1868, on the place now owned by Mr. Agnew, at 
Agnew's Station. His success induced other plant- 
ings, and in a very short time the whole belt of 
country where flowing artesian water was available 
was engaged in this industry. In many instances 
too great an acreage was devoted to strawberries. 
Charles Wade, on the Alviso road, had one hundred 
and forty acres planted in 1874, but was compelled 
to curtail his operations for the reason that labor 
could not be obtained to care for the crop Others 
found themselves in the same predicament. The 
only 4abor thus far found available for this industry 
has been that of Chinese, who work on a kind of 
co-operative system. The owner of the land fur- 
nishes the ground, plants, and water, and sells the 
crop. The Chinamen plant, cultivate, and harvest. 
One-half the proceeds go to the owner of the land 
and one-half to the Chinamen. 

The Chinese are a shrewd people, and, controlled 
as they are by the Six Companies, are able to make 
such combinations as to their labor as they may de- 
sire. This is probably the reason why the acreage 
of strawberries is kept at about the same amount 
from year to year. A person who desires to go into 
this business must consult the Chinamen. If they 
think the increase in production will be greater than 
the market can stand, he will get no labor. If the 
Chinamen decide that the new acreage will not over- 
stock the market, he will get all the labor he wants. 
The work of growing and harvesting strawberries in 
the lowlands is peculiarly distasteful to white people. 
Many unsuccessful efforts have been made to sub- 
stitute laborers of other nationalities for the Chinamen 
but no success has followed these attempts. It may 
be that this problem will work itself out to a suc- 
cessful solution, as have so many other vexed ques- 
tions connected with our horticulture. For many 
years Santa Clara County was the only source of 
supply, for this fruit, for the San Francisco market. 
Other sections have since engaged in the business, 



184 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



but this county still furnishes about ninety per cent 
of all the strawberries grown in the State. 

The first horticultural society of Santa Clara 
Count)', as we have related, came into existence in 
1854, and lost its identity in 1859, when the Santa 
Clara Valley Agricultural Society was incorporated 
under the laws of the State. It held no separate fairs 
after 1856. In 1882 a new society was formed, which 
is still in existence. In 1884 this society held its first 
fair in the California Theater Building on Second 
Street. The success of this exhibition created an en- 
thusiasm which led to the building of the Horticultu- 
ral Hall on San Fernando Street, in 1886, where three 
annual exhibitions are now held. A citrus fair takes 
place in January or February, a flower festival in May, 
and an exhibition of horticultural and viticultural 
products late in the summer. This history would be 
incomplete if it failed to record the fact that the suc- 
cess of these exhibitions and the building of the Horti- 
cultural Hall has been due almost exclusively to the 
ladies connected with the fruit-growing interests of 
Santa Clara County. When the subject of holding 
the first fair was presented, the horticultural society 
doubted its ability to carry it through to a successful 
conclusion and the matter was referred to the San 
Jose Grange. The ladies belonging to this organiza- 
tion took up the burden, canvassed the county for 
articles for exhibition, arranged the display, and car- 
ried the enterprise forward to a phenomenal success. 
They did the same thing the succeeding year, and 
the male members of the two organizations, having 
been shown how to do the work, have since added their 
assistance. The efforts of the ladies having pointed 
out the field to be occupied and the methods by which 
it could be taken into possession, the men marched on 
to the ground and went into camp. 
VITICULTURE. 

Before the American occupation, vines were planted 
here and there through the valley from cuttings pro- 
cured from the Mission, but these plantings could 
hardly be called vineyards. The first planting of any 
magnitude was made by Charles Lefranc, at the New 
Almaden Vineyard, in 1852. Mr. Lefranc was born 
at Pas.sy, a suburb of Paris, and came to California 
in 1850. In 1857 he married Miss AdeleThee, whose 
father, Eticnne Thee, owned a half interest in the 
tract of land where the New Almaden Vineyard is 
now located. Mr. Lefranc purchased the other half 
in 1851, and afterwards came into ownership of the 
whole tract. ' 

Mr. Thee iiad planted a few Mission vines on the 



place before Mr. Lefranc took charge. The latter 
gentleman increased the area, planting such of the 
finer varieties as he could obtain, his idea being to 
grow grapes for table use. At that time imported 
wine was a drug in the market, owing to the fact that 
several vessels having wine cargoes had come into 
San Francisco and had been abandoned by their 
crews, who sought the mines. This wine was several 
years in excess of the demand, and much of it was sold 
as low as fifteen cents per gallon. With these cargoes 
on the market there seemed to be no profit in growing 
grapes for vintage. 

Mr. Lefranc's early importations were in 1854, and 
were made through the house of Henry Shroeder, 
whose agent in France acted for Mr. Lefranc in pro- 
curing cuttings. The first of these arrived and were 
planted in the year above mentioned, and each suc- 
ceeding season added to the varieties. Among these 
were the Sauvignons, Semillon, Challosse, Menu 
Finot, Chauche Gris, Malbec, Cabernet Franc, Pinots, 
Miller Burgundy, Chasselas Fontainbleau, Chasselas 
Rose, Madelaine, Muscat Frontignan, Muscat Rose, 
Black Muscats, Chasselas Muscat, La Folle Blanc, 
Napoleon, Grenache, Carignan, and others. He also 
procured some varieties from General Vallejo, who 
had also made importations from Europe. The 
Verdal was introduced into this county by Mrs. Le- 
franc in 1859, who brought the cuttings, on horseback, 
from the Caiiada Raymunde ranch, they having been 
presented to her by a Spanish nobleman, who had 
brought them from the old country. 

In 1858 Mr. Frank Stock planted a vineyard at the 
corner of Eighth and William Streets, in San Jose. 
He imported valuable German varieties, among which 
were the Johannisberg Reissling, Franklin Reissling, 
Tramin^, Golden Chasselas, and Zinfandel. When 
this vineyard was discontinued, in 1869, Mr. Stock pre- 
sented his vines to Mr. Lefranc, who removed them to 
the New Almaden. In the course of time the glut of 
French wine at San Francisco disappeared, and there 
came a demand for more. Then Mr. Lefranc turned 
his attention to wine-making, his first considerable 
vintage being in 1862. He continued his plantings 
until he had one hundred and thirty-one acres in 
vineyard, the youngest vine now being seven years 
old. His wine crop in 1887 was eighty-five thousand 
gallons; in 1888 it is one hundred thousand gallons. 

We have spoken of the early importations of Louis 
Pellier, who got several fine varieties in 1854 at the 
time he introduced the French prune. Antonio Uel- 
mas was also an early importer of vines, his vineyard 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



185 



being near where Delmas Avenue now is. Pedro 
Sansevain also had some good varieties at an early 
day. Victor Speckens had a vineyard containing 
some choice vines, which were in bearing in 1868. 
This vineyard went into the hands of John Auzerais, 
who enlarged it and planted many new varieties. 
This place is a short distance east of Berryessa, on the 
Penetencia Creek. 

The principal plantings of noble varieties, after 
these above noted, were made from 1868 to 1S71. 
The Stocktons planted the Gravelly Ridge Vineyard, 
southwest from San Jose, now the property of Gaines 
& Crandall. D. M. Harwood planted the Lone 
Hill Vineyard, near Lefranc's, now the property of C. 
Freyschlag. Frank Richmond planted in the same 
neighborhood, now known as the Arnerich place. In 
1871 Norman Porter planted the vineyard in the 
Cupertino District now owned by Captain Merithew. 

The Cupertino District has become famous for its 
vines, and a brief account of its development will not 
be uninteresting. In 1849 Elisha Stevens, who was 
captain of the Murphy party in 1844, settled on the 
ranch now known as " Blackberry Farm," and gave 
his name to Stevens Creek. He planted about four 
acres of Mission grapes in the creek bottom. He 
also planted blackberries, and from this came the 
name of the place. Soon after this a Spaniard named 
Novato, who had settled in the foot-hills near Perma- 
nente Creek, planted a few cuttings from Captain 
Stevens' vineyard. With the exception of random 
patches here and there, this was all the planting done 
in this district until 1870. Much of the land was thin 
and covered with chemissal, and had no reputation 
either for fertility or endurance. Many grain farmers 
became poor in endeavoring to make a living there, 
and it was considered a pure waste of money to in- 
vest it in grape cuttings and in the labor required to 
plant and care for them. In 1870 Mr. S. R. Williams 
came into the district and took a contract from Wm. 
Hall to clear and plant one hundred acres to vines, 
and care for them for three years for half. He did 
this and received his deed for fifty acres. Part of 
this tract was on the original claim located by Captain 
Stevens. The next vineyard planted was that of 
Norman Porter, as related above. About this time 
the report reached this district that the people of 
Sonoma and Napa Counties were digging up their 
vines as unprofitable, and this put an end to further 
plantings in Cupertino for some time, except so far 
as Williams was concerned. He extended his vine- 
yard and retained his faith in the industry. Porter 
became sick of his investment and sold out just as 
his vines came into bearing, and, it is said, the first 



crop harvested by the grantee amounted to the money 
paid for the place! However this may be, it is cer- 
tain that the great growth and product of the vines 
dissipated the fears of the people, and a general era 
of planting began. Williams planted still more. He 
was followed by Portal, who set out the Burgundy 
Vineyard, and J. F. Thompson, who planted forty acres 
adjoining. They were followed by Hall, Gardner, 
Doyle, Wright, Montgomery, Bubb, Farr, Blabon, 
Hallenbeck, Combe, and others. These plantings 
were mostly made from 1880 to 1885. They were of 
the choicest varieties that could be had, and the result 
has indicated that the despised chemissal land is their 
true home. 

While this district was being developed, other sec- 
tions were undergoing a similar transformation. The 
Union and Los Gatos Districts, Evergreen, Madrone, 
and the Collins Districts, the foot-hills above Sara- 
toga, and on the opposite side of the valley towards 
the Mission San Jose, were in many places converted 
into vineyards. Most of the vines on the San Fran- 
cisco road, and Boyter road, north and west of Santa 
Clara, have been planted since 1880, as were the vine- 
yards of Bingham & Edwards, Paul O. Burns, Hen- 
ning, and others, near Evergreen. In 1856 Lyman 
J. Burrill planted grapes in the Santa Cruz Mountains, 
near the summit. He was followed by D. C. Felley, 
H. C. Morrill, and others. From this district were sent 
the grapes that carried off the important premiums 
at the New Orleans Exposition of 1884. The Mountain 
District, as it is called, produces exceptionally fine 
table grapes, hundreds of tons of which are annually 
shipped to the Eastern market. 

The business of wine-making has hardly kept up 
with the enormous strides of the grape-growers, but 
has lately added to its speed and will overtake its 
companion in the near future. Too many growers 
depended on the professional wine-makers for a mar- 
ket, and have found that the crops were too large for 
the presses, cellars, and cooperage. Several large 
wineries were built in 1887-88, and the business of 
wine storage, as an investment, is being favorably 
considered by local capitalists. There seems to be no 
doubt that the question, " What shall we do with our 
graoes ?-" will be as satisfactorily answered as was the 
similar question in regard to the fruit crop. 

To summarize the condition of the fruit and vine 
interests of Santa Clara County at this time, 1888, 
there are, in round numbers, twenty thousand acres 
planted to fruit trees, and fifteen thousand acres 
planted to vines. The value of this crop this year is 
estimated at $3,500,000, all of which is new money 
brought into the county. 




^^ vrnkr^^^ff- ^^( 



CHURCHES. 
J\^ ETHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH.— Is 
^ yj^ situated on the west side of Second Street, near 
its intersection with Santa Clara Street. The or- 
ganization was effected in the fall of 1849, with 
the following members: Wm. Campbell, Mark Will- 
iams and wife, Asa Finley and wife, John Jones 
and wife, Mrs. Nancy Young, and a French gentle- 
man and wife whose names are forgotten. Very soon 
after, a building on Third Street, opposite Moody's 
mills, was purchased by them and dedicated early in 
the year 1850. July, 1853, it was moved to the corner 
of Second and Santa Clara Streets, and enlarged. 

In 1868 a frame building, capable of holding si.x 
hundred persons, was erected on the lot upon which the 
present edifice now stands. On the twenty-second of 
February, 1868, this church was burned to the ground 
by a su|)posed anti-Chinese incendiary. The loss was 
$18,000. Another building was erected on the same 
site, at a cost of $21,000, and was dedicated on the 
eighteenth'of July, 1869, Bishop Kingsley preaching 
the sermon. 

There have been seventeen pastors appointed to 
the charge since its organization, as follows: Revs. 
Charles McClay, William J. McClay (twice), Mr. 
Brier, Robert R. Dunlap, William Hulbert, John 
Daniels, Mr. Phillips, R. Y. Cool, Thomas Dunn 
(twice), P. G. Buchanan, Isaac Owen.s, D. A. Dryden, 
Jolin R. Tanzy, E. S. Todd, C. C. Stratton, R. L. 
Horford, Frank F. Jewell, Robert Bentley, T. S. 
Dunn, Frank F. Jewell, D. D. In 1882, about $8,000 
was expended in building a brick addition to base- 
ment of church for u.se of Sunday-school, social hall, 
etc., and in placing a new organ in the church. The 
church has been refurnished throughout, and $2,000 
of the church debt paid off this year. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South. — On tlie twenty- 
fifth day of May, 185 1, Rev. A.L.Wynne organized this 
society with the following-named members: Charles 
Campbell, Nancy Campbell, Margaret Campbell, 
(.86) 



Elizabeth Ray, Alexander Hatler, Nancy Hatler, 
Marcus Williams, Anson Williams, and J. W. Powell. 
The first building was on the corner of Second and 
San Fernando Streets, and was constructed of brick, 
and was used as a place of worship until the fall of 
1874, when it was removed to give place to the present 
wood structure now used by the church as a house of 
worship. Mr. Wynne was succeeded as the pastor of 
this church in 1854 by the Rev. Mr. Graham. In 
1855 Rev. B. F. Johnson was the pastor. In 1856 and 
1857 Rev. O. P. Fitzgerald, D. D., was the pastor. He 
was succeeded by the Rev. J. C. Simmons, who served 
for two years. Rev. Mr. Rubel was the successor of 
Mr. Simmons, and served in i860. Rev. Morris Evans 
was pastor in 1861 and Joseph Emory in 1862. Rev. 
O. P. Fitzgerald, D. D., was returned to this station in 
the fall of 1862 and served during 1863 and 1864. 
Rev. George Sim was the pastor in 1865 to 1867. 
Rev. W. F. Compton was pastor in 1868 and 1869, 
and Rev. A. M. Bailey in 1870. In the fall of 1870 
Rev. George Sim was again appointed and served for 
two years. 

Rev. J. C. Simmons was again the pastor in 1873. 
Rev. Mr. Hopkins came to the charge in the fall of 
1873, and remained until the fall of 1876. Mr. Hop- 
kins was succeeded by the Rev. E. K. Miller, who 
remained two years, and was succeeded by Rev. 
H. B. Avery, in 1878, and resigned October, 1880. 
He was succeeded by Rev. George Sim, who remained 
in charge till the fall of 1883, when he was succeeded 
by J. W. Atkinson, who resigned October, 1885. 
During Mr. Atkinson's term the remainder of the 
church debt, amounting to $1,100, was paid. Mr. 
Atkinson was succeeded by C. Y. Rankin, D. D. 
Since Mr. Rankin's incumbency, the church has been 
renovated, and new rooms opened up. The mem- 
bership has been increasing steadily. The church, 
during the past year, has purchased the following 
property: House and lot on Delmas Avenue, same 
being used as a permanent home for the presiding 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



187 



elder of San Francisco district ; house and lot on 
South Seventh Street, residence of the pastor of the 
church. E. R. Bailey is superintendent of the Sun- 
day-school, and has over one hundred children under 
his charge. 

First Baptist Church. — Organized May 19, 1850, 
by Rev. O. C. Wheeler, of San Francisco, who was 
the first Baptist minister on the Pacific Coast. It 
had only eight members at the beginning. This 
small membership could not afford to engage a per- 
manent pastor, and arrangements were made by which 
monthly meetings were held, which were conducted by 
Mr. Wheeler. In November of that year a lot was 
purchased, and a building erected, at the corner of 
Third and Santa Clara Streets. Here Rev. L. O. 
Grenell, from the Baptist Home Missionary Society, 
took temporary charge, and in the following Feb- 
ruary was elected permanent pastor. The place of 
meeting was afterwards moved to the corner of Sec- 
ond and San Antonio Streets, where a brick building 
had been erected for that purpose. In 1877 a new 
and commodious structure was built, which was 
burned in 1882. The present tabernacle was then 
erected. The pastor now officiating is Rev. A. W. 
Runyon, who was called in 1887. 

Trinity Church (Episcopal). — Rev. S. S. Etheridge 
began the regular services of the Episcopal Church 
in San Jose, in November, i860, occupying the old 
City Hall. The first organization of the parish of 
Trinity Church was made in February, 1861. Trinity 
Church was built in 1863. The Rev. S. S. Etheridge 
continued in charge of the parish until his death, in 
February, 1864. After his death the Rev. T. A. 
Hyland officiated for some months. The Rev. D. D. 
Chapin was then called to the rectorship, and re- 
mained in charge until January, 1866. During this 
time the mortgage upon the church lot was removed, 
and improvements were made upon the church and 
grounds. In April, 1866, the Rev. E. S. Peake was 
called and remained rector until December i, 1870. 
On July 27, 1867, the whole debt of the church hav- 
ing been removed, or assumed by individuals in the 
vestry and congregation, the building was consecrated 
to the worship of God by Bishop Kip. In January, 
1871, the Rev. Geo. Wm. Foote was called to the 
rectorship of the church. In 1876 the church was 
enlarged to nearly double its former capacity, and 
much improved. In 1872 the rectory was built. In 
1880 four stained windows were presented to the 
church, and the Sunday-school was presented with 
a chime of five bells. Mr. Foote resigned the rec- 



torship in October, 1884, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. J. B. Wakefield, D. D., who came from Rich- 
mond, Indiana, where he was rector of St. Paul's 
Church for twenty-nine years. Since Mr. Wakefield's 
appointment the church has been completed by the 
erection of a tower and spire, and a considerable sum 
is now on hand for the building of a chapel, guild 
rooms, etc., to be built upon an adjoining lot. The 
church is in a prosperous condition, and has over four 
hundred communicants. 

Christian Chn rch.—Th\s church was first organized 
about 1870. The members met in a little hall over 
the Home Mutual Fire Insurance Company's office, 
on Santa Clara Street; Rev. Gary, minister. They 
afterwards met in Champion Hall for several years. 
Rev. W. D. Pollard officiating. In March, 1883, Rev. 
J. W. Ingram came to San Jose from Omaha, Ne- 
braska, and was appointed minister. The members 
then moved to the California Theater, where they held 
their meetings until January, 1885, when they moved 
into their new church, which had been erected on 
Second Street, between San Antonio and San Fer- 
nando Streets. When Mr. Ingram first took charge, 
the membership was about fifty, and has gradually 
increased in numbers. At the present writing they 
have a membership of three hundred. On July 15, 
1888, Mr. Ingram resigned, and was succeeded by 
George E. Walk. 

The First United Presbyterian Church of San Jose. — 
This church was organized November 6, 1874, twenty- 
eight members uniting at that time. Rev. A. Cal- 
houn, by appointment of the General Assembly of 
the United Presbyterian Church of North America, 
commenced missionary work in San Jose in the fall 
of 1874, and remained in charge until the spring of 
1879, when he was chosen pastor of the congregation, 
and regularly installed by the United Presbytery of 
San Francisco. The organization occupied a little 
hall over the San Jose Savings Bank, now the Home 
Mutual Insurance Company's building, for about four 
years. In the fall of 1878, the congregation erected 
a church on the corner of Fifth and Santa Clara 
Streets, the lot and church costing them over twelve 
thousand dollars. The location is good and the 
church a model of neatness and comfort. 

The Society of Friends. — The first religious meeting 
of the Society of Friends, otherwise known as Quak- 
ers, was held in June, 1866, in the building at the 
corner of Ninth and St. John Streets. The lot was 
donated by Jesse and David Hobson. In 1873 these 
meetings were regularly organized under the author- 



188 



PEN PICTUBES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



ity and discipline of the Iowa Yearly Meeting of the 
Society of Friends. Jane M. F. Canney and Adon- 
ijah Gregory were the regularly appointed ministers. 
In 1886 the society purchased a lot on Stockton 
Avenue, near the Alameda, and erected a neat meet- 
ing-house, where services are now held. 

German Methodist Episcopal Church. — This church 
was founded in the year 1861, by Rev. A. Kcllner, 
but the first regular pastor was Rev. G. H. Bollinger. 
After the lapse of several years, the Rev. Hermann 
Brueck arrived, in 1868, and preached to the German 
residents in the old City Hall, when a small society was 
formed and a Sunday-school organized. Mr. Brueck's 
term of service lasted three years, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. C. H. Afflerbach. During the first 
year of this gentleman's administration the present 
valuable church property, on Third Street, between 
Santa Clara and San Fernando Streets, was acquired. 

Mr. Afflerbach served four years, and was succeeded 
by the Rev. G. H. Bollinger, who served a term of 
three years, and was succeeded by Rev. F. Bonn, 
who served four years, and was succeeded by Rev. F. 
A. Worth, who had charge for four years. Mr. Worth 
was succeeded by Rev. C. H. Afflerbach, who is now 
the pastor. The church has a membership of about 
one hundred. 

The First Congregatiotial Church of San Jose. — 
Services were first held in connection with this church 
April II, 1875. On May 3, an "ecclesiastical society" 
was formed, and on June 2, 1S75, the church was 
organized, Rev. Theodore T. Munger acting pastor, 
who officiated until the appointment of Rev. M. Wil- 
let in 1879, wiio served for three years and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Martin Post. Mr. Post was succeeded 
by Rev. Chas. W. Hill, who is the present pastor. The 
church building was first erected on San Antonio be- 
tween Second and Third Streets. In 1887 the build- 
ing was moved to the corner of Second and San 
Antonio Streets, and a large addition was built to it, 
making in all a very handsome structure. The new 
building was dedicated December 27, 1887. 

Evangelical Association. — This society was formed 
in October, 1879, with Rev. F. W. Voeglein acting as 
pastor. The meetings were held in Druid's Hall on 
First Street until 188 1, when they moved into their 
new church, which had been erected on their lot on the 
corner of Second and Julian Streets. Mr. Voeglein 
left for Japan in 1882, and was succeeded in turn by 
the following-named gentlemen: Revs. F. W. Fisher, 
T. Suhcr, C. Grucn, and ]•". A. Fra.sc. Mr. PVase came 
in May, 1887, and is now officiating as pastor. 



First Presbyterian Cliurclt of San Jose. — This 
church was organized on the afternoon of October 7, 
1849, by Rev. Mr. Douglass, James Mathers and his 
wife, Sarah Warren Dutton, S. W. Hopkins, Oliver 
Crane, Austin Arnold, and Dr. James C. Cobb. The 
first services were held in the juzgado, or judgment 
hall, of the Alcade's court. The organization was 
called the Independent Presbyterian Church of San 
Jose. The first sacrament of the Lord's Supper was 
administered in February, 1850, in a blue tent made 
by " Grandma" Bascom. Mr. Brayton succeeded the 
Rev. Mr. Douglass as pastor, and was duly installed, 
and first administered the sacrament October 6, 1850- 

Up to this time the State House had been used, in 
conjunction with the Baptists, as a place of woiship. 
In the latter part of 1850 a neat building of wood was 
erected on a fifty-vara lot situated on the east side of 
Second Street between Santa Clara and St. James 
Streets. This building cost $3,000, and was dedicated 
P'ebruary 9, 1 851, by Rev. S. H. Wiley. Mr. Brayton, 
the pastor, resigned January, 1852, and was succeeded 
by the Rev. Eli Corwin. 

On March 19, 1865, the name of the church was 
changed from that of the Independent Church of San 
Jose to the First Presbyterian Church of San Jose. 
Mr. Corwin severed his connection with the church 
in the month of October, 1858, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. L. Hamilton, who entered upon his labors 
as pastor May i, 1859. Mr. Hamilton's incumbency 
continued until the end of 1864. 

On January 10, 1865, the Rev. William Wisner 
Martin was elected in his place. Mr. Martin was 
taken ill and never returned to his parish. He was 
succeeded by Rev. James S. Wylie. Mr. Wylie ten- 
dered his resignation and the same was accepted 
March 25, 1869. On account of damages done to the 
church building by an earthquake, October 10, 1868, 
services were held in the Young Men's Christian 
Association Building. On April 4, 1869, Murphy's 
Hall, at the corner of Market and El Dorado Streets, 
was secured, and the assistance of Rev. P. V. Veeder 
engaged. The pulpit was without a permanent min- 
ister until October 28, 1869, at which time the Rev. 
William Alexander was appointed. Mr. Alexander 
resigned March 28, 1871, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. Ebcn Morrison Betts, who was appointed Octo- 
ber 22, 1871. 

On July 15, 1877, he resigned the pastoral office, 
and was succeeded November 4, 1878, by Rev. John 
Paul Egbert, who served a term of four years. 

For several years subsequent to Mr. Egbert's resig- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



180 



nation, the church was without a regular minister. In 
1884, Rev. H. C. Minton was elected pastor, and is 
now occupying that position. 

Unitarian Church. — First organized as the Unity 
Society of San Jose, in 1867. The pastors up to 
April, 1888, were: Charles G. Ames, J. W. Hatch, D. 
Cronyn, W. W. McKaig, and Mr. Fowler. Its meet- 
ings were held in Murphy's Hall, corner of Market 
and El Dorado Streets; then at Armory Hall, after- 
wards San Jose Opera House; then at Music Hall; 
then at California Theater. In April, 1888, the Unity 
Society dissolved and the Unitarian Church was or- 
ganized, with N. A. Haskell as pastor. 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church. — The history of the 
Catholic Church has been told all through this narra- 
tive. It was the pioneer of the county, and has ex- 
erted its influence during all the subsequent years. 
The first building, as we have related, was erected in 
1803. In 1835 a better building, constructed of adobes, 
was erected on the same site. This building was after- 
wards encased in brick. It endured many vicissitudes, 
having been racked by earthquakes, and was finally 
destroyed by fire. The present magnificent building 
was erected during the last ten years, having been 
completed in 1887. It stands over the site of the 
original church of 1803. 

ARTESIAN WELLS. 

In the early days of the American occupation, the 
scarcity of good water was one of the greatest incon- 
veniences which the inhabitants of San Jose had to 
contend with. The Mexican people procured water 
for household purposes from the acequias, or irrigat- 
ing ditches, that traversed the pueblo in several places. 
The most important of these was the one from the 
Canoas Creek, that ran northerly through the town, 
west of Market Street, and this was kept open, and a 
guard placed over it, for seveial years after the present 
city government was instituted. This, in addition to 
being neither palatable nor wholesome, was not suffi- 
cient in quantity to supply the rapidly increasing 
population. To meet the constantly growing demand, 
shallow wells were dug at different points. These 
wells were of an average depth of about eight feet, and 
although they increased the supply of water, could 
not improve its quality. "Grandma Bascom's story," 
told in the foregoing pages, describes one of these 
pioneer wells. They were mere holes in the ground 
without walls, or curbing, or pumps. 

This state of things continued until 1854, when the 
Merritt Brothers built their brick house on Fifth 



Street. In January of that year they commenced 
boring for a lower stratum of water, seeking a stream 
that did not act as a sewer for all the accumulated 
filth on the surface of the ground. They struck water 
at fifty feet deep, but determined to go deeper. At 
eighty feet they tapped a stream that came rushing to 
the surface like the eruption of a volcano. The hole 
was six inches in diameter, and the pressure was suffi- 
cient, as Mr. Hall says in his "History of San Jose," 
to run a saw-mill. The success met in prospecting 
this well, immediately induced the boring of others. 
In the same month, Mr. J. S. Shepard had a well sunk 
on his place about three miles east of town. This well 
went through muck and clay to a depth of seventy- 
five feet, to a stratum of sand. Five feet in this sand 
the water was struck, and although the pipe was ex- 
tended sixteen feet above the surface of the ground, 
the water came out of the top as though forced by 
powerful machinery. During the next month T. 
Meyers bored a well, getting a plentiful supply of 
water. But the greatest well in the history of the 
county was bored in August of the same year, by G. 
A. Dabney, near San Fernando Street. Mr. Hall 
thus describes it : "After boring six feet, the auger en- 
tered a bed of clay, through which, a distance of fifty- 
four feet, it penetrated, when the water rushed up with 
a force unknown here in well-boring. It flooded the 
surrounding lands so that it became a serious question 
how the water should be disposed of The city coun- 
cil declared it a nuisance, and passed an ordinance 
directing Dabney to stop or control the flow of water; 
and, if not, he should pay a fine of $50 for every day 
he allowed it thus to run. The ordinance had no ef- 
fect on the dynamical properties of the water, nor any 
on Dabney; it flowed on, rising nine feet above the 
surface of the ground for about six weeks, when other 
wells which were bored in that vicinity lessened its 
force and volume. It was a curiosity and received 
visitors daily. A stream flowed therefrom four feet 
wide and six inches deep." 

After this demonstration of the fact that artesian 
water was to be had, there was no more complaint in 
regard to lack of this necessary fluid. The old ace- 
quia fell into disuse and finally disappeared. Wells 
were sunk in various localities, and always with good 
results; but as the wells accumulated the force of 
the flow was somewhat diminished, as in the case of 
Dabney 's well, except as new streams were tapped. 
Especially were wells made on the lower land to the 
north of town, for irrigating purposes. At one time 
the California Land Investment Company, which had 



190 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



acquired several thousand acres of salt-marsh land 
along the shore of the bay, attempted to reclaim 
it by means of artesian wells. The project was to 
build levees around their property to shut out the sea, 
pump out the salt water, and replace it with fresh 
artesian water. They went so far as to bore many 
wells, but abandoned the project, either because it 
was impracticable, or on account of the expense. 
The wells, however, were a great source of annoy- 
ance to the people to the north. Being allowed to 
flow continually, the water in other wells was low- 
ered, until many of them ceased to flow at all. The 
matter became so disastrous that an act was passed 
by the Legislature declaring it a misdemeanor to per- 
mit flowing artesian wells to remain uncapped when 
not in use. After much labor this law was enforced, 
and the injured wells recovered their vigor. 

Perhaps no natural peculiarity of the Santa Clara 
Valley has been so little understood as the location 
of artesian streams. Many attempts have been made 
to trace and locate the artesian belt, but it is continu- 
ally being struck outside these locations, ai d no one 
now cares to risk his reputation by saying where it 
is not. It was at first thought to lie exclusively be- 
tween San Jose and the bay, following the lower 
levels of the valley. In 1870 artesian water was sup- 
posed to have been found in the San Felipe Valley, 
southeast of Gilroy. But one night a well, windmill, 
tank, house, and frame, on the property of Mr. Buck, 
sunk out of sight, and the longest sounding-line was 
unable to discover its whereabouts ! This indicated 
that the supply was a lake, and not a stream. In 
1887 flowing artesian water was found at Gilroy, and 
that neighborhood is likely to be fully developed in 
this respect. Mr. R. C. McPherson, who for ten years 
has been sinking oil wells in the Santa Cruz Mount- 
ains, says that often the pressure of water is so great 
as to force itself through the seams of pipe that was 
considered to be perfectly water-tight. 

With all the facts understood, there can be no doubt 
that artesian water can be had at any point in the 
valley, not excepting the higher grounds near the 
foot-hills. As yet no efficient prospect has been 
made, except in the region generally accepted as the 
artesian belt; but we feel assured that a well sunk to 
a depth of twenty-five hundred feet would find a 
stream with sufficient force to give a surface flow, in 
the most unlikely location. The well-boring machin- 
ery and tools used at the present time are inadequate 
for these deep wells on the higher grounds. The der- 
rick is usually but twenty feet high, the tools are of 



comparatively frail construction, and the work is all 
done by hand. We predict that when the company 
now being organized begins to prospect for natural 
gas, with proper implements, the artesian belt will be 
found to be practically limitless. 

BANKS. 

T/te Bank of San Jose. — The pioneer bank in the 
Santa Clara Valley was opened for business in March, 
1866, by W. J. Knox and T. Ellard Beans, under the 
firm title of Knox & Beans, and was conducted as 
a private banking house until January 31, 186S, on 
which date it was incorporated as a State bank, be- 
ing the first bank incorporated in interior California. 
The first officers were John G. Bray, President; T. 
Ellard Beans, Cashier and Manager; John T. Cala- 
han was appointed Assistant Cashier in 1880, which 
position he still holds; C. W. Pomeroy, Secretary. 
The capital stock is $200,000. In 1870 Mr. Bray 
died, and Mr. Beans became president, which posi- 
tion he still holds. Henry Philip succeeded him as 
cashier, and acted in that capacity till 1875, when 
Clement T. Park, the present cashier, succeeded him. 

In 1871 the Bank of San Jose Block, on the north- 
east corner of First and Santa Clara Streets, was be- 
gun, and completed the following year. The build- 
ing has a frontage of ninety feet on Santa Clara 
Street, and one hundred feet on First, is symmetrical 
in architectural design, and cost $120,000. Besides 
the commodious banking rooms, there are several fine 
stores on the first floor. The second floor is occu- 
pied, in part, by the San Jose Board of Trade, and 
the remainder and the upper story are devoted to 
offices. 

The bank has been under the able management of 
Mr. Beans throughout its entire history, and its career 
has been one of marked success, as the following facts 
and figures show: The Bank of San Jose has paid 
two hundred and forty dividends up to July i, 1888, 
aggregating two hundred and ninety-one per cent of 
the par value of the capital stock, with an additional 
surplus of seventy-five per cent. It does strictly a 
commercial business; has correspondents in San Fran- 
cisco, New York, and London, on which it draws 
direct. 

T. Ellard Beans was born in Salem, Ohio, sixty 
years ago. His early business life was passed in mer- 
cantile pursuits; spent two years in a banking house 
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Came to California in 
1849; directed his attention to mining for a time, and 
later was engaged in merchandising in Nevada City 
seven years; came near losing his life by the great 




^k^ 




PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



191 



fire in that place in 1856. He came to San Jose in 
1866, and the same year projected and established 
the bank, as before stated. Mr. Beans is one of that 
honored class termed self-made men, and has long 
been regarded as one of San Jose's most able and re- 
liable business men. 

The First National Bank of San Jose was organ- 
ized July II, 1874, with a paid-up capital of $500,000. 
Mr. W. D. Tisdale, the present president, was its first 
cashier, and has been the active manager of the bank 
from its organization. The bank is situated on the 
southwest corner of First and Santa Clara Streets. 
It does a general commercial banking business, and 
draws direct on San Francisco, New York, and the 
principal cities of Europe, having correspondents in 
the leading banks of those cities. The First Na- 
tional pays no interest on deposits. The fourteen 
years of its business life have been years of steady 
prosperity and growth. The accumulated surplus 
and dividends aggregate $176,000; and the present 
deposits are about $600,000. In 1S80 W. D. Tisdale 
became president, and L. G. Nesmith, hitherto as- 
sistant cashier, became cashier,- which position he 
now holds. The bank employs si.x clerks, besides 
the officers. 

Mr. Tisdale came to the Pacific Coast in 1S54, 
when nine years of age, and was for many years 
identified with mining interests in Nevada County, 
California. He settled in San Jose, in 1872, and 
soon after, with others, took steps to organize the 
bank. Mr. Tisdale is of old Mohawk Dutch stock, 
the son of William L. Tisdale (now a resident of 
Santa Clara County), and was born in Utica, New 
York. He married Miss Gephart, a native of Mich- 
igan. They have four children. William L. Tisdale 
has been a resident of this State since early in fifty, 
and now lives on the Alameda, retired from active 
business. He is a stockholder in the First National 
Bank. 

The Garden City National Bank was chartered and 
organized on the third day of June, 1887, and opened 
for business on July 18, 1887, with $100,000 capital 
paid in. Dr. C. W. Brcyfogle, who projected and 
perfected its organization, was chosen president, 
George M. Bowman, vice-president, and Thomas F. 
Morrison, cashier. The bank, being a regular national 
bank, confines its transactions to commercial business 
solely. It is situated on the northwest corner of First 
and San Fernando Streets, almost in the geographical 
center of San Jose, and occupies a beautiful suite of 
banking rooms, fitted up expressly for its use, with 



a ten years' lease. The eighteen stockholders are 
among the best known, most competent, and suc- 
cessful business men of Santa Clara County. The 
bank draws directly upon San Francisco, New York, 
and all the principal cities of Europe, and has cor- 
respondents in all important commercial centers. 
The Garden City, the youngest of San Jose's banking 
houses, starts off under very promising auspices. Its 
brief history so far fills the measure of the most san- 
guine projectors. At the end of its first eight months' 
operations the report showed $177,894.51 in indi- 
vidual deposits; demand certificate deposits amount- 
ing to $48,150.13, and undivided profits of $5,37045. 

Dr. C. W. Breyfogle emanates from the heart of 
the Buckeye State, was born in Columbus, Ohio, in 
June, 1841. He was graduated from Ohio Wes- 
leyan University, in 1863, having con^pleted a four 
years' college course in three years. The same year 
he left college he entered the U. S. army as Second 
Lieutenant of Company E in the 9th Ohio Cavalry, 
which was assigned to Gen. W. T. Sherman's com- 
mand. Lieutenant Breyfogle soon rose, by suc- 
cessive promotions, to First Lieutenant and to Cap- 
tain of his company. His eyesight becoming seriously 
impaired bj- an attack of paralysis of the optic nerve, 
Captain Breyfogle was compelled to resign at the 
end of fourteen months of service, and seek relief 
After a partial recovery from his affliction, he began 
reading law in the office of Judge Rankin, in Co- 
lumbus; but just before he finished the course his 
eyes again failed, and he had to abandon study. On 
being cured by homeopathic treatment, Mr. Breyfogle 
was so pleased with the system that he resolved to 
master it. He began to study, and, in 1865, grad- 
uated from the Homeopathic Medical College at 
Philadelphia, and commenced practice. Two of his 
brothers followed his example, studied medicine with 
him, and are practicing physicians. 

Dr. Breyfogle came to California and to San Jose 
in 1 87 1, broken down in health by overwork in the 
profession in Louisville, Kentucky. He rapidly re- 
covered, and spent fifteen years in active practice in 
Santa Clara County, from which he retired to take 
the presidency of the bank. In May, 1886, Dr. 
Breyfogle was elected mayor of the city, and filled 
the office two years. During his administration a 
number of measures of great benefit to the city were 
inaugurated and crystallized into laws. Among them 
is an ordinance authorizing the issuing of city bonds 
for $500,000 for the purpose of making much-needed 
improvements. This measure met with a determined 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE ''GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



opposition, and one defeat, but finally triumphed. 
The new City Hall was commenced, and a general 
system of sidewalk construction started. In Febru- 
ary, 1885, Dr. Brcyfogle organized the San Jose 
Building and Loan Association, with a capital stock 
of two thousand five hundred shares of $200 each. 
The stock was so rapidly taken that, at the end of 
the first year, the stock was increased to $1,500,000, 
in series of one thousand shares each. The associa- 
tion has proved very popular, and is a benefaction to 
home-seekers of small means. It has erected about 
eighty buildings, mostly in San Jose. In the same 
year (18S5) Dr. Breyfogle also organized the Odd 
Fellows' Association, for the purpose of building a hall 
for the order. This enterprise was a flattering suc- 
cess, culminating in the erection and completion of 
the splendid block on the southwest corner of Santa 
Clara and Third Streets, one of the finest in the city. 
Dr. Breyfogle is a member of the Board of Free- 
holders, and has served in the City Board of Educa- 
tion. Thus it will be seen that Dr. Breyfogle is an 
enterprising, public-spirited, cultured gentleman, of 
whom the city may well feel proud. 

The San Jose Safe Deposit Bank of Savitigs first 
opened its doors for business on the first day of May, 
1885, as an incorporated institution under the laws of 
California, in the Safe Deposit Block, on the southeast 
corner of Santa Clara and First Streets, with Mr. E. 
McLaughlin as manager. On May 4, 1869, Mr. E. 
McLaughlin and C. T. Ryland established a private 
banking house in a building previously erected for 
the purpose by Mr. McLaughlin, on Santa Clara 
Street, between First and Second Streets. Mr. Mc- 
Laughlin had intended to open the bank himself, but 
the partnership was formed with Mr. Ryland before 
he was ready to start. In 1872 the firm erected the 
Safe Deposit Block, which it moved into and occu- 
pied until their business was merged into the Com- 
mercial Savings Bank, two years later. The Commer- 
cial Savings Bank was organized as a joint-stock 
company, with Messrs. E. McLaughlin, C. T. Ryland, 
and Martin Murphy as stockholders, and opened for 
business May 13, 1874, with E. McLaughlin as active 
manager. It leased the banking rooms in the Safe 
Deposit Block, and occupied them until it moved to 
the opposite corner, in 1886. In January, 1883, Mr. 
McLaughlin disposed of his interest in the bank and 
retired from its management. In February of the 
same year he purchased Mr. Ryiand's interest in the 
Safe Deposit Block. Ever since it was opened, the 
Safe Deposit Bank has been under the official control 



of Mr. McLaughlin as manager, with M. Malarin as 
president, and John E. Auzerais as cashier. Its ele- 
gant banking rooms are equipped with one of the 
largest and best safety deposit vaults on the Pacific 
Coast, or in the whole country. It is thirty-one feet 
long, twelve feet four inches broad; is fitted up with 
small safety vaults for private individuals; has double 
doors with time-locks, and is both fire and burglar 
proof The bank does both a commercial and savings 
business. It keeps its own accounts with New York 
and London, and has its own independent connec- 
tions with business in those cities, as well as with San 
Francisco. The paid up capital of the bank is $300,- 
000, with a reserve fund of $75,000, and a nominal 
capital of $1, 000,000. It pays interest on deposits. 

E. McLaughlin is a native of the Keystone State, 
born in Philadelphia in 1829. His early life was 
chiefly passed in New Orleans. He came to Califor- 
nia during the gold excitement, and embarked in the 
hardware business in Nevada County in 1852. In 
1 866 he sold out and spent a year in Europe, and on 
returning, came to San Jose in 1868, with the inten- 
tion of retiring from active business. But not feeling 
contented to be idle, he decided to engage in banking, 
and erected the building for that purpose before men- 
tioned. He still is interested in the hardware busi- 
ness in Los Angeles. The Safe Deposit Block (which 
he sold to the bank for $200,000) is one of the finest 
business blocks in interior California. It is three 
stories in height and beautiful in architectural design> 
having a frontage of one hundred and twenty-six and 
one-half feet on First Street, seventy feet on Santa 
Clara, and one hundred and thirty-eight feet on Foun- 
tain Street. Besides the splendid banking-rooms, 
there are several stores on the first floor. The other 
stories are used for offices. 

The Commercial and Savings Bank was organized 
May 13, 1874. It first occupied rooms in the Safe 
Deposit Block, but in 1885, on the organization of the 
Safe Deposit Bank of Savings, it moved to its pres- 
ent quarters at the northwest corner of Santa Clara 
and First Streets. Its capital is $1,000,000, of which 
$300,000 is paid up. Its surplus fund amounts to 
$180,000. Its officers are B. D. Murphy, president; 
F. P. Ryland, cashier; John T. McGeoghegan, sec- 
retary. 

.SOCIETIES. 

Odd Fellotus' Hall Association. — This association 
was organized in December, 1884. The capital stock 
consists of four thousand and five hundred shares 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



193 



valued at $io per share. The stock was subscribed 
for, and the money paid in long before the comple- 
tion of the building. The building is located on the 
corner of Santa Clara and Third Streets. There are 
two large halls in the upper story used for lodge rooms, 
which are probably as spacious and elegantly fitted 
up as any lodge rooms in the State. The promoters 
of this organization deserve a great deal of credit for 
the enterprise and energy displayed by them in thus 
adding to San Jose one of its most handsome build- 
ings. The association has paid regular dividends and 
the stock is now held at a premium. 

The present officers are : C. W. Breyfogle, Presi- 
dent; Henry Phelps, Vice-President; C. W. Pomeroy. 
Treasurer; M. H. Hyland, Secretary ; D. J. Porter' 
C. D. Freitag, J. Jacqulin, Henry Phelps, C. W. Brey- 
fogle, Karl Klein, and Jacob Lenzen, Directors. 

San Jose Lodge, No. j./, /. O. O. F. — This was the 
first Lodge of I. O. O. F. instituted in Santa Clara 
County. It was organized at San Jose, December 
30, 1854, with the following charter members and 
first officers of the Lodge: O. P. Watson, T. R. Kibbe, 
Jas. H. Morgan, John R. Wilson, Wm. Brothers, 
F. F. Letcher, Jas. M. Merritt, John R. Price, G. B, 
Crane, M. D. First officers of the Lodge : Past Grands, 
T. R. Kibbe, George Peck; O. P. Watson, Noble 
Grand; Jas. H. Morgan, Vice-Grand ; John R. Wilson, 
Recording Secretary; John B. Hewson, Permanent 
Secretary; Geo. B. Crane, Treasurer. 

The present officers are: M. Pixley, P. G.; Plin 
Ford, N. G.; H. P. Larautte, V. G. ; M. H. Hyland, 
R. S.; Hugh Young, P. S.; H. Moser, Treasurer; 
Thomas Williams, Henry Phelps, and Dr. J. C. Stout, 
Trustees. 

Garden City Lodge, N^o. 1^2, /. 0. O. F., was insti- 
tuted March 20, 1868, with the following charter 
members : R. S. Carter, J. P. Backesto, F. T. Risdon. 
A. P. Hulse, G. W. Kneedler, C. C. Cook, H. E. 
Hills, R. Scott, C. W. Pomeroy, D. J. Porter and 
C. G. Button. The Lodge now has two hundred and 
fifty members, and has assets amounting to about 
$12,000. The following are the Noble Grands from 
organization to date: C. C. Cook, Robert Scott, 
C. W Pomeroy, A. R. Manly, D. C. Vestal, D. J. 
Porter, S. A. Barker, H. A. Crawford, J. H. Miller, 
M. H. Gay, WilUam Grant, J. W. Haskell, J. B. 
Church, T. J. Cook, J. A. Lotz, H. H. Curtis, H. T. 
Wells, C. L. W. Sykes, G. H. Blakeslee, W. L. 
Coombs, W. M. Ginty, H. L. Cutter, C. H. Simonds, 
L. J. Chipman, Robert Caldwell, C. J. Owen, Homer 
Prindle, B. G. Allen, C. W. Breyfogle, H. W. Cote, 



John Manzer, W. A. Parkhurst, J. J. Bradley, George 
Lendrum, W. H. Hammond, P. F. Gosbey, R. P. 
Munroe, C. A. Hubback, J. P. Jarman, H. A. Saxe, 
A. C. Bates, and S. B. Caldwell. 

The other officers at present are: C. J. Owen, R. S.; 
J. R. Bailey, P. S.; and J. A. TuUy, Treasurer. 

Allemania Lodge, No. ijS, L O. O. F. — The estab- 
lishment of this Lodge dates September 2, 1870, the 
f )llowing being the charter members : Charles E. 
Raabe, Theodore Gebler, C. Claassen, J. Knipper, H. 
Albert, F. Biebrach, Jacob Haub, and Louis Ran- 
schenbach. 

The original officers were : C. E. Rabb, N. G. ; T. 
Gebler, V. G.; C. Claassen, Treasurer, and J. Knipper, 
Secretary. 

Stella Rchekah Degree Lodge, No. 22, L O. 0. F. — 
This Lodge was instituted January 12, 1S7S, with the 
under-mentioned charter members: G. H. Blakeslee, 
Mrs. G. H. Blakeslee, J. J. Connor, Mary J. Connor, 
Mrs. D. Ackerman, S. A. Barker, Mrs. S. A. Barker, 
Mrs. D. J. Porter, F. Buneman, Mrs. F. Buneman, 
D. Boernert, Mrs. D. Boernert, H. A. Crawford, Mrs. 
H. A. Crawford, T. J. Cook, Mrs. T. J. Cook, W. L. 
Coombs, Mis. W. L. Coombs, J. W. Coombs, Mrs. 
J. W. Coombs, H. H. Curtis, Mrs. H. H. Curtis, 
Wm. J. Colahan, Mrs. C. Smith, C. Crudts, Mrs. C. 
Crudts, Milton Campbell, Mrs. M. Campbell, J. F. 
Chambers, Mrs. J. F. Chambers, G. W. Ethell, Mrs. 
G. W. Ethell, T. Gebler, Mrs. T. Gebler, A. Gabriel, 
Mrs. A. Gabriel, Sam. P. Howes, Mrs. Sam. P. Howes, 
C. A. Hunt, Mrs. C. A. Hunt, C. A. Hough, Mrs. C. A. 
Hough, S. H. Herring, Mrs. S. H. Herring, J. W. 
Haskell, Mrs. J. W. Haskell, Jos. Hodgetts, W. A. 
Jackson, Mrs. W. A. Jackson, S. B. Jacobs, G. C. 
Manner, Mrs. R. Kenyon, Henry Lux, R. W. Kibbey, 
J. Knipper, Mrs. J. Knipper, Jos. A. Lotz, Albert 
Lake, W. M. Lovell, W. A. Lewis, Mr.s. W. A. 
Lewis, J. McCole, Mrs. J. McCole, Wm. McLeod, 
Mrs. Wm. McLeod, J. H. Miller, Ben. Miller, Mrs. 
Ben Miller, H. Moser, Mrs. H. Moser, J. J. Menefee, 
Mrs. J. J. Menefee, H. Mitchell, Mrs. H. Mitchell, G. 
Nelson, W. L. Northern, Mr.s. W. L. Northern, S. New- 
son, Mrs. L. C. Newson, Jos. O'Connor, Henry Phelps, 
C. W. Pomeroy, Mrs. C. W. Pomeroy, A. C. Perkins, 
Mrs. A. C. Perkins, Jules Pelle, D. J. Porter, Charles 
Patocchi, W. A. Parkhurst, Mrs. W. A. Parkhurst, 
Mr.s. A. K. Philbrook, H. Piessnecker, Mrs. H. Pie.ss- 
necker, Louis Ranschenbach, Mrs. D. Ranschenbach, 
Charies E. Schroder, Charies S. W. Sikes, Mrs. Louisa 
Sikes, D. L. Shead, Mrs. D. L. Shead, Chas. Shephard, 
Mrs. C. Shephard, M. Schlessinger, Mrs. M. Schless- 



194 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



inger, J. N. Spencer, Mrs. J. N. Spencer, H. J. 
Stone, Mrs. H. J. Stone, T. C. Winchell, W. C. 
Wilson, Thomas Williams, Mrs. T. Williams, H. T. 
Welch, Mrs. H. T. Welch, W. M. Williamson, Leo- 
pold Weltch, Wm. L. Woodson, Hugh Young, Mrs. 
H. Young, G. W. Zimmer, Mrs. G. W. Zimmer, 
A. C. Tedford, L. J. Tedford, Mrs. S. E. Morton, Mrs. 
Ellen Lux, Mrs. M. L. Lovell, Mrs. Emma Manner, 
Mrs. Addie Wilcox, Mrs. Esther Eslich, Mrs. E. 
Pearce, Mrs. E. M. Rhodes, Mrs. Mary Sterens, Mrs. 
Fanny O'Connor, J. B. Church, Mrs. J. B. Church, 
D. H. Kelsey, Mrs. D. H. Kelsey, H. J. Jamian, Mrs. 
H. J. Jamian. 

The first officers elected were: P. G., C. W. Pomeroy, 
N. G.; Mrs. J. J. Crawford, V. G.; Mrs. Mary Jackson, 
R. S.; Mrs. Louisa Sikes, F. S.; Mrs. C. A. Hunt, 
Trcas.; Theo. Gebler, L G.; T. J. Cook, W.; W. L. 
Woodrow, C; G. W. Ethcll, O. G.; Mary A. Williams, 
R. S. N. G.; Mrs. D. Ranschenbach, L. S. N. G.; 
Theo. C. Winchell, R. S. V. G.; Gustave Nelson, 
L. S. V. G. 

Moiiui Hamilto7t Lodge, No. 43, A.O.U. W^.— The 
Ancient Order of United Workmen organized their 
Lodge August i, 1878. The original officers were: 
J. B. Church, P. M. W.; Thomas H. Cordell, M. W.; 
A. B. Hamilton, G. F.; W. P. Veuve, O.; James M. 
Pitman, Recorder; O. A. Hale, F. 

San Jose Stanim, No. yj, U. O.R.M. — This society, 
which is a branch of the Red Men's Lodge, was or- 
ganized April 2, 1865, with the following charter mem- 
bers: R. Gerdes, L. Schoen, A. HoUoway, W. Roese, 
T. Lenzen, L Moser. The officers were: R. Gerdes, 
Chief; T. Lenzen, Second Chief; L. Schoen, Secretary, 
and H. Foertsch, Treasurer. 

Phil. Sheridan Post, No. 7, Grand Army of the Re- 
public. — This Post of the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic was organized August 10, 1S78, with the following- 
named charter members: W. F. Ellis, A. M. Henkel, 
H. T. Welch, John White, Charles Smith, John S. 
Gessell, D. N. Haskell, J. B. Wright, L. L. Nattinger, 
D. M. Rodibaugh, F. H. Angell. The following is a 
list of the Post Commanders since the organization 
of the Post: W. F. Ellis, A. G. Bennett, L. L. Nat- 
tinger, Orrin Taber, Ira Moore, H. S. Foote, H. B. 
Worcester, J. J. Peard, H. T. Welch, and Bradley 
Smith. 

John A. Dix Post, No. 42, G. ^. j?.— This Post was 
organized at Druids' Hall, March 23, 1882, at which 
time thirty-two members were enrolled. The officers 
were : Orrin Taber, Commander; C. W. Breyfoglc, 
Senior Vice-Commander; George M. Bowman, Junior 



Vice-Commander; J. H.Russell, Adjutant; J. C. Stout, 
Quartermaster; A. P. Turner, Chaplain; Dr. Thomas 
Kelly, Surgeon; A. G. Bennett, Officer of Day; S. 
Baker, Officer of Guard. In 1884 they moved to what 
was known as old Masonic Hall, on First Street, where 
they bought the furniture and fixtures and refitted and 
decorated the hall throughout. It is now called Grand 
Army Hall The present officers are: J. C. Stout, Com- 
mander; W. J. Wolcott, Senior Vice-Commander; S. F. 
Parker, Junior Vice-Commander; S. B. Anderson, Ad- 
jutant; N. R. Carson, Quartermaster; J. G. Gale, Chap- 
lain ; J. K. Sccord, Surgeon; A. G. Bennett, Officer of 
Day; M. J. Fancher, Officer of Guard. The following- 
named have been Post Commanders: George M. Bow- 
man, J. H. Barber, Judson Rice, C. W. Gausline, A. G. 
Bennett, J. C. Stout. 

Ariel Lodge, No. 248, Lndependent Order of B'nai 
B'rith. — This Lodge was organized July 12, 1875. The 
present officers are: E. M. Rosenthal, President ; Louis 
Schloss, Vice-President; Samuel N. Stern, Secretary; 
J. E. Harris, Financier; E. W. Kowsky, Treasurer; 
B. M. Bloom, Guard ; M. Schlesinger, Sentry. Trus- 
tees, Jacob Rich, L. Hart, and H. Levy. 

Sa7i Jose Grove, No. 2j, U. A. O. D. — San Jose 
Grove, No. 23, U. A. O. D., was organized June 11, 
1873, by the following Druids: George A. Gebhardt, 
Adams Schroeder, F. H. Schuoter, J. H. Thompson, 
Charles Valiant, and Philip Buchele. The present 
officers are: John Cavallaro, Junior Past Arch; Frank 
Stebbins, N. A.; A. Tullick, V. A.; J.C. McNamara, 
Recording Secretary; L. S. Cavallaro, Treasurer; F. 
Pozzo, Financial Secretary; A. Quanchi, Conductor; 
John Jasperizza, Inside Guard; G. A. Bonna, Outside 
Guard; G. A. Gebhardt, M. Lenzen, C. A. Merkle, 
Trustees. Past Noble Arches of the Grove are: F. D. 
Boernert, F. Bayersdofer, H. H. Curtiss, L. S. Caval- 
laro, Joseph Calice, George A. Gebhardt, S. Gaspal- 
lon, E. Juth, M. Lenzen, W. W. Markham, C. A. 
Merkle, G. A. Berd, F. Pozzo, A. Pillot, V. Spagnoli, 
George Schmidt, M. Trueman, O. Ziglier, and A. M. 
Gubiotti. 

Harmony Lodge, No. /, Order of Sons of Hermann. 
— This Lodge was organized July 20, 1S79. The first 
officers were: F. Zueschke, President; E. Boernert, 
Vice-President; P. Warkentin, Secretary; G. Geb- 
hardt, Treasurer; S. Volk, Conductor; G. Meyer, In- 
side Guard; E. Heckman, Outside Guard. 

San Jose Turn- Verein. — This society was organized 
June 17, 1868, by Henry Seebach, Chris. Yertts, 
Charles Doerr, E. Reinhardt, F. Hoos, Wm. Con- 
radys, Wm. Ziegler, Wm. Althaus, Julius Kreiger. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



195 



The first officers were: F. Hoos, President; Henry 
Seebach, Vice-President ; E. Reinhardt, Recording 
Secretary; C. Doerr, Corresponding Secretary; W. 
Conradys, Treasurer; W. Ziegler, First Leader; Julius 
Kreiger, Second Leader; W. Althaus, Curator. 

San Jose Germania Verein. — The San Jose Verein 
was started in 1856, and was continued as a German 
club until 1865, when the Germania was organized. 
The two were then consolidated and the Germania 
was instituted. The first President of the San Jose 
Verein was Louis Krumb, there being associated with 
him as members Adolph Pfister, John Balbach, Louis 
Magenheimer, and others. On the formation of the 
Germania in 1865, Louis Krumb was elected Presi- 
dent and Dr. Eichler, Secretary. 

Granger Lodge, No. 2g§, L 0. G. T. — The charter 
for this Lodge was granted March 2, 1874. The orig- 
inal officers were S. B. Caldwell, W. C. T. ; Jennie M. 
Young, W. V. T.; Mrs. M. Cozzens, W. Chap.; W. 
W. Cozzens, W. Sec; Mrs. H. A. Malone, W. A. S.; 
Mrs. Maria Gulp, W. F. S.; James Eddy, W. T. ; W. 
S. Boyles, W. M. ; Robert Campbell, W. L G ; R. D. 
Guard, W. O. G.; Kate Cozzens, W. R. H. S.; Mrs. 
McMahan, W. L. H. S.; Henry Mitchell, P. W. C. T- 

Phil. Slieridan Relief Corps, No. 2. — Organized De- 
cember 8, 1883. The following have been its Presi- 
dents since organization: 1884, OUve Welch; 1885, 
Emma W. Angell; 1886, Serena A. Foote; 1887, 
Sophronia Smith; 1888, Hattie L. Holcombe. 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 

The San Jose Woolen Mills. — Judge R. F. Peckham 
visited the Eastern States in 1868, and looked through 
many of the leading manufacturing establishments, 
especially those engaged in the production of silk, 
cotton, and woolen goods. He determined to try to 
start a woolen mill in San Jose, and to that end 
gathered all the necessary statistics in regard to the 
cost, expense of operating, and products of such an 
institution. He then returned to San Jose, and con- 
sulted with some of his financial friends in regard to 
the possibility of raising, by means of a joint-stock 
company or corporation, the necessary amount of 
money for the purpose, which had been estimated 
would require a capital of $200,000. 

It was decided to organize on a capital of $100,000, 
build the mill, get it ready for occupation, then double 
the capital stock, and get the rest of it taken, and call 
it in by installments as needed for a working capital. 

In 1869 the building was commenced under the 
management of Judge Peckham, who had been elected 



president and managing agent of the company. The 
cost of the mill was $83,000, leaving only $17,000 of 
the original capital. The capital stock was doubled 
and put upon the market; but after a thorough can- 
vass of the county $17,000 of the new capital was all 
that could be converted, and the concern was com- 
pelled to start with a cash capital of $30,000, barely 
enough to pay running expenses for ten weeks. As 
manufacturing was a new thing in the State, capitalists 
had no confidence in the project and refused to ad- 
vance money except at rates of interest that would 
eat up all the profits and sink the capital. Cash had 
to be paid for dye-stuffs, labor, and stock, and the 
goods had to be sold on credit, ranging in time from 
ninety days to one year. Consequently there were 
no profits for the stockholders, and the concern was 
on the brink of bankruptcy. 

It was then resolved to again double the capital 
stock and dispose of $283,000 of it, for thirty-three 
and one-third cents on the dollar. In less than a 
month this was done, and in less than six months the 
mill was on a paying basis, and has been so ever since. 
The mills are located at the corner of San Pedro and 
Hobson Streets. 

Moody's Mill. — The oldest mill in the city, now in 
operation, was first erected by R. G. Moody in 1854, 
on the bank of the Coyote Creek, about the spot where 
Empire Street strikes that stream. Here the propel- 
ling power was water, procured from an artesian well; 
the business was transferred to its present location on 
Third Street in the year 1858, where steam was used 
instead of water to drive the machinery. The prem- 
ises consist of the mill and warehouse, with a capacity 
for the storage of forty thousand sacks of flour, and 
has its frontage on Third, but running through to 
Fourth Street. It put in the porcelain rollers soon 
after their introduction on this coast, and manufactured 
the celebrated "Lily White" flour. It is now a part of 
the central milling combination. 

Enright's Fotindry and Machine Shops. — This enter- 
prise was founded by Joseph Enright in 1864, on the 
site it now occupies on the southeast corner of First 
and William Streets. The premises contain all of the 
necessary machinery and workshops needed in their 
large and prosperous business. A specialty is the 
manufacture of Enright's celebrated straw-burner 
threshing engines, but machinery of all kinds is 
built. 

Tlie Pioneer Carriage Manufactory. — John Balbach 
established, on Santa Clara Street, next door to the 
San Jose Savings Bank, the first shop where a bnjkcn 



196 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



vehicle could be repaired or a new one built. The 
building, which was of adobe, was destroyed in 1853, 
and a frame house erected on the ground, this in turn 
being replaced by the present brick erections. He 
then moved his busness to Fountain Alley, between 
First and Second Streets, where he is now located. 
C. S. Crydenwise, the pioneer carriage-maker, has 
charge of the wood-working department. 

Pacific Carriage Factory. — This establishment was 
founded in 1874 by D. Hatman and A. Normandin, 
under the firm name of Hatman & Normandin. It is 
now located on Santa Clara, between San Pedro and 
Orchard Streets, where a general carriage manufact- 
uring business is carried on to the amount of $20,000 
per annum. There are twelve men employed on the 
premises. 

Globe Carriage JVor/cs. — These works are in a fine 
brick building, erected in 1878, on San Fernando 
Street, they originally having occupied a position on St. 
John Street. Here occupation is given to about ten 
men, although there are facilities for working twenty. 
The business comprises every manner of carriage and 
blacksmith work. 

Santa Clara Valley Mill and Lumber Company. — In 
the fall of the year 1864, W. P. Dougherty started this 
enterprise, then located on First Street, near San 
Fernando, where he had a lumber yard. In 1869 an 
interest was sold to C. X. Hobbs and Samuel McFar- 
lane, when the name of the firm became Hobbs, 
Dougherty & Co. In the following year William H. 
Hall and Mr. Dougherty purchased the share of Mr. 
Hobbs, when the style of the firm was changed to W. 
P. Dougherty & Co., who bought out, in 1870, the 
sash factory and planing-mills of Metcalf, McLellan 
and W. W. Pratt, ,is also the lumber business of Mc- 
Murtry & McMillan, when, more extensive premises 
being required, in 1871 they moved to those now oc- 
cupied by them on San Fernando Street between 
Third and Fourth Streets. In 1873 the business had 
so increased that the firm decided to incorporate, in 
accordance with the laws of the State, under the name 
of the Santa Clara Valley Mill and Lumber Com- 
pany, and the following directors were elected: — 

B. P. Rankin, James M. Thorp, Jacob Lenzen, 
W. W. Pratt, W. H. Hall, James Dougherty, and W. 
P. Dougherty. The President of the concern is W. 
P. Dougherty, and the Secretary, James M. Thorp. 
The ground on which the premises stand occupy five 
fifty-vara lots, while the woodwork turned out by the 
sash and planing mills is considered the finest in the 
State. Many of the magnificent mansions in the sur- 



rounding counties, notably that of James C. Flood, 
the "Bonanza King," have been supplied with all the 
material of this nature from this establishment. The 
lumber mills of the company are located in the Santa 
Cruz Mountains, about twenty-five miles from San 
Jose, on the line of the South Pacific Coast Railroad, 
where they also own eight thousand acres of timber 
lands. 

Lidependent Mill and Liunber Company. — T. J. Gil- 
lespie first started this as a private concern. A short 
time thereafter, July I, 1876, the business was incor- 
porated under the laws of the State. The officers 
elected were: Directors — A. C. Stoddard, C. C. Cook, 
Smith Henderson, James M. Young, T. J. Gillespie, 
and J. W. Lowry. T. J. Gillespie was elected Pres- 
ident, and J. W. Lowry, Secretary. The corporation 
deals in all kinds of lumber, and manufacture mould- 
ings, brackets, and do all kinds of mill work, such as 
planing, sawing, wood-turning, etc., while in con- 
nection with the mill is a lumber yard, the lumber 
being procured from the Santa Cruz Mountains. 
The works are situated on San Pedro Street, between 
Julian and St. James. 

Angora Robe and Glove Company. — This enterprise 
was started in 1875, as a joint-stock company, C. P. 
Bailey being President, and A. L. Pomeroy, Secretary. 
It was incorporated under the laws of the State of 
California, July 31, 1875, with the above-named 
officers, and has ever since maintained a flourishing 
business. The principal articles made are robes, 
whip-lashes, and gloves, the latter being a specialty. 
These find a ready market in this and adjoining 
States. The business is now under the control of 
C. P. Bailey, the factory being located on Fifth 
Street, between Wasliington and Empire Streets. 

Tannery of Grozelier & Nelson.- — The first and 
only tannery in San Jose is located on the corner of 
Park Avenue and River Street, and occupies two 
fifty-vara lots. The business was commenced in the 
year i860, by Simon Grozelier and Gustavus Nelson. 
The buildings consist of beam-hou.se and curriers' 
shop, and, indeed, all the necessary adjuncts to the 
manufacture of leather, the machinery for which is 
now driven by an engine of sixteen-horse power, 
which took the place, in 1S63, of a horse-power mill. 
There is an annual consumption of about five hun- 
dred cords of tan bark, which is procured from the 
Santa Cruz Mountain.s. The hides come partly from 
San Francisco and partly from the Santa Clara 
Valley, the leather manufactured being principally 
sole, harness, skirting, bridle, kips, and calf-skins, of 




m^moi 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



197 



which there is an annua! out-turn of about ten thou- 
sand hides, a sale being found for them all over Cali- 
fornia. The leather produced here will bear favor- 
able comparison with that of any other tannery in 
the State. Steady employment is given to fifteen 
men. 

San Jose Fruit Packiiig Covipany. — J. M. Dawson 
and W. S. Stevens commenced, in a crude and ex- 
perimental way, to can fruit. They succeeded in 
putting up a few hundred cases for the market, and, 
encouraged by their efforts, the next year formed a 
company, under the firm name of J. M. Dawson & 
Co., composed of J. M. Dawson, W. S. Stevens, and 
Lendrum, Burns & Co. They rented the corner lot 
on Fifth and Julian Streets, where the San Jose 
Fruit Packing Company is now located, and there 
built some rough buildings, procured a small boiler, 
fitted up accoi'ding to the best information they had, 
and enlarged their business very much from the 
previous year, putting up about four thousand cases. 
The next year, 1874, finding the demand for their 
can goods still increasing, even beyond their means 
and capacity, in June they took Wilson Hays in 
partnership, and further enlarged their works and 
products. In January, 1875, the present company 
was formed, and incorporated as the San Jose Fruit 
Packing Company, by the following-named gentle- 
men : J. M. Dawson, W. S. Stevens, John Burns, 
Wilson Hays, H. A. Keinath, T. B. Dawson, and 
George Lendrum, and succeeded the old J. M. Daw- 
son firm. From these small beginnings it has, in 
sixteen years, grown to be one of the first institutions 
in the county, employing over five hundred hands, 
mostly women and girls, during the running season, 
and putting up about two million cans a year, which 
involves an outlay of ov.r $1 50,000 annually. 

Golden Gate Packing Company. — This company 
have their works on Julian Street, between Third and 
Fourth Streets, and was started, in 1875, by W. H. 
Mantz and W. S. Stevens. It afterwards became the 
property of a joint-stock company, and was finally 
incorporated, in 1877, by F. S. Hinds, A. P. Jordan, 
and H. A. Keinath, of San Jose. The original prem- 
ises were burnt to the ground, December 19, 1879, 
and was rebuilt in May, 18S0. It is a two-story 
building, one hundred and twenty feet in length, and 
eighty in width. The cans used are manufactured 
on the premises. Employment is given to five hun- 
dred persons, principally females. The business is 
increasing each year, showing a larger export, chiefly 
to Eastern and foreign markets. 



San Jose Gas Company. — This company was started 
October 6, i860, under a franchise granted by the 
common council of the city to James Hagan, who 
immediately thereafter commenced the erection of 
the present works, on the corner of Third and San 
Fernando Streets. In the same month the company 
was incorporated under the laws of the State by James 
Hagan, J. K. Prior, and Thomas Anderson. Mains 
and pipes were first laid October 24, from the works 
along Third Street to San Fernando, thence to First 
Street, to Santa Clara Street, then north and south 
on Market Street, and on January 21, 1861, houses 
were first lighted, the gas being supplied to eighty- 
four consumers at the rate of $10 per one thousand 
cubic feet. In 1862 street lamps were erected, and 
the public thoroughfares were illuminated. The com- 
pany has since extended its mains to the town of 
Santa Clara, a distance of three miles. In 1879 they 
bought out the Garden City Gas Company, a rival 
company which had been started the year previous, 
and thus obtained control of the entire gas supply of 
the city, as well as that of the town of Santa Clara. 
The premises on Third Street occupy two fifty-vara 
lots, and comprise office, retort house, gasometers, 
coal shed and purifying house. The works on San 
Augustine Street, near the Alameda, cover nearly 
three-fourths of an acre, the principal buildings there 
being the retort house, purifying room, coal shed, as 
well as a gasholder, generator, and superheater. 

The Fredericksburg Brewery. — It is an interesting 
thing to watch the growth and development of a 
rising city, with the manifold interests that go to make 
up its progress and advancement. In this respect San 
Jose is a worthy example. A few years ago she was 
a lovely city, it is true, favored as the place of resi- 
dence of many of the wealthy men of the State, yet 
almost wholly unknown outside for any one striking 
particular. But all these things are changed, and to- 
day San Jose is known far and wide, still for its beauty 
and popularity as a seat of residence, but much more 
on account of the products of her manufacturing and 
industrial establishments, which are sought far and 
v;ide because of their superior e.xcellence. A case 
strongly in point is Uie Fredericksburg Brewery, whose 
beer has achieved a distinction unrivaled on this coast 
for purity, healthfulness, and tonic qualities. On a 
visit to tliis great institution we must ask the reader to 
accornpany us. Embarking on one of the handsome 
cars of the Electric Road we are whirled rapidly along 
the famous Alameda Avenue, with its leafy shade, past 
the homes of wealthy men, sheltered with giant trees 



198 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



and embowered in flowers, to a point where stirring 
life and bustling activity proclaim the presence of 
some great enterprise. It is the Fredericksburg Brew- 
ery, the widest known and the most extensive estab- 
h'shment of its kind west of the Rocky Mountains. 
Immediately opposite is the Agricultural Park, where 
the annual county fairs are held, and on every side 
are splendid private residences, the home of culture 
and affluence. The great pile of massive brick build- 
ings that make up this mammoth brewing establish- 
ment are very sightly in their appearance. Fronting 
on the grand thoroughfare of the Alameda is the re- 
ception hall, as yet a modest structure, to be replaced 
in the near future by a seemly building to correspond 
with the great brick buildings beyond. It is flanked 
by a pretty garden and a commodious hotel and re- 
freshment saloon, each feature being liberally pat- 
ronized by those who enjoy the bounties afforded 
and the beauties surrounding. Not far beyond, and 
fronting on Cinnabar Street, which here meets the 
Alameda, are the large and substantially handsome 
buildings devoted to the various departments of the 
brewing business, three fine two-story brick edifices, 
from whose junction is now rising a lofty, command- 
ing center, to be, when finished, of three stories, con- 
structed in the strongest manner, and, as is shown by 
the plans, an elegant structure. It is the new brew- 
house. In it will be placed a new copper beer kettle, 
of a capacity of two hundred and twenty-five barrels, 
also an iron mash tub with copper bottom, an im- 
mense hop-jack, hot-water tanks, etc., all of the best 
construction and manufactured by the George F. Ott 
Copper and Iron Manufacturing Company, Philadel- 
phia. In the malt-house the curious visitor will .see 
the enormous vats wherein is soaked the barley, the 
vast stone cellars where it is placed to sprout, the 
chambers for drying, and the mills for grinding, some 
slight conception of the magnitude of all these opera- 
tions being obtained when it is remembered that .seven 
tons per day of barley are transformed into malt. 

The engine-rooms next attract attention, where 
there is a row of four huge boilers, and furnaces, sup- 
plying steam for the engines needed to propel the 
machinery of the establishment, its lifting, and pull- 
ing and pumping, its mills, its elevators, and its en- 
ginery. There are in all ten pumps, all necessarily 
of great power, employed in the establishment, forcing 
the beer in the different stages of its manufacture to 
the various parts of the building. Pure artesian water 
is supplied from two artesian wells. One of the most 
interesting departments is the refrigerator room, where 



two engines of forty-horse power each are kept busy 
in the manufacture of ice, the capacity being over fifty 
tons per day, and in forcing salt water, cooled beneath 
the freezing point of fresh water, through the storing 
rooms. The pipes containing this water are en- 
veloped in a constant coating of ice, presenting a 
strange appearance as one comes upon them after the 
genial atmosphere of out-of-doors, or the torrid heat 
of the engine-rooms. The storage cellars present a 
sight that will not be easily forgotten, range after 
range of giant tanks and vats and casks, containing 
each from thirty-five to two hun ired and fifty barrels 
of beer. The fermenting room, with its long line of 
frothing vats, when the beer is preparing for the stor- 
age cellars, the filters, the great ocean of cooling ship 
— but why attempt to describe the indescribable? It 
must be seen to be appreciated, and in despair we 
abandon the attempt to picture in detail. 

After inspecting the main departments the visitor 
will not easily tire of going through the bottling, and 
washing, and the packing-rooms, the cooperage shops, 
watching the curiously capped bottles that are under- 
going the process of Pasteurization, the exquisite finish ' 
of the clear and beautiful Pilsener and Culmbacher 
lager beers prepared for export; and after it is all over 
he will quaff with a new appreciation the nectar of the 
crystal clear and wholesome beer presented at the 
hand of the genial F. A. Baumgartner, the foreman 
who has done the honors of the establishment by 
accompanying him through. 

These latter departments occupy commodious 
wooden buildings distinct from the main brewery, and 
are admirably fitted. To help the imagination, it 
must be known that from eight thousand to ten 
thousand bottles per day are required, these bottles 
being made some in Illinois and some in Germany, 
and the annual production has risen from the very 
small beginning made in 1869, to a grand total of 
fifty-three thousand barrels from May to May last 
year, and a probable sixty thousand during this pres- 
ent year, ending 1889. In all some one hundred and 
twenty men, women, and children find employment, 
the wages paid and the hours of work having always 
been eminentlysatisfactory. In San Jose fifteen horses 
are needed for the wagons, and a like number are 
used in connection with the San Francisco business. 
The brewery is connected directly by an independent 
switch with the Narrow Gauge Railway, a material 
advantage when it is considered that shipments upon 
an immense scale are required to fill the growing de- 
mands from Central and South America, Old and 



PEN PICTURES EROM THE "GARDEN OE THE WORLD:' 



199 



New Mexico, Japan, Australasia, the Sandwich Is- 
lands, and the most distant portions of the Pacific 
Coast States and Territories, in addition to the large 
and firmly established local trade. 

This great business was inaugurated on a very small 
scale in 1869, and has steadily prospered, until now, un- 
der the efficient management of its proprietors, Messrs. 
Ernst Schnabel and Ernst A. Denicke, the business 
is unsurpassed, Mr. Schnabel, a biographical sketch 
of whose successful life appears on another page, is 
the manager of the brewery at San Jose, and his 
watchful oversight the direct cause of the purity and 
excellence of the beer, while Mr. Denicke resides in 
San Francisco and manages the outside business. 
They possess ample capital, and, backed as they are 
by long and successful experience, and untiring en- 
ergy, the Fredericksburg Brewing Company consti- 
tutes one of the most important commercial institu- 
tions of the State. 

Alt. Hamilton Stage Co. — The history and descrip- 
tion of the Lick Observatory upon Mt. Hamilton, and 
of the nicely finished highway leading to it, is given 
under appropriate headings elsewhere in this volume. 
A short time ago Messrs. F. S. Chadbourne, the 
wealthy furniture dealer of San Francisco, San Diego, 
and Portland; A. H. Boomer, of the California, Oregon, 
and Idaho • Stage Co., and S. D. Brasto, Division 
Superintendent of Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express, an- 
ticipating that the site of the observatory would be a 
tempting place of resort to the public, formed a cor- 
poration called the "Mt. Hamilton Stage Co.," for the 
purpose of establishing a superb line of stages be- 
tween San Jose and that point. Mr. Chadbourne 
was elected President, Mr. Boomer, Vice-President, 
and Mr. Brasto, Secretary and Treasurer. A. W. 
Ingalsbe was appointed local agent for San Jose, and 
Jo. Bacon assistant agent. The company sent out 
agents to purchase the best horses for stage service to 
be found on the Pacific slope; placed an order for 
twelve eleven-passenger coaches, constructed in such 
a manner as to afford to each passenger an outside 
seat, and began the erection of post-houses, stables, 
etc., on the route. They sounded the country also 
for old and experienced stage-drivers, whom they uni- 
formed in corduroy suits and broad-brimmed stage- 
drivers' sombreros. Tally-ho coaches are also being 
built, hung very low, which, when completed, will be 
preceded by a bugler to announce the special points 
of view, stoppages, etc. 

There are two changes of horses, the coaches be- 
ing four and six horse, one at Hall's Vallc}-, and one 



at Smith's Creek. At the latter point, passengers 
stop thirty minutes for dinner at the Smith Creek 
Hotel, an establishment owned by T. E. Snell & Son, 
and ably conducted by Mrs. Hattie Garnosset. The 
Mt. Hamilton Stage Co. contemplates also the erec- 
tion of a hotel near the summit so that visitors can 
remain over and by night view the moon and stars 
through the largest telescope in the world. The re- 
turn trip is perhaps more enjoyable than the ascent. 
As the stage sweeps down the road with its many 
curves, the landscape unfolds, and in three short hours 
the tourist is again in San Jose, with ineffaceable re- 
collections of the mountain road, the marvelous pros- 
pect, the lofty mountain, and the lonely tomb. 

The Western Granite and Marble Company, one of 
the representative industries of San Jose, and of the 
Santa Clara Valley, was organized in May, 1888, with 
C. T. Ryland as President, John W. Combs, Vice- 
President; D. B. Murphy, Treasurer; T. P. Ryland, 
Secretary; W. W. Blanchard, Manager, and T. O'Neil, 
Superintendent. Their office, yard, and works are sit- 
uated on North First Street, at the crossing of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, and are supplied with 
steam polishers, and the other requisite machinery to 
expedite the business. The company owns its own 
granite quarries at Yuba Pass, California, known as 
the Crystal Lake Quarries, the stones from which 
have no superior in the world. The marble used is 
chiefly from Vermont. The company employ from 
forty to fifty skilled workmen, including a special artist 
in designing. Besides the finest and most elaborate 
monumental and tombstone work, the company makes 
a specialty of building material in any style of finish. 
They have a branch house in Oakland for the exhibi- 
tion and sale of manufactured goods. Their trade ex- 
tends over California, and the contiguous States and 
Territories, and will reach $100,000 during the year 
1888. 

Although this company was but recently incorpo- 
rated, the history of its origin and business dates back 
over a period of years. J. W. Combs established the 
marble business in San Jose in 1870; and in 1878 W. 
W. Blanchard and T. O'Neil opened the first perma- 
nent granite manufactory in the city. In 1883 a 
partnership was formed between the three men, and 
the two interests combined und'T the firm title of 
Combs, Blanchard & O'Neil. The combination com- 
prised men of brains, energy, and ability, and its 
business prospered from the start, growing to such 
proportions that in order to own and operate their 
own quarries, and meet other requirements, it was 



200 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



thought best to merge the concern into an incorpo- 
rated company, with larger capital, which was con- 
summated as above stated. 

John W. Combs was born in New York State, Oc- 
tober 17, 1836. His father, who was noted for his 
skill as a mechanic, died in Mr. Comb's boyhood, and 
having a blind mother to support, he never attended 
school but fourteen months. He started in life as a 
butcher bo}', which led him to study the forms and 
structure of animals; and having natural taste for art, 
he one day asked a marble cutter for a block of marble, 
and taking it to his room, he procured an old chisel and 
mallet, and while sitting up with his sick mother,cut the 
figure of a lamb out of it. In this first effort the young 
tyro was so successful and caused so much favorable 
comment, that it determined the current of young 
Combs' life. He started in to learn the trade of mar- 
ble cutter at seventeen years of age, and soon became 
very expert in figure carving. Although he never 
took a lesson in art, he has made many pieces, busts, 
and faces in basso-rilievo from photographs, which have 
been pronounced fine likenesses. One of his pieces 
was a basso-rilievo of Pope Leo which sold at a Cath- 
olic fair for $150. Other pieces have been valued 
much higher; among them a bust of ex-Senator 
Henry C. McEwen, of Dixon, Salina County, which 
was presented to the Senator by a company of friends 
with appropriate ceremonies. His figure work has 
taken numerous first prizes at fairs and exhibitions 
wherever shown. He came to San Jose in 1870, and 
has been in the marble business ever since, in the re- 
lation of proprietor or joint partner 

Mr. Combs was married in Ogdcnsburg, New York. 
He lost his wife in 1865, who died leaving two sons 
and a daughter. Mr. Combs married his present wife 
in the same city on January 19, 1867. His two sons 
are both superior workmen in marble. He is vice- 
president of the Western Granite and Marble 
Company. 

W. W. Rlanchard is a native of Maine, born in 1853. 
He attended school, learning his trade, and carried on 
a granite quarry in his native State, shipping dimen- 
sion stock to Boston. In 1876 he sold out his busi- 
ness and came to California, working at his trade for 
a time in San Francisco and Oakland; came to San 
Jose and opened the granite, monument, and building- 
stone business, in partnership with T. O'Neil, in 1878. 

In 1884 Mr. Blatichard married Miss Lulu K. Baker, 
daughter of Rev. G. R. Baker, a prominent Methodist 
clergyman, who was prominent in establishing the 
University of the Pacific, and hiying the foundation 



for its present flourishing career. Mr. Blanchard is 
now manager of the Western Granite and Marble 
Company. 

Timothy O'Neil, superintendent of the Western 
Granite and Marble Works, was born in Connecticut, 
thirty-five years ago, and learned the trade of stone- 
cutter in the city of Hartford. He worked at it at 
several points in the East: did some of the work on 
the Centennial buildings in Philadelphia. He came to 
California near the close of 1875, and worked at his 
trade until starting in business with Mr. Blanchard in 
San Jose, in 1878. Mr. O'Neil married Mary Frances 
Devine, in 1886. She is the daughter of J. J. Devine, 
a pioneer who came to this State in 1850. 

San Jose Brush Electric Light Co., organized Feb- 
ruary 25, 1882. In 1881 J. J. Owen, proprietor of the 
San Jose Mercury, conceived the idea of lighting the 
city by means of electricity, which he proposed to use 
by means of high towers which he thought could be 
so construcred as not to obstruct travel on the streets. 
The great electric tower at the corner of Santa Clara 
and Market Streets is the outcome of this idea. 
Through the efforts of Mr. Owen, money enough was 
raised by subscription to complete this work, which 
will stand as a monument to his disinterested public 
spirit. Soon after the completion of the tower, the 
system of cranes and masts was introduced, and is now 
in successful operation. A full account of the opera- 
tions of this company will be found in the biographi- 
cal sketch of Pedro de Saisset, elsewhere in this book. 

San Jose Water Company. — This company was es- 
tablished November 26, 1866, by Donald McKenzie 
and John Bonner, of San Jose, and R. Chabot, of Oak- 
land, Alameda County, with a capital stock of $100,- 
000. The city of San Jose and the town of Santa 
Clara granted them exclusive water privileges for the 
term of twenty-five years. To carry out their plan 
tanks were constructed, engines built, and the city 
supplied with water from artesian wells. At the end 
of two years the supply thus obtained was found in- 
sufficient for the growing wants of the community; 
therefore the right to use the water of the Los Gates 
Creek was obtained, and a new company formed in 
1868, with an increased capital of $300,000, with N. 
H. A. Mason, President; D. McKenzie, Vice-Presi- 
dent; W. B. Rankin, Secretary; C. X. Hobbs, Super- 
intendent; E. McLaughlin, Treasurer. 

On the formation of the new company, work was 
begun in bringing the waters of the Los Gatos Creek 
to San Jose. Reservoirs were made, and pipes laid 
throughout the city, thus affording a generous supply. 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



201 



The water was originally taken from the tail race of 
the mill at Los Gatos, but other water rights in the 
mountains have since been acquired, besides large 
wells near the Guadaloupe Creek, on the Alameda, 
from which the water is raised by powerful pumps. 
STREET RAILROADS. 

Sau Jose and Santa Clara Railroad Company. — The 
Legislature of California, in March, 1868, granted a 
franchise to S. A. Bishop, Charles Silent, Daniel Mur- 
phy, D. B. Moody, and their associates to construct 
a horse railroad along the Alameda from San Jose to 
Santa Clara. Messrs. Moody and Murphy having 
declined to avail themselves of the franchise, a new 
directorate was organized. S. A. Bishop was elected 
President; John H. Moore, Treasurer, and Charles 
Silent, Secretary. Work was first started August 31, 
and the cars made their initial trip on November i. 
In 1869 the line was extended eastward, along Santa 
Clara Street, to the Coyote bridge, and afterward to 
McLaughlin Avenue. In 18S7 the company obtained 
a franchise from the city and county, and constructed 
the present electric railroad, which is the first of the 
kind ever built on the coast. 

The First Street Railroad was built in 1870 by S. 
A. Bishop, and was the first narrow-gauge street rail- 
road track laid in the United States. Its original 
route was from the then San Pedro Street depot, 
along San Pedro, Julian, and First Streets to Reed 
Street. Mr. Bishop sold his interest to F. C. Bethel, 
who sold to Geo. F. Baker, and he to Jacob Rich, 
who now controls it. The route has been changed 
since to correspond with the general system of street 
raikoads, it being now from the Market Street Depot 
along First Street, Willow Street, and Lincoln Ave- 
nue to Minnesota Avenue in the Willows. 

Market Street and Willow Glen Horse Railroad 
Company. — The Board of Supervisors of Santa Clara 
County, and the mayor and common council of the 
city of San Jose, granted a franchise, on February 1 1_ 
1876, to C. T. Bird, Chas. B. Hensley, John Auzerais, 
F. J. Sauffrignon, J. C. Bland, Oliver Cottle, Isaac 
Bird, F. Bras.sy, T. W. Spring, James R. Lowe, R. C. 
Swan, and S. Ncwhall to establish a street railroad. 
This enterprise developed into the Market Street and 
Willow Glen Railroad Company, and was incorpo- 
rated February 23, 1876, with J. J. Denny, John 
Auzerais, Isaac Bird, F. J. Sauffrignon, and C. T. 
Bird, Directors; C. T. Bird, President; J. Auzerais, 
Treasurer, and F. Brassy, Secretary. The route 
originally authorized was from the intersection of 
Julian and Market, along Market, San Fernando, 
26 



San Salvador, and Bird Avenues to Willow Street. 
When the First Street road extended its line down 
Willow Street, the road was discontinued from the 
corner of Delmas Avenue southerly. The route has 
since been changed, it being at present from the depot 
at Market Street along Market, San Fernando, and 
Delmas Avenues. The road is now controlled by 
Jacob Rich. 

Tlie Peoples Horse Railroad Company. — The com- 
mon council of the city of San Jose granted to the 
Southeast Side Horse Railroad Company, on Febru- 
ary 26, 1877, a franchise for a narrow-gauge railroad, 
to Jacob Rich, C. G. Harrison, W. S. McMurtry, J. 
Y. McMillan, and S. W. Boring, the original stock- 
holders and trustees of the association, the officers 
being Jacob Rich, President; S. W. Boring, Secretary. 
The same parties afterward procured a franchise for a 
narrow-gauge road, taking for its starting-point the 
center of Second and San Fernando Street.s, and 
running thence to Market and Santa Clara Streets; 
on Santa Clara Street to the Alameda, and thence to 
the town of Santa Clara. Approved February 28, 
1879. The Southeast Side Company deeded all its 
franchises to the new corporation, named the People's 
Horse Railroad Company. This road is no longer 
in operation as originally laid out. 

Nortli Side Horse Railroad Company. — In June, 
1875, a franchise was granted to the above-named 
company, commencing at the intersection of St. John 
and First Streets, and running thence to Fourteenth 
and Mission Streets. The officers were: W. S. Mc- 
Murtry, President; J. Y. McMillan, Secretary; and C. 
G. Harrison, Manager. It is now controlled by Jacob 
Rich. 

The early history of San Jose is identical with the 
history of the surrounding country. So nearly were 
their interests and enterprises commingled that an 
attempt to treat them separately would complicate 
the narrative to an extent to render it nearly unin- 
telligible. After the organization of the county and 
its general settlement by " foreigners," which was the 
general appellation given to immigrants, different sec- 
tions began to develop different interests; villages and 
towns came into existence, and it is of these we pro- 
pose to give brief mention. 



GILROY. 

This beautiful and thriving city is situated on the 

Monterey road, about thirty miles south of San Jose. 

That portion of the county was formerly known as 

Pleasant Vallev. - The first house erected was by 



202 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



James Houck, in 1850. It was a small roadside inn 
and stable, intended for the accommodation of trav- 
elers between Monterey and San Jose. It was built 
of split redwood, and was situated to the north of 
Lewis Street, and, we believe, is still standing. The 
next house was on Lewis Street, near Monterey 
Street, and here a store was opened by Lucien Ev- 
erett. This was followed by a building by John 
Eigelberry. The first hotel in the town was built 
by David Holloway in the winter of 1853-54. It 
was quite a pretentious structure, and stood between 
Lewis Street and Martin's Lane. About the same 
time David Holloway opened a blacksmith shop, and 
Eli Reynolds put up a building for a saddler's shop. 
About this time a post-office was established, James 
Houck being the postmaster. It is said that he could 
neither read nor write ! In 1852 the first school was 
opened, and continued for one season. In 1853 a 
school building was erected by subscription, and 
school was taught by Mr. Jackson, the trustees be- 
ing W. R. Bane and Dempsey Jackson. 

The first Protestant religious services were held in 
1852, at the residence of W. R. Bane, and were con- 
ducted by the Rev. Mr. Anthony, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. In 1853 Rev. J. T. Cox, of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, organized a con- 
gregation, and held services in the school-house; and 
in 1854 a church building was erected at a cost of 
a thousand dollars. Both the school-house and the 
church have been replaced by handsome modern 
buildings. The town continued to attract settlers, 
and, being situated on the principal thoroughfare of 
the county, thrived and prospered. 

In 1867 F. S. Rogers, a dentist, opened an office, 
and in 1S6S James C. Zuck established the first law- 
yer's office in the town. Zuck and Rogers formed 
a partnership for conducting a real-estate business. 
They purchased five acres in the northwestein part 
of town, and sold it at once as town lots. Twenty 
acres more, on Monterey Street, near the center of the 
town, were purchased of John Eigelberry, and sold 
in the same manner. W. L. Hoover then came into 
the firm, and thirty acres more land, on the east side 
of Monterey Street, were inuxhased from L. F. Bell, 
subdivided into lots, and sold. 

On February iS, 1868, the town was incorporated 
under the laws of the State, and christened the town 
of Gilroy. March 7, of the same year, an election 
for town officers was held, and the following were 
chosen: Trustees, John C. Looser, William Hanna, 
Frank Oldham, Jacob Einstein, Jacob Rcithcr; Treas- 



urer, H. "VVangenheim; Assessor, James Angel; Mar- 
shal, A. W. Hubbard. The Assessor failed to qualify, 
and H. D. Coon was appointed in his place. J. M. 
Keith was appointed Town Clerk. 

In March, 1870, an act was passed by the Legisla- 
ture incorporating Gilroy as a city, with the govein- 
ment vested in a mayor, city marshal and ex-officio 
tax collector, a city clerk and ex-officio assessor, and 
a city treasurer. At the first regular election under 
this charter, which was held May 10, 1870, the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: J. M. Browne, Mayor; 
City Treasurer, M. Einstein; City Clerk, George T. 
Clark; City Marshal, M. Gray; Councilmen, William 
Hanna, Jacob Reither, J. B. Morey, C. K. Farley, 
William Isaac, Volney Howard. 

A great obstacle to the prosperity of the city was 
the question of title to the land on which it was situ- 
ated. The ownership in the land was an undivided 
interest in the Las Animas Rancho, an early Spanish 
grant. The rancho had never been partitioned, and 
there was an uncertainty as to where any particular 
holder might be located when the different interests 
were set off. This state of affairs was a source of 
great annoyance, as it practically clouded all the 
titles in the city and vicinity. Many meetings were 
held for consultation. The matter culminated Jan- 
uary 3, 1879, when Henry Miller, the largest owner 
in the rancho, filed his complaint in partition. The 
defendants were all the other owners, and numbered 
over a thousand. The court, after hearing, appointed 
County Surveyor A. T. Herman, J. M. Battec, and H. 
M. Leonard, as commissioners to survey and set off 
to each owner his interest in the tract. It required 
several years to accomplish this, and it was not until 
June 19, 1886, that the final decree was filed. This 
settled forever the question of title, and each owner 
of property in Gilroy, or vicinity, has a claim to his 
land that is undisputed and indisputable. 

Notwithstanding it was thus handicapped, Gilroy 
did not halt in the march of progress either before 
or during this litigation. Substantial improvements 
were made, and the city was beautified by handsome 
and substantial buildings, beautiful gardens, fine 
streets, and good sidewalks. A school system was 
built up which is unsurpassed in its efficiency by any 
in the Union. A certificate of graduation from the 
Gilroy High School carries as much influence where 
that institution is known, as a diploma from a college 
or university. A strong and efficient fire depart- 
ment has been organized, and shows in the front rank 
at the amiual tournaments. Good hotels are numer- 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



203 



ous. Gas and water companies have been organized, 
and are increasing their capacity in proportion to the 
demand for their services. The growth of the city, 
however rapid it might have been prior to the settle- 
ment of land titles, has received a new impetus since 
that incubus was removed, and the onward march has 
been increased to a double-quickstep. 

And there is no reason why this should not be. 
Surrounding the city are leagues of the most fertile 
land in California. Wherever the experiment has 
been made, it has been found to surpass expectations 
in its producing power. Fruits of all kinds mature 
crops of quality and quantity unsurpassed. The 
climate is superb, the people are energetic, public- 
spirited citizens, and good neighbors. With every. 
thing to make life profitable and enjoyable, we cannot 
err in predicting for the city of Gilroy a future pros- 
perity seldom experienced anj'where, even in progress- 
ive America. 

Following are some of the enterprises of Gilro)-: — 

Gilroy Gas Company. — The present gas works which 
supply the city of Gilroy were completed in Novem- 
ber, 1886, the work being done by the firm of Sims 
& Morris, of San Francisco, at an expense of $17,500 
for the plant and mains. The total length of mains 
is about thirteen thousand feet, the original contract 
having been for ten thousand feet of mains. The 
capacity per month is about three hundred and fifty 
thousand cubic feet. There are one hundred and ten 
business places and residences supplied by the works_ 
The city has twenty-three street lamps, which were 
put up at the time of the erection of the plant. These 
works succeeded the old pneumatic process, which 
proved inadequate, but upon which the place depended 
for about sixteen years. The works are owned by a 
local corporation, the officers of which are: President, 
Thos. Rea; Vice-President, L. A. Whitehurst; Treas- 
urer, Bank of Gilroy; Secretary, Geo. W. Lynch, of 
San Francisco. Directors: L. A. Whitehurst, J. H. 
Ellis, Amos Robinson, Geo. W. Lynch, Thos. Rea; 
and the manager of the works, who has held that 
position since their building, is Edgar A. Holloway. 
The works arc operated under a lease for five years 
by Geo. W. Lynch. 

Mills of Whitehurst & /lodo^es.^This firm was or- 
ganized in 1869, under the name of Ricketts, White- 
hurst & Hodges. Mr. Ricketts retired after about two 
year-^, and since that time the firm has remained as at 
present. For ten years they carried on the business 
of manufacturing and wholesaling lumber alone, and 
they then bought the planing-mill of William Ilanna, 



which they have ever since conducted. Here they 
manufacture for the local market. They employ from 
thirty to forty men. They employ some six or seven 
men in their planing-mill; and in the timber, and at 
hauling, at least thirty men are employed. 

This firm is composed of L. A. Whitehurst and P. 
C. Hodges. 

Catholic Clmrch. — The predecessor of the present 
Redemptorist Mission Catholic Church was located 
about five miles from Gilroy, on the ranch of Dan- 
iel Murphy, and was erected in 1852, through the 
liberality of Martin Murphy. The building came 
into disuse as a church, and was finally burned down. 
Father Devos was the pastor at the time of building. 
He came from San Jose every third Sunday, and 
after his death Father Bixlo became pastor. Dedi- 
cated by Archbishop Joseph Alemany. The church 
building of the St. Mary's congregation, at Gilroy, 
succeeded it. It was erected in 1S66. December 17, 
1866, it was first used as a church. The dedicatory 
ceremonies were performed by Father Hudson, the 
power having been delegated to him by Bishop Thad- 
dcus Smat. The church building is seventy-two by 
thirty-three feet. Original contract price, $3,400, but 
the contractor, Mr. Stout, died during the progress of 
the building, and Father Hudson completed it at a 
cost of $500 additional. The interior height is twent)^- 
four feet, and it is sixty-four feet to the top of the 
cross. The value of the church building is about 
$5,000. The school-house was built in 1871. The main 
building is seventy-two by twenty-eight feet, two stories. 
There are two school-rooms and two music-rooms. 
There is a boys' school building, erected in 1877, 
through the beneficence of Mrs. James Dunn, who do- 
nated $5,000 for that purpose, and $1,000 of that sum 
was invested in the building and furnishing, while the 
remaining $4,000 was intended as a fund for the sup- 
port of the institution, which should allow the boys 
to attend free. 

This is also taught by the Sisters of the Sacred 
Heart. The size is forty by twenty feet. 

There is a chapel for the use of the Sisters and the 
girls of the school, which is forty by twenty feet, and 
was erected in 1874. 

The Gilroy Opera House. — This opera hall was 
erected in 1874, by a company. The dimensions are 
124x50 feet. The seating capacity of the hall is 
seven hundred, but the hall has a capacity for one 
thousand one hundred, as has been demonstrated. 
The leading stockholder is John G. Otto, who has 



204 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD." 



two hundred and seventy-two shares. The manager 
is Vic Bassignano, who is also secretary. 

Railroad Office. — The railroad was built into town 
in 1869, under the name of Santa Clara and Pajaro 
Valley Railroad. The agents from the first have 
been C. F. Cevelling; C. Robinson, now an attorney 
at San Francisco; J. Skidmore, deceased; — Newhall, 
now in San Francisco; W. H. Haydock, now as- 
sistant superintendent, with headquarters at San 
Francisco; C. Hornbeck, now superintendent's clerk 
at Los Angeles; C. S. Green, now clerk at Mojave; 
and H. T. Emlay, present incumbent. M. J. Han- 
rahan has been baggage-master since April i, 1881. 
Roger O'Conner has been warehouseman since the 
road was built. W. B. Lawson is freight clerk. 
Gilroy station ranks next to San Jose in business on 
the road. The freight office is 40x300 feet; passenger 
depot, 40x100 feet. The grain warehouse has a ca- 
pacity for some three thousand tons ; engine house, 
with capacity for two engines; pumping works, wood 
bins, and coal bins with capacity for one thousand 
tons of coal. 

Mills of the Central Milling Company. — The original 
buildings of the mill are still standing, but additions 
have been made, so that the buildings are now 
120x100 feet. The mill was originally built by 
Major McCoy, of San Jose, and it passed out of his 
hands into those of a man named Fitz. The next 
owners were J. M. Brown, C. Burrell, and Smith Bros. 
The Central Milling Company purchased the prop- 
erty in 1887. The officers of the company are: 
President, C. L. Dingley; Secretary, P. P. Moody; 
General Superintendent, J. Cross ; Superintendents — 
Salmos Mill, V. D. Black; Victor Mills, Wm. Stine- 
beck; San Luis Obispo Mill, Mr. Armstrong; Gil- 
roy Mill, H. D. Van Schaick; King City Mill, Mr. 
Stinebeck. The roller process is used in the mills, 
and they have six sets of rolls, including three "Little 
Giants," and two sets of rolls have two pairs each. 
The capacity of the mill is from forty-five to fifty 
barrels per day of twelve hours. The wheat of the 
mill is shipped from the country surrounding Gilroy, 
which produces a splendid article of wheat, both for 
staple grades of flour and for use in the manufacture 
of macaroni. The mill has been running as a cus- 
tom mill since the Central Milling Company has 
owned it. 

H. D. Van Schaick, manager of the Gilroy mills 
of the Central Milling Company, is a native of Onon- 
daga County, New York, born ten miles east of 
Syracuse, on the twcnty-si.xth of July, 1828, his par- 



ents being Josiah and Mary (Bellenger) Van Schaick. 
The Van Schaick family is an old New York family, 
having been in that State since thirty years previous 
to the War of the Revolution. Colonel Van Schaick, 
a member of the family, was in the Revolutionary 
War, and served at Yorktown. The father of the 
subject was in the war of 18 12, towards its close; 
was a carpenter, joiner, and wagon-maker by trade, 
but spent most of his life as a farmer and a contractor. 
The subject was reared at his birthplace to farming, 
assisting his father in his contracts, and of making 
salt barrels for the salt works at Syracuse, etc. He 
remained in New York until 1852, when he started 
to California, making the trip across the plains during 
the cholera season; and he himself took the cholera, 
but recovered after he had been given up. He started 
from home April 14, 1852, and arrived near Yankee 
Jim's, in El Dorado County, California, August 23, 
1852, and engaged in mining. After a few months, 
finding mining unsatisfactory, he walked to Sacra- 
mento, took a steamer to San Francisco, and thence 
walked to San Jose, where he arrived, with finances 
very low, on the fourteenth of September, 1852, and 
the next day his capital consisted of his clothing and 
personal effects, his money being gone; and he started 
out to look around for a place to start in. He ob- 
tained work on a farm near San Jose, for a couple of 
months, and for another farmer the remainder of the 
season. 

In the fall of 1853 he came to Gilroy, and started 
with a team of four yoke of oxen, which he brought 
down for a man. He went into the Redwoods and 
engaged in chopping and splitting lumber, and as a 
saw-mill was soon built, he took a contract to furnish 
six hundred thousand feet of lumber, at $2.00 a thou- 
sand at tiie stump, scale measure. Finishing the con- 
tract, with a partner he engaged in building the saw- 
mill, working at felling the trees. After the mill got 
to running he engaged with Bodfish & Thomas, the 
proprietors. Was engaged in the Redwoods till the 
spring of 1S56, when he engaged in farming on a farm 
he bought in the valley; also engaged in teaching si.x 
months in the year. He taught school, altogether, 
in Gilroy Township nearly fourteen terms. 

He afterwards bought a farm at San Ysidro, and 
subsequently sold it and bought a farm of one hun- 
dred acres. Next he engaged again in teaching, liv- 
ing at San Ysidro till 1868, and then he came to Gil- 
roy, and afterward bought a half interest in a grocery 
store, where he was engaged in merchandising with 
his father-in-law about a year, and with Mr. Steuben 



PEN PICTURES FROM THE "GARDEN OF THE WORLD.' 



205 



for a couple of years; then Mr. Van Schaick ran the 
business alone for about six months. He then sold 
a half-interest to a man named Dryden. They were 
together three years, and he was alone then till 1879. 
He engaged in the mill by the month, and became 
superintendent March 30, 1887. 

His first wife was Susan Angel, a native of Mis- 
souri. Her parents came here in 1846. She died in 
1868. By that marriage they had five children, four 
of whom are living. The names of their children 
are: Jackson E., Nellie Jane, Frank Charles, Angie 
Annette, deceased, and Lena Arnett. His present 
wife was Mary Wright, a native of California. Her 
parents reside near Hollister. They have one child, 
named Guy. Mrs. Van Schaick is principal of Gilroy 
High School. She is politically a Republican. Mr. 
Van Schaick was elected to the Legislature in 1863, 
and served the regular term of 1863-64, being in the 
war Legislature. He was a member of I. O. O. R, 
and has passed through all the chairs. He is now 
R. S. to N. G. 



SANTA CLARA. 

The early history of San Jose and Santa Clara run 
in parallel lines. The connection between the two 
places has been so intimate, and they are so closely 
joined by location, that they will before many j-ears 
become one city. Tradition has it that William Clark 
was the first American to locate in Santa Clara. 

This is the man who first reduced the ore from the 
New Almaden mines. In 1846 there came the Har- 
lands, Van Gorden, Samuel Young, Tabor, Allen, 
Jones, Dickinson, and Bennett. In 1848 we find J. 
Alex. Forbes, Jonathan and Charles Parr, William 
Booth, Fielding Lard, Riley Moutry, Cobcb Rand, 
George W. Bellamy, Dr. H. H. Warburton, — Bazard, 
William McCutchen, William Haun, Washington 
Moody, John Whisman, William Campbell, Thomas 
Hudson, James Linns, Anson Angel and others. 

There were two stores, one kept by Robert Scott, 
where the cracker factory is now located, and one by 
a Frenchman at the corner of Franklin and Alviso 
Street.s. The only hotel was the Bellamy House. 

The first frame building was built as a residence for 
Father Real, the priest in charge of the mission at 
the southwest corner of Santa Clara and Alviso 
Streets. The lumber was sawed with a whipsaw 
by Fielding Lard, in the Pulgas Redwoods. Immedi- 
ately aferwards, buildings were erected by Lard, Scott 
& Haun. In 1850 a building was erected on Lib- 



erty Street, to be used as a school-house. It was 
built by subscription and was long known as the "lit- 
tle brick school-house." It was used as a place of 
worship by all denominations. In 1853 the first church 
was built by the Methodists. In the same year the 
female seminary was erected to the west of Main 
Street between Liberty and Lexington. In 1850 
Peleg Rush imported twenty-three houses from Boston 
and set them up in the town. The Union Hotel was 
built in 1850, and conducted by Appleton & Ainslee. 
In 185 1 the Santa Clara College was established, and 
this institution is now the prominent feature of the 
town. 

In 1850 the town site was surveyed by William 
Campbell into lots a hundred yards square, and one lot 
given to each citizen, with the understanding that he 
was to build a house on it within three months: failing 
to do so, the lot could be taken by another. There 
was no town government until 1852, when the follow- 
ing officers were chosen trustees: F. Lard, S. S.John- 
son, A. D. Hight, F. Cooper, Riley Moutry; Clerk, C. 
W. Adams; Assessor, A. Madan; Marshal, William 
Fosgate. In 1862 a regular charter was obtained in 
accordance with the State laws, and the following gen- 
tlemen chosen as trustees: J. R. Johnson, A. B. 
Caldwell, R. K. Ham, J. L. Guernsey, Henry Uhr- 
broock. This charter was amended in 1866, and again 
in 1872. The town, as at present laid out, is two miles 
long and a mile and a half wide: it is handsomely laid 
out and beautifully ornamented with shrubbery, flow- 
ers, and rare plants. It is a quiet place as becomes a 
seat of learning, and is much sought after as a place of 
residence. Its easy communication with San Jose and 
San Francisco, and the social nature of its intelligent 
people, render it especially desirable for this purpose. 
It is well equipped with all the necessities and con- 
veniences of a modern t